Publications by authors named "Qian Li"

3,967 Publications

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Activation of CO by Alkaline-Earth Metal Hydrides: Matrix Infrared Spectra and DFT Calculations of HM(OCH) and (MH)(HCOOH) Complexes (M = Sr, Ba).

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Reactions of MH (M = Sr, Ba) with CO were explored in pure parahydrogen at 3.5 K using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The formate complex HM(-OCH) and formic acid complex (MH)(HCOOH) were trapped and identified by isotopic substitutions and density functional theory (DFT) frequency calculations. Natural population analysis and the CO reduction mechanism demonstrate that hydride ion transfer from a metal hydride to a CO moiety facilitates the stabilization of such complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01477DOI Listing
July 2021

The Effects of Altitude-related Hypoxia Exposure on the Multiscale Dynamics of Blood Pressure Fluctuation During Sleep: The Observation from a Pilot Study.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 15;13:1147-1155. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Hebrew SeniorLife Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02131, USA.

Purpose: The purpose exposure to hypoxia in high altitudes severely impairs the sleep quality and the related cardiovascular regulation, including the blood pressure (BP) regulation. BP regulation depends upon the continuous interaction of components over multiple temporal scales. As such, the dynamics of BP fluctuation are complex, and BP complexity has been linked to several pathological events. However, the effects of the exposure to hypoxia on BP complexity during sleep remain unknown.

Methods: Twenty-five younger men naïve to high-altitude sleep (apnea severity as assessed by hypoxia apnea index (AHI): normal=8; moderate=9; severe=8) completed one nocturnal sleep under each of the three altitudes: 0 (ie, baseline), 2000, and 4000 m. The sleep characteristics and oxygen saturation (ie, SpO) were assessed using polysomnography (PSG). The beat-to-beat BP fluctuation was recorded using a finger-blood-pressure sensor. Multiscale entropy (MSE) was used to characterize the complexity of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP fluctuations, and lower MSE reflected lower complexity.

Results: Compared to 0-m condition, SBP (=0.0003) and DBP (F=12.1, =0.0002) complexity, SpO (<0.0001) and REM ratio (<0.0090) were decreased, AHI was increased (=0.0004) in 2000-m and even more in 4000-m conditions. In addition, lower BP complexity was associated with greater AHI (r=-0.66~0.52, =0.0010), lower SpO (r=0.48~0.51, =0.0100~0.0200) and lower REM ratio (r=0.48~0.52, =0.0200). Participants with greater percent reduction in BP complexity between altitudes had greater percent reduction in REM ratio and SpO (r=0.38~0.45, =0.0090~0.0200), after adjustment for age, BMI, baseline apnea and altitude.

Conclusion: These results suggested that the characterization of BP complexity may provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms through which the exposure to hypoxia affects cardiovascular health during sleep, as well as sleep quality. This BP complexity may serve as a novel marker to help the management of cardiovascular health and sleep quality in high-altitude living.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S319031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289331PMC
July 2021

Differential conditioning produces merged long-term memory in Drosophila.

Elife 2021 Jul 19;10. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Multiple spaced trials of aversive differential conditioning can produce two independent long-term memories (LTMs) of opposite valence. One is an aversive memory for avoiding the conditioned stimulus (CS+), and the other is a safety memory for approaching the non-conditioned stimulus (CS-). Here, we show that a single trial of aversive differential conditioning yields one merged LTM (mLTM) for avoiding both CS+ and CS-. Such mLTM can be detected after sequential exposures to the shock-paired CS+ and unpaired CS-, and be retrieved by either CS+ or CS-. The formation of mLTM relies on triggering aversive-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons and subsequent new protein synthesis. Expressing mLTM involves αβ Kenyon cells and corresponding approach-directing mushroom body output neurons (MBONs), in which similar-amplitude long-term depression of responses to CS+ and CS- seems to signal the mLTM. Our results suggest that animals can develop distinct strategies for occasional and repeated threatening experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.66499DOI Listing
July 2021

Tripeptide-based macroporous hydrogel improves the osteogenic microenvironment of stem cells.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Stomatology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, China and Department of Stomatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, China.

