Publications by authors named "Qi Zhao"

1,237 Publications

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Up-regulation of GLP-1R improved the dysfunction of late EPCs under hyperglycemia by regulating SIRT1 expression.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Sep 9:111455. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Cardiology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, 442000, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

The dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is closely associated with diabetic vascular complications. Both glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) can control systemic glucose homeostasis and protect endothelial cells against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we mainly assessed the role played by SIRT1 and GLP-1R and their relationship in regulating the function of late EPCs under hyperglycemia stimulation. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured in EGM-2 medium and induced to differentiate into EPCs and 25 mM glucose was used to stimulate EPCs to obtain a hyperglycemia condition. Subsequently, the expression and location of GLP-1R and SIRT1 in EPCs were detected. After GLP-1R or SIRT1 knockdown, or the treatment by GLP-1R agonist and/or SIRT1 agonist/inhibitor, the effects of SIRT1 and GLP-1R and their relationship in regulating the function of late EPCs under hyperglycemia stimulation was studied by detecting the apoptosis, migration, adhesion and angiogenicity abilities of EPCs. Results demonstrated that, in high-glucose stimulated EPCs, the expression of GLP-1R and SIRT1 was down-regulated. The knockdown of either GLP-1R or SIRT1 could increase EPCs apoptosis and weaken the migration, adhesion and angiogenicity abilities of EPCs. In addition, the improvement effects of Exendin-4 or GLP-1R over-expression on EPCs dysfunction could be weakened to some degree under SIRT1 knockdown. In conclusion, both GLP-1R and SIRT1 expression played important roles in regulating EPCs dysfunction under hyperglycemia and the up-regulation of GLP-1R improved the dysfunction of late EPCs by regulating SIRT1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2021.111455DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk and burden of hospital admissions associated with wildfire-related PM in Brazil, 2000-15: a nationwide time-series study.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 Sep;5(9):e599-e607

Climate, Air Quality Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: In the context of climate change and deforestation, Brazil is facing more frequent and unprecedented wildfires. Wildfire-related PM is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes; however, the magnitude of these associations in the Brazilian context is unclear. We aimed to estimate the association between daily exposure to wildfire-related PM and cause-specific hospital admission and attributable health burden in the Brazilian population using a nationwide dataset from 2000 to 2015.

Methods: In this nationwide time-series analysis, data for daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory hospital admissions were collected through the Brazilian Unified Health System from 1814 municipalities in Brazil between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2015. Daily concentrations of wildfire-related PM were estimated using the 3D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem at a 2·0° latitude by 2·5° longitude resolution. A time-series analysis was fitted using quasi-Poisson regression to quantify municipality-specific effect estimates, which were then pooled at the regional and national levels using random-effects meta-analyses. Analyses were stratified by sex and ten age groups. The attributable fraction and attributable cases of hospital admissions due to wildfire-related PM were also calculated.

Findings: At the national level, a 10 μg/m increase in wildfire-related PM was associated with a 1·65% (95% CI 1·51-1·80) increase in all-cause hospital admissions, a 5·09% (4·73-5·44) increase in respiratory hospital admissions, and a 1·10% (0·78-1·42) increase in cardiovascular hospital admissions, over 0-1 days after the exposure. The effect estimates for all-cause hospital admission did not vary by sex, but were particularly high in children aged 4 years or younger (4·88% [95% CI 4·47-5·28]), children aged 5-9 years (2·33% [1·77-2·90]), and people aged 80 years and older (3·70% [3·20-4·20]) compared with other age groups. We estimated that 0·53% (95% CI 0·48-0·58) of all-cause hospital admissions were attributable to wildfire-related PM, corresponding to 35 cases (95% CI 32-38) per 100 000 residents annually. The attributable rate was greatest for municipalities in the north, south, and central-west regions, and lowest in the northeast region. Results were consistent for all-cause and respiratory diseases across regions, but remained inconsistent for cardiovascular diseases.

Interpretation: Short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM was associated with increased risks of all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular hospital admissions, particularly among children (0-9 years) and older people (≥80 years). Greater attention should be paid to reducing exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly for the most susceptible populations.