Due to the ability to combine multiple osteogenic induction "cues" at the same time, hydrogels are widely used in the three-dimensional (3D) culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteoinduction. However, the survival and proliferation of stem cells in a 3D culture system are limited, which reduces their osteogenic differentiation efficiency. In addition, the cells inside the hydrogel are prone to apoptosis due to hypoxia, which is a serious challenge for tissue engineering based on stem cells. In this study, a tripeptide-based macroporous alginate hydrogel was prepared to improve the osteogenic microenvironment of stem cells. The arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide promoted the adhesion and proliferation of stem cells, and the degradation of gelatin microspheres (GMs) produced a macroporous structure to enhance further the migration and aggregation of stem cells. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) sustained-release bone-forming peptide-1 (BFP-1) induced osteogenic differentiation, and the sustained release of the QK peptide from the GMs promoted angiogenesis. In vitro experiments have shown that this functionalized hydrogel stimulates the proliferation of hMSCs, encourages larger cell cluster formation, and enhances the osteogenic differentiation efficiency. The released QK facilitates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. In vivo experiments have also verified that this system has a better osteogenic effect, and more blood vessels were observed inside the hydrogel, than in other systems. In general, this research has led to the development of a tripeptide macroporous hydrogel that can simultaneously promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, showing great promise for applications of 3D cultures and stem cell-based tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01175hDOI Listing
July 2021

Tumor-derived LIF promotes chemoresistance via activating tumor-associated macrophages in gastric cancers.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jul 13;406(1):112734. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Center of Evidence-based Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Chemotherapy is the preferred clinical treatment for advanced stage gastric cancer (GC) patients, of which efficacy could be markedly impaired due to the development of chemoresistance. Alternatively activated or M2-type tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are recruited under chemotherapy and are highly implicated in the chemoresistance development, but underlying molecular mechanism for TAM activation is largely unknown. Here, we present that tumor-derived Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induced by chemo drugs represses the chemo sensitivity of gastric tumor cells in a TAM-dependent manner. Mechanistically, cisplatin-induced HIF1α signaling activation directly drive the transcription of LIF, which promotes the resistance of gastric tumors to chemo drug. Further study revealed that tumor cell-derived LIF stimulates macrophages into tumor-supporting M2-type phenotype via activating STAT3 signaling pathway. Therapeutically, blocking LIF efficiently elevates chemo sensitivity of tumor cells and further represses the growth rates of tumors under chemotherapy. Therefore, our study reveals a novel insight in understanding the cross talking between tumor cells and immune cells and provides new therapeutic targets for gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112734DOI Listing
July 2021

Real-time ultrasound sensing with a mode-optimized photonic crystal slab.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(14):3372-3375

Integrated photonic sensors can provide large scale, flexible detection schemes. Photonic crystal slabs (PCSs) offer a miniaturized platform for wideband, sensitive ultrasound detection by exploiting the photoelastic effect in water. However, poor modal overlap with the sensing medium and non-negligible absorption loss of the aqueous medium have previously limited PCS sensor performance. In this study, we detail the development and optimization of a PCS-based acoustic sensor by adding to it a low-loss high-index polymer cladding layer. Exploiting a mode-optimized TM-like optical resonance present in a PCS, with high bulk index sensitivity (>600/) and quality factor Q (>8000), we demonstrate real-time ultrasound sensing at a noise equivalent pressure of 170 Pa (1.9/). The PCS sensor is backside-coupled to an optical fiber, which, along with its intensity-based ultrasound-sensing architecture, will allow us to scale up easily to a 2D array. This work paves the way to a sensitive compact ultrasound detector for photoacoustic-based diagnostics and monitoring of tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.430431DOI Listing
July 2021

The hypoglycemic effect of freeze-dried fermented mulberry mixed with soybean on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 12;9(7):3641-3654. Epub 2021 May 12.

Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Functional Foods Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing Sericultural & Agri-Food Research Institute Guangzhou China.

Mulberry has significant hypoglycemic effect and can be used as an auxiliary food for people with type 2 diabetes. However, it is rich in carbohydrate and cannot be consumed directly by diabetic patients. In the study, we fermented the mulberry to reduce the content of glucose and fructose, and added the soybean to reduce the loss of probiotics during fermentation and then determined its hypoglycemic effect. We induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice by streptozotocin and measured its blood glucose, serum biochemistry, hepatic and pancreatic histopathology, and the diversity of the gut microbiota. After 5 weeks of oral DFMS administration, the glucose tolerance was improved significantly in T2DM mice. Furthermore, there were also significant increases in superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and marked reductions in the concentrations of malondialdehyde and free fatty acids. Moreover, DFMS also prevented histopathological changes and the increases in the activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase. DFMS treatment also markedly increased the richness of the gut microbial community. The abundance of was increased, and those of , , and were reduced. In summary, DFMS has a clear hypoglycemic effect in mice with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269569PMC
July 2021

DNA Assembly-Based Stimuli-Responsive Systems.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 07 14;8(13):2100328. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules Institute of Translational Medicine Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai 200240 China.

Stimuli-responsive designs with exogenous stimuli enable remote and reversible control of DNA nanostructures, which break many limitations of static nanostructures and inspired development of dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Moreover, the introduction of various types of organic molecules, polymers, chemical bonds, and chemical reactions with stimuli-responsive properties development has greatly expand the application scope of dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here, DNA assembly-based stimuli-responsive systems are reviewed, with the focus on response units and mechanisms that depend on different exogenous stimuli (DNA strand, pH, light, temperature, electricity, metal ions, etc.), and their applications in fields of nanofabrication (DNA architectures, hybrid architectures, nanomachines, and constitutional dynamic networks) and biomedical research (biosensing, bioimaging, therapeutics, and theranostics) are discussed. Finally, the opportunities and challenges for DNA assembly-based stimuli-responsive systems are overviewed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261508PMC
July 2021

Dynamic changes of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators within 1 year after discharge in Chinese health care workers with severe COVID-19: a cohort study.

BMC Med 2021 07 14;19(1):163. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institute of Hematology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei, China.

Background: Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China.

Methods: We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in "Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19" in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ, and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate.

Results: Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs' median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3 T cells and CD4 T cells.

Conclusion: The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02042-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277525PMC
July 2021

Comparative Genomics Provides Insights into the Genetic Diversity and Evolution of the DPANN Superphylum.

mSystems 2021 Jul 13:e0060221. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South Universitygrid.216417.7, Changsha, China.

DPANN is known as highly diverse, globally widespread, and mostly ectosymbiotic archaeal superphylum. However, this group of archaea was overlooked for a long time, and there were limited in-depth studies reported. In this investigation, 41 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to the DPANN superphylum were recovered (18 MAGs had average nucleotide identity [ANI] values of <95% and a percentage of conserved proteins [POCP] of >50%, while 14 MAGs showed a POCP of <50%), which were analyzed comparatively with 515 other published DPANN genomes. Mismatches to known 16S rRNA gene primers were identified among 16S rRNA genes of DPANN archaea. Numbers of gene families lost (mostly related to energy and amino acid metabolism) were over three times greater than those gained in the evolution of DPANN archaea. Lateral gene transfer (LGT; ∼45.5% was cross-domain) had facilitated niche adaption of the DPANN archaea, ensuring a delicate equilibrium of streamlined genomes with efficient niche-adaptive strategies. For instance, LGT-derived cytochrome ubiquinol oxidase and arginine deiminase in the genomes of " Micrarchaeota" could help them better adapt to aerobic acidic mine drainage habitats. In addition, most DPANN archaea acquired enzymes for biosynthesis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and transketolase/transaldolase for the pentose phosphate pathway from . The domain is a key research model for gaining insights into the origin and evolution of life, as well as the relevant biogeochemical processes. The discovery of nanosized DPANN archaea has overthrown many aspects of microbiology. However, the DPANN superphylum still contains a vast genetic novelty and diversity that need to be explored. Comprehensively comparative genomic analysis on the DPANN superphylum was performed in this study, with an attempt to illuminate its metabolic potential, ecological distribution and evolutionary history. Many interphylum differences within the DPANN superphylum were found. For example, had the biggest genome among DPANN phyla, possessing many pathways missing in other phyla, such as formaldehyde assimilation and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. In addition, LGT acted as an important force to provide DPANN archaeal genetic flexibility that permitted the occupation of diverse niches. This study has advanced our understanding of the diversity and genome evolution of archaea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00602-21DOI Listing
July 2021

Tracking structural modifications and oxidative status of myofibrillar proteins from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets treated by different stunning methods and in vitro oxidizing conditions.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 1;365:130510. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

In order to explain the increased susceptibility of stunning-stressed fillets to oxidative modifications, effect of stunning methods (percussion and gill cut) and in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation on structural changes and oxidative status of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) from silver carp fillets was examined. In comparison to the percussion group, oxidized MPs (10 mM HO) from gill cut-stunned fillets exhibited higher extent of structural disintegration as well as elevated carbonyl levels. Using label-free proteomics, isoforms of myosin heavy chain and actin were major proteins underwent oxidative modifications including monooxidation of methionine, dioxidation of aromatic amino acids, adduction of lipid peroxidation products with aliphatic amino acids, and the carbonylation of lysine and arginine into semialdehydes. In addition, amino acids located at the tail portion of myosin were highly accessible to oxidation. Owing to the structural disorganization caused by stunning stress, MPs from gill cut-stunned fillets were more susceptible to oxidation in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130510DOI Listing
July 2021

Small-molecule modulators of INAVA cytosolic condensate and cell-cell junction assemblies.