Funding: Australian Research Council and Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00173-XDOI Listing
September 2021

Attributable risks of hospitalizations for urologic diseases due to heat exposure in Queensland, Australia, 1995-2016.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Management, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Background: Heat exposure is a risk factor for urologic diseases. However, there are limited existing studies that have examined the relationship between high temperatures and urologic disease. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between heat exposure and hospitalizations for urologic diseases in Queensland, Australia, during the hot seasons of 1995-2016 and to quantify the attributable risks.

Methods: We obtained 238 427 hospitalized cases with urologic diseases from Queensland Health between 1 December 1995 and 31 December 2016. Meteorological data were collected from the Scientific Information for Land Owners-a publicly accessible database of Australian climate data that provides daily data sets for a range of climate variables. A time-stratified, case-crossover design fitted with the conditional quasi-Poisson regression model was used to estimate the associations between temperature and hospitalizations for urologic diseases at the postcode level during each hot season (December-March). Attributable rates of hospitalizations for urologic disease due to heat exposure were calculated. Stratified analyses were performed by age, sex, climate zone, socio-economic factors and cause-specific urologic diseases.

Results: We found that a 1°C increase in temperature was associated with a 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9%, 3.7%] increase in hospitalization for the selected urologic diseases during the hot season. Hospitalizations for renal failure showed the strongest increase 5.88% (95% CI: 5.25%, 6.51%) among the specific causes of hospital admissions considered. Males and the elderly (≥60 years old) showed stronger associations with heat exposure than females and younger groups. The sex- and age-specific associations with heat exposure were similar across specific causes of urologic diseases. Overall, nearly one-fifth of hospitalizations for urologic diseases were attributable to heat exposure in Queensland.

Conclusions: Heat exposure is associated with increased hospitalizations for urologic disease in Queensland during the hot season. This finding reinforces the pressing need for dedicated public health-promotion campaigns that target susceptible populations, especially for those more predisposed to renal failure. Given that short-term climate projections identify an increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of heatwaves, this public health advisory will be of increasing urgency in coming years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab189DOI Listing
September 2021

Controllably Doping Nitrogen into 1T/2H MoS Heterostructure Nanosheets for Enhanced Supercapacitive and Electrocatalytic Performance by Low-Power N Plasma.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

The State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS) is a promising candidate for use as a supercapacitor electrode material and non-noble-metal electrocatalyst owing to its relatively high theoretical specific capacitance, Pt-like electronic feature, and graphene-like structure. However, insufficient electrochemically active sites along with poor conductivity significantly hinder its practical application. Heteroatom doping and phase engineering have been regarded as effective ways to overcome the inherent limitations of MoS and enhance its ion storage and electrocatalytic performance. In this study, a plasma-assisted nitrogen-doped 1T/2H MoS heterostructure has been proposed for the first time, resulting in excellent supercapacitor performance and hydrogen evolution reaction activity. XPS, Raman, and TEM analysis results indicate that N atoms have been successfully doped into MoS nanosheets via room-temperature low-power N plasma, and the 1T/2H hybrid phase is maintained. As expected, the 1T/2H MoS heterostructure after a 10 min plasma treatment displayed a much boosted supercapacitive performance with a high specific capacitance of 410 F g at 1 A g and an excellent hydrogen evolution property with a low overpotential of 131 mV vs RHE at 10 mA cm for hydrogen evolution reaction. The excellent performance is superior to most of the recently reported outstanding MoS-based electrode and electrocatalytic materials. Moreover, the as-assembled flexible symmetric supercapacitor shows a high specific capacitance of 84.8 F g and superior mechanical robustness with 84.5% capacity retention after 2000 bending cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12973DOI Listing
September 2021

Balanced Convolutional Neural Networks for Pneumoconiosis Detection.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Aug 28;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Pneumoconiosis remains one of the most common and harmful occupational diseases in China, leading to huge economic losses to society with its high prevalence and costly treatment. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis still strongly depends on the experience of radiologists, which affects rapid detection on large populations. Recent research focuses on computer-aided detection based on machine learning. These have achieved high accuracy, among which artificial neural network (ANN) shows excellent performance. However, due to imbalanced samples and lack of interpretability, wide utilization in clinical practice meets difficulty. To address these problems, we first establish a pneumoconiosis radiograph dataset, including both positive and negative samples. Second, deep convolutional diagnosis approaches are compared in pneumoconiosis detection, and a balanced training is adopted to promote recall. Comprehensive experiments conducted on this dataset demonstrate high accuracy (88.6%). Third, we explain diagnosis results by visualizing suspected opacities on pneumoconiosis radiographs, which could provide solid diagnostic reference for surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431598PMC
August 2021