J Cell Biol 2021 Sep 12;220(9). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces distinctively express the inflammatory bowel disease risk gene INAVA. We previously found that INAVA has dual and competing functions: one at lateral membranes where it affects mucosal barrier function and the other in the cytosol where INAVA enhances IL-1β signal transduction and protein ubiquitination and forms puncta. We now find that IL-1β-induced INAVA puncta are biomolecular condensates that rapidly assemble and physiologically resolve. The condensates contain ubiquitin and the E3 ligase βTrCP2, and their formation correlates with amplified ubiquitination, suggesting function in regulation of cellular proteostasis. Accordingly, a small-molecule screen identified ROS inducers, proteasome inhibitors, and inhibitors of the protein folding chaperone HSP90 as potent agonists for INAVA condensate formation. Notably, inhibitors of the p38α and mTOR pathways enhanced resolution of the condensates, and inhibitors of the Rho-ROCK pathway induced INAVA's competing function by recruiting INAVA to newly assembled intercellular junctions in cells where none existed before.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202007177DOI Listing
September 2021

A 6.78-MHz distance-insensitive wireless power transfer system with a dual-coupled L-type matching network.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):054705

School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China.

A 6.78-MHz wireless power transfer (WPT) system can achieve a long transmission distance, which is based on magnetically coupled resonant technology. Due to its high quality factor coils, the system performance is greatly affected by position displacement. In this paper, a weakly coupled and distance-insensitive WPT system with a dual-coupled L-type matching network was proposed. To improve displacement tolerance, the proposed system used a dual mutual inductance matching network, which did not require feedback to change capacitance or inductance dynamically. To remain lightweight, printed multi-coils without ferrites were used. To obtain a higher efficiency over a weakly coupled distance, a series of parameters were optimized, i.e., the optimal dimension, the matching distance, and the real center. To verify the output performance in X/Y/Z-axis displacements, a prototype with a maximum output power of 50 W was created, and a DC-DC efficiency of 75%-81% was achieved in a Z-axis displacement of ±15 mm and in an X/Y-axis displacement of ±20 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0044619DOI Listing
May 2021

Encoding Fluorescence Anisotropic Barcodes with DNA Fameworks.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 9;143(28):10735-10742. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Division of Physical Biology, CAS Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China.

Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) holds great potential for multiplexed analysis and imaging of biomolecules since it can effectively discriminate fluorophores with overlapping emission spectra. Nevertheless, its susceptibility to environmental variation hampers its widespread applications in biology and biotechnology. In this study, we design FA DNA frameworks (FAFs) by scaffolding fluorophores in a fluorescent protein-like microenvironment. We find that the FA stability of the fluorophores is remarkably improved due to the sequestration effects of FAFs. The FA level of the fluorophores can be finely tuned when placed at different locations on an FAF, analogous to spectral shifts of protein-bound fluorophores. The high programmability of FAFs further enables the design of a spectrum of encoded FA barcodes for multiplexed sensing of nucleic acids and multiplexed labeling of live cells. This FAF system thus establishes a new paradigm for designing multiplexing FA probes for cellular imaging and other biological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04942DOI Listing
July 2021

Does policy cognition affect livestock farmers' investment in manure recycling facilities? Evidence from China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 2;795:148836. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

College of Economics, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

An increase in living standards and dietary changes have induced a rapid growth in the livestock sector worldwide, which has led to considerable environmental damages due inappropriate disposal of livestock manure. Using primary data from a field survey of cattle farmers in China, this paper empirically examines the impact of policy cognition on livestock farmers' investment in manure recycling facilities. The impact is tested through the multiple mediator model to accommodate two potential mediating mechanisms, which are the agricultural cooperative membership and land leasing. Three conclusions arise. First, policy cognition has a significant positive impact on both the diversification and amounts of farmers' investment in manure recycling facilities. Second, membership in agricultural cooperatives and participation in land leasing are two important mediating mechanisms for policy cognition to affect farmers' investment decisions on manure recycling. Finally, for the two mediating variables, leasing additional agricultural land promotes more investment in manure recycling facilities, but less in investment diversification, while cooperative membership has the opposite impact. This study contributes to three areas of literature on the factors affecting investment decisions, the mediating effects of policy cognition and the investment in non-production related assets. Regarding policy implications, we identify the importance of promoting policy awareness and agricultural cooperatives among livestock farmers, as well as developing land lease markets in agricultural regions in promoting investment in manure recycling facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148836DOI Listing
July 2021

Next-generation COVID-19 vaccines: Opportunities for vaccine development and challenges in tackling COVID-19.

Drug Discov Ther 2021 ;15(3):118-123

Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, China.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global threat. Although non-pharmaceutical interventions have been rigorously and widely implemented, living conditions caused by the pandemic will last until highly effective vaccines are successfully improved and globally administered. Several first-generation COVID-19 vaccines were approved at the end of 2020. However, the COVID-19 pandemic is persisting worldwide. To be clear, the efficiency and the coverage of current vaccines are insufficient, but newly emerging and rapidly spreading variants are the most pressing concern. A second-generation COVID-19 vaccine worth mentioning, NVX-CoV2373, has demonstrated 90% overall efficacy as well as a high level of efficacy against circulating variants in Phase 3 clinical trials. Currently, NVX-CoV2373 is the only vaccine that has proven successful against variants during Phase 3/4 trials. Therefore, developing the next generation of vaccines is a promising strategy to ultimately prevail against SARS-CoV-2. This review provides up-to-date information on COVID-19 vaccines in terms of their efficacy and new platforms and the progression of COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, this review also summarizes the efficacy of approved COVID-19 vaccines against variants. Lastly, this review highlights the global challenges for COVID-19 vaccines in development and vaccination, and it discusses opportunities for development of future COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2021.01058DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative analysis of the morphological and biomechanical properties of normal cornea and keratoconus at different stages.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Purpose: To compare the morphological and biomechanical properties of normal cornea and keratoconus at different stages.

Methods: A total of 408 patients (517 eyes) with keratoconus were included in this study. According to the Topographic Keratoconus (TKC) grading method, keratoconus was divided into stage I (TKC = 1, 130 eyes), stage II (TKC = 1-2, 2, 164 eyes), stage III (TKC = 2-3, 3, 125 eyes) and stage IV (TKC = 3-4, 4, 98 eyes). A total of 158 normal subjects (158 eyes) were recruited as the normal group. The corneal morphological parameters and biomechanical parameters were obtained with Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam) and corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (Corvis ST), and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn.

Results: Each corneal morphological and most biomechanical parameters of the keratoconic eyes were significantly different from those of the normal eyes in this study (p < 0.001). ROC curve demonstrated that most parameters in this study showed high efficiency in diagnosing keratoconus (the area under the ROC (AUC) was > 0.9), with the Belin-Ambrósio deviation (BAD-D) and Tomographic and Biomechanical Index (TBI) showing higher efficiency. The efficiency of BAD-D and TBI was high in differentiating keratoconus at different stages (AUC > 0.963). The comparison of ROC curves of keratoconus at different stages did not reveal statistically significant differences for TBI.

Conclusion: BAD-D and TBI can effectively diagnose stage I keratoconus. Moreover, the efficiency of TBI is the same in diagnosing keratoconus at all stages, while the diagnostic efficiency of other parameters increases with the increase in keratoconus stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01929-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Multifunctional polyplex micelles for efficient microRNA delivery and accelerated osteogenesis.

Nanoscale 2021 Jul 7;13(28):12198-12211. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of molecular targets and therapeutics to control gene expression for tissue repair and regeneration. However, a safe and effective transfection of miRNAs to cells has been a major barrier to their applications. In this work, a multifunctional polyplex micelle named PPP-RGI was developed as a non-viral gene vector for the efficient transfection of miR-218 (an osteogenic miRNA regulator) to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for accelerated osteogenic differentiation. PPP-RGI was designed and synthesized via conjugation of a multifunctional R-G-IKVAVW (RGI) peptide onto an amphiphilic poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine-b-polyethylene glycol (PPP) copolymer. PPP-RGI self-assembled into polyplex micelles and strongly condensed miR-218 to prevent its RNase degradation. When the PPP-RGI/miR-218 complex was brought into contact with BMSCs, it exhibited high internalization efficiency and a fast escape from endo/lysosomes of the BMSCs. Subsequently, miR-218 released from the PPP-RGI/miR-218 complex regulated gene expressions and significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The multifunctional peptide conjugated nanocarrier serves as an effective miRNA delivery vector to promote osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02638kDOI Listing
July 2021

Protein-Mimicking Nanoparticles for a Cellular Regulation of Homeostasis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 6;13(27):31331-31336. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules and National Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

The distinct physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) offer great opportunities to develop new strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Whereas NPs often serve as inert nanocarriers, their inherent "biological" activities have recently been extensively unveiled and explored. These protein-mimicking NPs (dubbed protmins) have been reported to modulate a cellular homeostasis without displaying a general toxicity, which may act as potential nanomedicines to provide a monotherapy or combination therapy in a disease treatment. In the meanwhile, the unexpected behaviors of protmins in complex biological systems also raise new concerns on the biosafety issue. Herein, we summarize several categories of the protmin-based regulation of cellular homeostasis and discuss their broad effects on cell functions and behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09281DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of Prognostic Risk Model Based on DNA Methylation-Driven Genes in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:6628391. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Science and Technology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China.

Background: DNA methylation is an important part of epigenetic modification, and its abnormality is closely related to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). This study was aimed at using bioinformatics analysis to identify methylation-driven genes (MDGs) in EAC patients and establish a risk model as a biological indicator of EAC prognosis.

Method: Downloaded EAC DNA methylation, transcriptome, and related clinical data from TCGA database. MethylMix was used to identify MDGs. R package clusterProfiler and the ConsensusPathDB online database were used to analyze the rich functions and pathways of these MDGs. The prognostic risk model was established by univariate Cox regression, Lasso regression, and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Finally each MDG in the model were carried out through the survival R package.