The association between tropical cyclones and dengue fever in the Pearl River Delta, China during 2013-2018: A time-stratified case-crossover study Tropical cyclones and dengue fever.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 9;15(9):e0009776. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Studies have shown that tropical cyclones are associated with several infectious diseases, while very few evidence has demonstrated the relationship between tropical cyclones and dengue fever. This study aimed to examine the potential impact of tropical cyclones on dengue fever incidence in the Pearl River Delta, China.

Methods: Data on daily dengue fever incidence, occurrence of tropical cyclones and meteorological factors were collected between June and October, 2013-2018 from nine cities in the Pearl River Delta. Multicollinearity of meteorological variables was examined via Spearman correlation, variables with strong correlation (r>0.7) were not included in the model simultaneously. A time-stratified case-crossover design combined with conditional Poisson regression model was performed to evaluate the association between tropical cyclones and dengue fever incidence. Stratified analyses were performed by intensity grades of tropical cyclones (tropical storm and typhoon), sex (male and female) and age-groups (<18, 18-59, ≥60 years).

Results: During the study period, 20 tropical cyclones occurred and 47,784 dengue fever cases were reported. Tropical cyclones were associated with an increased risk of dengue fever in the Pearl River Delta region, with the largest relative risk of 1.62 with the 95% confidence interval (1.45-1.80) occurring on the lag 5 day. The strength of association was greater and lasted longer for typhoon than for tropical storm. There was no difference in effect estimates between males and females. However, individuals aged over 60 years were more vulnerable than others.

Conclusions: Tropical cyclones are associated with increased risk of local dengue fever incidence in south China, with the elderly more vulnerable than other population subgroups. Health protective strategies should be developed to reduce the potential risk of dengue epidemic after tropical cyclones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009776DOI Listing
September 2021

Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks Using the Improved Markov Blanket Discovery Algorithm.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Computer Science, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, China.

Inferring gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from microarray data can help us understand the mechanisms of life and eventually develop effective therapies. Currently, many computational methods have been used in inferring GRNs. However, owing to high-dimensional data and small samples, these methods often tend to introduce redundant regulatory relationships. Therefore, a novel network inference method based on the improved Markov blanket discovery algorithm, IMBDANET, is proposed to infer GRNs. Specifically, for each target gene, data processing inequality was applied to the Markov blanket discovery algorithm for the accurate differentiation of direct regulatory genes from indirect regulatory genes. Finally, direct regulatory genes were used in constructing GRNs, and the network structure was optimized according to the importance degree score. Experimental results on six public network datasets show that the proposed method can be effectively used to infer GRNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-021-00478-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Metabolomics reveals the role of isopentenyl group in coumarins metabolism.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Sep 7:e5239. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Laboratory of metabolomics and drug-induced liver injury, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Coumarins are a group of natural compounds commonly found in the families of Rutaceae and Umbelliferae. 7-Isopentenyloxycoumarin (ISC), auraptene (AUR), and umbelliprenin (UM) belong to prenyloxycoumarins (PYCs), which link isopentenyl, geranyl, and farnesyl group at C7 position, respectively. The substituent of ETC was ethyl group. In this study, the UPLC-ESI- QTOF-MS-based metabolomics was used to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of PYCs. Results showed that ETC produced 10 known metabolites, and ISC was transformed into 17 metabolites in vivo and in vitro, which were undescribed compounds. 35 AUR metabolites, including 34 undescribed metabolites were identified. And 21 metabolites were reported firstly in UM. The results indicated that hydroxylation and N-acetylcysteine were the common metabolic reactions for PYCs. The metabolic rates of ETC, ISC, AUR and UM were 26%, 36%, 81%, and 38% in HLM, while they were 24%, 40%, 80%, and 37% in MLM. Additionally, recombinant cytochrome P450s (CYPs) screening showed that CYP1A1, 2C19, 3A4, and 3A5 were the major metabolic enzymes involving in the formation of hydroxylation metabolites. Combined, these results suggested that isopentenyl group played an important role in PYCs metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5239DOI Listing
September 2021

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects ARPE‑19 cells against HO‑induced oxidative stress via the Nrf2/HO‑1 pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 11 7;24(5). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116021, P.R. China.

Age‑related macular degeneration (AMD) is a global health problem. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been proven to be effective against several eye diseases. However, only a few studies have investigated the effectiveness of LBP for AMD. In the present study, the human retinal epithelial cell line, ARPE‑19, was pretreated with LBP for 24 h before exposure to HO (500 M). Cell viability was assessed, and a series of oxidative and antioxidant indicators were evaluated to determine the influence of LBP on H2O2‑triggered oxidative stress. The present study also determined the apoptosis status, as well as the expression levels of apoptotic proteins and nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) pathway proteins. The present study aimed to determine the protective role for LBP pretreatment and its underlying molecular mechanism. The results of the present study suggest that pretreatment of ARPE‑19 cells with LBP exhibit high efficacy at reducing oxidative damage and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, LBP may modulate the expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway and activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12409DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparative Analysis of Genomic and Transcriptome Sequences Reveals Divergent Patterns of Codon Bias in Wheat and Its Ancestor Species.

Front Genet 2021 20;12:732432. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

The synonymous codons usage shows a characteristic pattern of preference in each organism. This codon usage bias is thought to have evolved for efficient protein synthesis. Synonymous codon usage was studied in genes of the hexaploid wheat (AABBDD) and its progenitor species, (AA), (DD), and (AABB). exhibited stronger usage bias for G/C-ending codons than did the three progenitor species, and this bias was especially higher compared to and . High GC content is a primary factor influencing codon usage in . Neutrality analysis showed a significant positive correlation (<0.001) between GC12 and GC3 in the four species with regression line slopes near zero (0.16-0.20), suggesting that the effect of mutation on codon usage was only 16-20%. The GC3s values of genes were associated with gene length and distribution density within chromosomes. tRNA abundance data indicated that codon preference corresponded to the relative abundance of isoaccepting tRNAs in the four species. Both mutation and selection have affected synonymous codon usage in hexaploid wheat and its progenitor species. GO enrichment showed that GC biased genes were commonly enriched in physiological processes such as photosynthesis and response to acid chemical. In some certain gene families with important functions, the codon usage of small parts of genes has changed during the evolution process of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.732432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417831PMC
August 2021

Genomic temporal heterogeneity of circulating tumour DNA in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer under first-line treatment.

Gut 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Objective: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is increasingly used in the clinical management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, the genomic heterogeneity in ctDNA during treatments and its impact on clinical outcomes remain largely unknown.

Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study (NCT04228614) of 171 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who underwent first-line treatment and prospectively collected blood samples with or without tumour samples from patients at baseline and sequentially until disease progression or last follow-up.

Results: The RAS/BRAF alterations in paired baseline tissue and plasma samples from 63 patients displayed a favourable concordance (81.0%, 51/63). After a period of first-line treatment (median time between baseline and last liquid biopsy, 4.67 months), 42.6% (26/61) of RAS-mutant patients showed RAS clearance and 50.0% (5/10) of BRAF-mutant patients showed BRAF clearance, while 3.6% (3/84) and 0.7% (1/135) of patients showed new RAS or BRAF mutations in ctDNA. Patients with plasma RAS/BRAF clearance showed similar progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with patients who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type, while much better outcomes than those who remained RAS/BRAF mutant. Patients who gained new RAS/BRAF mutations showed similar prognosis as those who maintained RAS/BRAF mutations, and shorter PFS and OS than those who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type.

Conclusion: This prospective, serial and large-scale ctDNA profiling study reveals the temporal heterogeneity of mCRC-related somatic variants, which should be given special attention in clinical practice, as evidenced by the finding that the shift in plasma RAS/BRAF mutational status can yield a drastic change in survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324852DOI Listing
September 2021

Challenges for the application of bacteriophage as an effective antibacterial agent in food industry.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106, China.