Results: A total of 273 MDGs were identified, which were enriched in transcriptional regulation and embryonic organ morphogenesis. Cox regression analysis established a risk model consisting of GPBAR1, OLFM4, FOXI2, and CASP10. In addition, further survival analysis revealed that OLFM4 and its two related sites were significantly related to the EAC patients' survival.

Conclusion: In summary, this study used bioinformatics methods to identify EAC MDGs and established a reliable risk prognosis model. It provided potential biomarkers for the early treatment and prognosis evaluation of EAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6628391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213479PMC
June 2021

Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 Loads Batched Tumor-Promoting MicroRNAs Into Small Extracellular Vesicles With the Assist of Caveolin-1 in A549 Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:687912. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China National Center for Bioinformation, Beijing, China.

MicroRNAs in small extracellular vesicle (sEV-miRNAs) have been widely investigated as crucial regulated molecules secreted by tumor cells to communicate with surroundings. It is of great significance to explore the loading mechanism of sEV-miRNAs by tumor cells. Here, we comprehensively illustrated a reasoned loading pathway of batched tumor-promoting sEV-miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 with the application of a multi-omics method. The protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) was strictly selected as a powerful sEV-miRNA loading protein from miRNA-binding proteome and further verified through small RNA sequencing after hnRNPA1 silence. In terms of the mechanism, SUMOylated hnRNPA1 in sEVs was verified to control sEV-miRNA loading. Subsequently, as a scaffolding component of caveolae, caveolin-1 (CAV1) was detailedly demonstrated to assist the loading of SUMOylated hnRNPA1 and its binding miRNAs into sEVs. Inhibition of CAV1 significantly prevented SUMOylated hnRNPA1 from encapsulating into sEVs, resulting in less enrichment of sEV-miRNAs it loaded. Finally, we confirmed that hnRNPA1-loaded sEV-miRNAs could facilitate tumor proliferation and migration based on database analysis and cytological experiments. Our findings reveal a loading mechanism of batched tumor-promoting sEV-miRNAs, which may contribute to the selection of therapeutic targets for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.687912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245771PMC
June 2021

3D Electrospun Nanofiber-Based Scaffolds: From Preparations and Properties to Tissue Regeneration Applications.

Stem Cells Int 2021 17;2021:8790143. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Mechanics and Safety Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Electrospun nanofibers have been frequently used for tissue engineering due to their morphological similarities with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and tunable chemical and physical properties for regulating cell behaviors and functions. However, most of the existing electrospun nanofibers have a closely packed two-dimensional (2D) membrane with the intrinsic shortcomings of limited cellular infiltration, restricted nutrition diffusion, and unsatisfied thickness. Three-dimensional (3D) electrospun nanofiber-based scaffolds can provide stem cells with 3D microenvironments and biomimetic fibrous structures. Thus, they have been demonstrated to be good candidates for repair of different tissues. This review summarizes the recent developments in 3D electrospun nanofiber-based scaffolds (ENF-S) for tissue engineering. Three types of 3D ENF-S fabricated using different approaches classified into electrospun nanofiber 3D scaffolds, electrospun nanofiber/hydrogel composite 3D scaffolds, and electrospun nanofiber/porous matrix composite 3D scaffolds are discussed. New functions for these 3D ENF-S and properties, such as facilitated cell infiltration, 3D fibrous architecture, enhanced mechanical properties, and tunable degradability, meeting the requirements of tissue engineering scaffolds were discovered. The applications of 3D ENF-S in cartilage, bone, tendon, ligament, skeletal muscle, nerve, and cardiac tissue regeneration are then presented with a discussion of current challenges and future directions. Finally, we give summaries and future perspectives of 3D ENF-S in tissue engineering and clinical transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8790143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225450PMC
June 2021