Food contamination caused by foodborne pathogens is one of the most significant concerns in public health worldwide, and accounts for a significant portion of food loss every year. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria has turned the researchers' attention back to the potential of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents, which have been attempted in various pre-and post-harvest food production settings. While the application of phage-based antibacterial products has achieved considerable success, a number of technical, environmental and administrative challenges remain unaddressed. In this review, we summarized the current status of bacteriophage application in food industry. More importantly, we discussed the obstacles facing the further development of phage-based antibacterial products from the aspects of technology, environmental safety, and administrative policy. We also put forward some possible solutions to these challenges, serving as reference information for future studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11505DOI Listing
September 2021

Quantum teleportation of physical qubits into logical code spaces.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(36)

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China;

Quantum error correction is an essential tool for reliably performing tasks for processing quantum information on a large scale. However, integration into quantum circuits to achieve these tasks is problematic when one realizes that nontransverse operations, which are essential for universal quantum computation, lead to the spread of errors. Quantum gate teleportation has been proposed as an elegant solution for this. Here, one replaces these fragile, nontransverse inline gates with the generation of specific, highly entangled offline resource states that can be teleported into the circuit to implement the nontransverse gate. As the first important step, we create a maximally entangled state between a physical and an error-correctable logical qubit and use it as a teleportation resource. We then demonstrate the teleportation of quantum information encoded on the physical qubit into the error-corrected logical qubit with fidelities up to 0.786. Our scheme can be designed to be fully fault tolerant so that it can be used in future large-scale quantum technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2026250118DOI Listing
September 2021

MGML: Multigranularity Multilevel Feature Ensemble Network for Remote Sensing Scene Classification.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 1;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Remote sensing (RS) scene classification is a challenging task to predict scene categories of RS images. RS images have two main issues: large intraclass variance caused by large resolution variance and confusing information from large geographic covering area. To ease the negative influence from the above two issues. We propose a multigranularity multilevel feature ensemble network (MGML-FENet) to efficiently tackle the RS scene classification task in this article. Specifically, we propose multigranularity multilevel feature fusion branch (MGML-FFB) to extract multigranularity features in different levels of network by channel-separate feature generator (CS-FG). To avoid the interference from confusing information, we propose a multigranularity multilevel feature ensemble module (MGML-FEM), which can provide diverse predictions by full-channel feature generator (FC-FG). Compared to previous methods, our proposed networks have the ability to use structure information and abundant fine-grained features. Furthermore, through the ensemble learning method, our proposed MGML-FENets can obtain more convincing final predictions. Extensive classification experiments on multiple RS datasets (AID, NWPU-RESISC45, UC-Merced, and VGoogle) demonstrate that our proposed networks achieve better performance than previous state-of-the-art (SOTA) networks. The visualization analysis also shows the good interpretability of MGML-FENet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3106391DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel Nonradical Oxidation of Sulfonamide Antibiotics with Co(II)-Doped g-CN-Activated Peracetic Acid: Role of High-Valent Cobalt-Oxo Species.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China.

Herein, we report that Co(II)-doped g-CN can efficiently trigger peracetic acid (PAA) oxidation of various sulfonamides (SAs) in a wide pH range. Quite different from the traditional radical-generating or typical nonradical-involved (i.e., singlet oxygenation and mediated electron transfer) catalytic systems, the PAA activation follows a novel nonradical pathway with unprecedented high-valent cobalt-oxo species [Co(IV)] as the dominant reactive species. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the Co atom fixated into the nitrogen pots of g-CN serves as the main active site, enabling dissociation of the adsorbed PAA and conversion of the coordinated Co(II) to Co(IV) via a unique two-electron transfer mechanism. Considering Co(IV) to be highly electrophilic in nature, different substituents (i.e., five-membered and six-membered heterocyclic moieties) on the SAs could affect their nucleophilicity, thus leading to the differences in degradation efficiency and transformation pathway. Also, benefiting from the selective oxidation of Co(IV), the established oxidative system exhibits excellent anti-interference capacity and achieves satisfactory decontamination performance under actual water conditions. This study provides a new nonradical approach to degrade SAs by efficiently activating PAA via heterogeneous cobalt-complexed catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c04091DOI Listing
August 2021