Differences Changes in Cerebellar Functional Connectivity Between Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Seed-Based Approach.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:645171. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Recent studies have discovered that functional connections are impaired among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), even at the preclinical stage. The cerebellum has been implicated as playing a role in cognitive processes. However, functional connectivity (FC) among cognitive sub-regions of the cerebellum in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be further elucidated. Our study aims to investigate the FC changes of the cerebellum among patients with AD and MCI, compared to healthy controls (HC). Additionally, we explored the role of cerebellum FC changes in the cognitive performance of all subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from three different groups (28 AD patients, 26 MCI patients, and 30 HC) was collected. We defined cerebellar crus II and lobule IX as seed regions to assess the intragroup differences of cortico-cerebellar connectivity. Bias correlational analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between changes in FC and neuropsychological performance. Compared to HC, AD patients had decreased FC within the caudate, limbic lobe, medial frontal gyrus (MFG), middle temporal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, parietal lobe/precuneus, inferior temporal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus. Interestingly, MCI patients demonstrated increased FC within inferior parietal lobe, and MFG, while they had decreased FC in the thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus. Further analysis indicated that FC changes between the left crus II and the right thalamus, as well as between left lobule IX and the right parietal lobe, were both associated with cognitive decline in AD. Disrupted FC between left crus II and right thalamus, as well as between left lobule IX and right parietal lobe, was associated with attention deficit among subjects with MCI. These findings indicate that cortico-cerebellar FC in MCI and AD patients was significantly disrupted with different distributions, particularly in the default mode networks (DMN) and fronto-parietal networks (FPN) region. Increased activity within the fronto-parietal areas of MCI patients indicated a possible compensatory role for the cerebellum in cognitive impairment. Therefore, alterations in the cortico-cerebellar FC represent a novel approach for early diagnosis and a potential therapeutic target for early intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.645171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248670PMC
June 2021

A De Novo SEMA6B Variant in a Chinese Patient with Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy-11 and Review of the Literature.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy is a group of neurodegenerative diseases with complex clinical and genetic heterogeneity, which is associated with spontaneous or action-induced myoclonus and progressive neurodegeneration. Since 2020, 4 families with progressive myoclonic epilepsy-11 [OMIM#618876] have been reported with a very limited spectrum of SEMA6B pathogenic variants. In our study, whole-exome sequencing was used in a proband from a nonconsanguineous Chinese family presenting with growth retardation and recurrent atonic seizures. A deletion mutation (c.1960_1978del, p.Leu654Argfs*25) in the last exon of SEMA6B was detected, which is a de novo variant and pathogenic. The new genetic evidence we reported here strengthened the gene-disease relationship, and the gene curation level between SEMA6B and progressive myoclonic epilepsy-11 became "strong" following the ClinGen SOP. Therefore, the results of this study broaden the mutation spectrum of SEMA6B in different ethnic groups and strengthen the gene-disease relationship between SEMA6B and progressive myoclonic epilepsy-11.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-021-01880-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapidly identifying bioactive compounds from Zhisou oral liquid by immobilized receptor-based high-performance affinity chromatography.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, P. R. China.

The identification of bioactive compounds in complex matrices remains a major challenge due to the lack of highly efficient and specific methods. This work developed an approach based on high-performance affinity chromatography to identify the potential antitussive compounds from Zhisou oral liquid . The main methods include the synthesis of immobilized beta2-adrenoceptor by a one-step method, the screening and identification of the potential bioactive compounds by the receptor column coupled with mass spectrometry, and the binding mechanism analysis of the compounds to the receptor by the in vivo experiment, injection amount dependent method and molecular simulation. We identified the potential bioactive compounds of Zhisou oral liquid as glycyrrhizic acid, platycodin D, tuberostemonine, and hesperidin. In vivo experiment showed that the combinational utilization of the four compounds was possible to present an equivalent antitussive effect to the formula. The docking results demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces were the main forces to drive the binding of the four compounds to beta2-adrenoceptor. We concluded that the four compounds are the effective components in Zhisou oral liquid. The proposed strategy is possible to provide an alternative for the development of highly efficient methods to pursue the bioactive compounds of complex matrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100174DOI Listing
July 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of Differentially Expressed Long Noncoding RNA-mRNA in the Adenoma-Carcinoma Sequence of DNA Mismatch Repair Proficient Colon Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 1;2021:9977695. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038, China.

DNA proficient mismatch repair colon cancer (pMMR CC) is the most common subtype of sporadic CC. We aimed to investigate the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in pMMR CC carcinogenesis. In the present study, we conducted transcriptomic analysis of lncRNAs-mRNAs in five low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), five high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), four pMMR CC, and five normal control (NC) tissues. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment pathway, and coexpression network analyses were performed to elucidate the functions of lncRNAs and mRNAs as well as their interactions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate five dysregulated lncRNAs in a large set of colon tissues. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate the performance of the candidate lncRNAs. A set of 5783 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 4483 differentially expressed mRNAs were detected among the LGIN, HGIN, pMMR CC, and NC samples. These differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were assigned to 275 significant GO terms and 179 significant KEGG enriched pathways. qRT-PCR confirmed that the expression of five selected lncRNAs (ENST00000521815, ENST00000603052, ENST00000609220, NR_026543, and ENST00000545920) were consistent with the microarray data. ROC analysis showed that four lncRNAs (ENST00000521815, ENST00000603052, ENST00000609220, and NR_026543) had larger area under the ROC curve (AUC) values compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigens, thereby distinguishing NC from pMMR CC. In conclusion, several lncRNAs play various roles in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence and may serve as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pMMR CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9977695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208869PMC
June 2021