A Novel Risk Scoring Tool to Predict Saphenous Vein Graft Occlusion After Cardiac Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:670045. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine of Coronary Atherosclerotic Disease, Department of Cardiology, Clinical Center for Coronary Heart Disease, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) success is reduced by graft occlusion. Understanding factors associated with graft occlusion may improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive risk score for saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion after CABG. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 3,716 CABG patients from January 2012 to March 2013. The development cohort included 2,477 patients and the validation cohort included 1,239 patients. The baseline clinical data at index CABG was analyzed for their independent impact on graft occlusion in our study using Cox proportional hazards regression. The predictive risk scoring tool was weighted by beta coefficients from the final model. Concordance (c)-statistics and comparison of the predicted and observed probabilities of predicted risk were used for discrimination and calibration. A total of 959 (25.8%) out of 3,716 patients developed at least one late SVG occlusion. Significant risk factors for occlusion were female sex [beta coefficients (β) = 0.52], diabetes (β = 0.21), smoking (currently) (β = 0.32), hyperuricemia (β = 0.22), dyslipidemia (β = 0.52), prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (β = 0.21), a rising number of SVG (β = 0.12) and lesion vessels (β = 0.45). On-pump surgery (β = -0.46) and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) (β = -0.59) and calcium channel blockers (CCB) (β = -0.23) were protective factors. The risk scoring tool with 11 variables was developed from the derivation cohort, which delineated each patient into risk quartiles. The c-statistic for this model was 0.71 in the validation cohort. An easy-to-use risk scoring tool which included female sex, diabetes, smoking, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, prior PCI, a rising number of SVG and lesion vessels, on-pump surgery, the use of ACEI/ ARB and CCB was developed and validated. The scoring tool accurately estimated the risk of late SVG occlusion after CABG (c-statistic = 0.71).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.670045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387700PMC
August 2021

Soy Isoflavones Intake and Obesity in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanghai, China.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 6;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

This study was designed to examine the association of soy isoflavones (SI) intake with different body measurements indicative of obesity in Chinese adults of Shanghai, a population consuming foods rich in SI. This study used baseline data from the Shanghai Gaofeng cohort study. SI intake was measured by using a self-reported food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A restricted cubic spline (RCS) was performed to examine the possible nonlinear relationship of SI intake with obesity. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Compared with the lowest tertile group of SI intake, the highest tertile group had a lower prevalence of obesity and central obesity. The OR for overall obesity was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.98) in the highest versus the lowest SI tertile group; the associations differed by sex and menopausal status. A negative association was also observed between SI intake and central obesity, and a significant modifying effect of sex was found on the association. No significant interactions were observed between SI intake and physical activity (PA) levels. Our results suggest that Chinese adults with higher dietary intake of SI may be less likely to be obese, particularly for postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399780PMC
August 2021

Review of machine learning methods for RNA secondary structure prediction.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Aug 26;17(8):e1009291. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey, United States of America.

Secondary structure plays an important role in determining the function of noncoding RNAs. Hence, identifying RNA secondary structures is of great value to research. Computational prediction is a mainstream approach for predicting RNA secondary structure. Unfortunately, even though new methods have been proposed over the past 40 years, the performance of computational prediction methods has stagnated in the last decade. Recently, with the increasing availability of RNA structure data, new methods based on machine learning (ML) technologies, especially deep learning, have alleviated the issue. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on ML technologies and a tabularized summary of the most important methods in this field. The current pending challenges in the field of RNA secondary structure prediction and future trends are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389396PMC
August 2021

Ingredients with anti-inflammatory effect from medicine food homology plants.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 10;368:130610. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Medicine, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China; Institute of Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China. Electronic address:

Inflammation occurs when the immune system responses to external harmful stimuli and infection. Chronic inflammation induces various diseases. A variety of foods are prescribed in the traditional medicines of many countries all over the world, which gave birth to the concept of medicine food homology. Over the past few decades, a number of secondary metabolites from medicine food homology plants have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present review, the effects and mechanisms of the medicine food homology plants-derived active components on relieving inflammation and inflammation-mediated diseases were summarized and discussed. The information provided in this review is valuable to future studies on anti-inflammatory ingredients derived from medicine food homology plants as drugs or food supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130610DOI Listing
August 2021

Distribution, source and health risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method of heavy metals in shallow groundwater in an area affected by mining activities, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 19;224:112679. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Anhui Province Engineering Laboratory for Mine Ecological Remediation, Hefei 230601, P.R. China.