Preparation and characterization of k-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan/TiO nanocomposite film with efficient anti-fungal activity and its application in strawberry preservation.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 24;364:130441. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

A nano-composite film was prepared from k-carrageenan (KC), konjac glucomannan (KGM) and TiO nanoparticles (NPs) by solvent casting method. The morphology and structure of the KC/KGM based nano-composite films prepared from different weight ratio of TiO NPs were characterized by SEM, XRD and FT-IR techniques. The addition of TiO NPs to KC/KGM films improved the mechanical, thermal, structural, and barrier properties of nano-composite films. In particular, the film containing 7 wt% of TiO NPs exhibited effective photocatalytic anti-fungal activity (79%) for Penicillium viridicatum after irradiating 6 h through generating reactive oxygen species thus destroying the fungi. Benefitting from the improved characteristics investigated above, the nano-composite films showed a favorable effect on strawberry storage. Overall, the fabricated KC/KGM/TiO nano-composite films have a broad application in the field of food preservation and packaging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130441DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular Hydrogen Attenuated N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea Induced Corneal Endothelial Injury by Upregulating Anti-Apoptotic Pathway.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Jul;62(9)

Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Previous work by our group has demonstrated the value of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced corneal endothelial decompensation in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular hydrogen (H2) on MNU-induced corneal endothelial cell (CEC) injury and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: MNU-induced animal models of CEC injury were washed with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) for 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining, immunohistochemical staining, and corneal endothelial assessment were applied to determine architectural and cellular changes on the corneal endothelium following HRS treatment. MNU-induced cell models of CEC injury were co-cultured with H2. The effect of H2 was examined using morphological and functional assays.

Results: It was shown that MNU could inhibit the proliferation and specific physiological functions of CECs by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the expression of ZO-1 and Na+/K+-ATPase, whereas H2 improved the proliferation and physiological function of CECs by anti-apoptosis. Cell experiments further confirmed that H2 could reverse MNU damage to CECs by decreasing oxidative stress injury, interfering with the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway and the FOXO3a/p53/p21 pathway.

Conclusions: This study suggests that topical application of H2 could protect CECs against corneal damage factors through anti-apoptotic effect, reduce the incidence and severity of corneal endothelial decompensation, and maintain corneal transparency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.9.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267183PMC
July 2021

Estimating the yield stability of heat-tolerant rice genotypes under various heat conditions across reproductive stages: a 5-year case study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 30;11(1):13604. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.

Heat events during the reproductive stages of rice plants induce great yield losses. Cultivating heat-tolerant varieties is a promising strategy for guaranteeing grain security under global warming scenarios. Most heat-tolerant rice genotypes were identified under heat during the flowering stage, but it is unclear whether these currently screened heat-tolerant rice genotypes maintain stable high grain yields when heat stress occurs during the other reproductive stages. In the present study, two notable heat-tolerant rice cultivars, Nagina22 and Shanyou63, and one typical heat-sensitive cultivar, Liangyoupeijiu, were evaluated for their yield response and yield stability under heat treatments during the panicle initiation, flowering, and grain filling stages during 2010-2014. Our results revealed that rice cultivars respond differently to heat stress during different reproductive stages. Nagina22 was the most tolerant to heat stress during the flowering and grain filling stages but was susceptible during panicle initiation; Shanyou63 was the most tolerant to heat stress during panicle initiation and grain filling and was moderately tolerant to heat stress during the flowering stages. Genotype and genotype-by-environment interaction biplot yield analysis revealed that Shanyou63 exhibited the highest stability in high grain yield, followed by Nagina22, and Liangyoupeijiu exhibited stable low grain yield when experiencing heat stress across the three reproductive stages. Our results indicate that the heat tolerance of different rice cultivars depends on the reproductive stage during which heat stress occurs, and the effects manifest as reductions in grain yields and seed setting rates. Future efforts to develop heat-tolerant varieties should strive to breed varieties that are comprehensively tolerant to heat stress during any reproductive stage to cope with the unpredictable occurrence of future heat events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93079-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245571PMC
June 2021

Mental health and social support among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Psychol Health Med 2021 Jun 30:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of mental problems and social support among nurses during the COVID-19 epidemic and to explore the correlation. We carried out a multicentre, large-sample questionnaire survey in Chongqing (China). The WeChat-based survey program Questionnaire Star was used to distribute a questionnaire with self-designed items to obtain general information, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). A total of 848 neonatal nurses participated. The results showed that 104 nurses (12.3%) had depression symptoms, 133 (15.7%) had anxiety symptoms, and 45 (5.3%) had stress symptoms. However, the DASS-21 score of the majority of nurses was normal. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that mental health was negatively correlated with social support, indicating that the higher social support was, the better the psychological condition of nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2021.1944653DOI Listing
June 2021