Mining activities exert a far-reaching impact on the quality of groundwater, and health problems caused by heavy metal pollution have attracted global attention. In this study, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to determine the contents of 8 heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in shallow groundwater samples retrieved from a mining area in northern Anhui. Multivariate statistical methods were adopted to analyze the distribution and source of pollution and to evaluate 5% and 95% health risks based on Monte Carlo simulation. Fe, As and Cr significantly exceeded the safe drinking water standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The average concentrations of As and Cr were as high as 46.45 μg/L and 133.96 μg/L, respectively. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that heavy metals are affected by complex factors, the main factor being human activities. The total carcinogenic health risks of Cr and As in adults were 2.49 × 10 and 3.43 × 10, respectively, which exceeded the maximum acceptable risk value (1 ×10) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), affecting human health. According to the USEPA classification of hazardous ingestion (HI), at HI < 1, the impact of non-carcinogenic heavy metals on human health is negligible. These results indicate that local residents should strengthen the monitoring of Cr and As pollution in shallow groundwater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112679DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of Claudin-6 as a Molecular Biomarker in Pan-Cancer Through Multiple Omics Integrative Analysis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 2;9:726656. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Claudin-6 (CLDN6) is one of the 27 family members of claudins and majorly involved in the tight junction and cell-to-cell adhesion of epithelial cell sheets, playing a significant role in cancer initiation and progression. To provide a more systematic and comprehensive dimension of identifying the diverse significance of CLDN6 in a variety of malignant tumors, we explored CLDN6 through multiple omics data integrative analysis, including gene expression level in pan-cancer and comparison of CLDN6 expression in different molecular subtypes and immune subtypes of pan-cancer, targeted protein, biological functions, molecular signatures, diagnostic value, and prognostic value in pan-cancer. Furthermore, we focused on uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) and further investigated CLDN6 from the perspective of the correlations with clinical characteristics, prognosis in different clinical subgroups, co-expression genes, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs), basing on discussing the validation of its established monoclonal antibody by immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantification reported in the previous study. As a result, CLDN6 expression differs significantly not only in most cancers but also in different molecular and immune subtypes of cancers. Besides, high accuracy in predicting cancers and notable correlations with prognosis of certain cancers suggest that CLDN6 might be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of cancers. Additionally, CLDN6 is identified to be significantly correlated with age, stage, weight, histological type, histologic grade, and menopause status in UCEC. Moreover, CLDN6 high expression can lead to a worse overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and progression-free interval (PFI) in UCEC, especially in different clinical subgroups of UCEC. Taken together, CLDN6 may be a remarkable molecular biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in pan-cancer and an independent prognostic risk factor of UCEC, presenting to be a promising molecular target for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.726656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365468PMC
August 2021

Role of ssDNA as a Noninvasive Indicator for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Exploratory Study.

Dis Markers 2021 4;2021:9958909. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Research & Development, Jiangsu Yuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd, 333 Xingpu Road, Jiangsu Suzhou 215000, China.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 102 patients with newly diagnosed HCC, 21 with cirrhosis, 20 with chronic hepatitis, 284 with nonliver diseases, and 45 healthy individuals at the Affiliated Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (May-October 2018). ssDNA was extracted using magnetic beads and quantified using the Qubit ssDNA assay. ssDNA levels were compared among the disease groups and in HCC vs. non-HCC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the diagnostic value of ssDNA. In patients with resectable HCC, ssDNA and -fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured during follow-up and compared with HCC recurrence detected by imaging.

Results: The median ssDNA levels were higher in HCC than in healthy individuals, cirrhosis, and chronic hepatitis (median, 23.20 vs. 9.36, 9.64, and 9.76 ng/L, respectively, < 0.001). ssDNA levels in HCC were higher than those in cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis (both < 0.001); there were no differences in ssDNA levels between healthy controls and patients with cirrhosis ( = 0.15) or chronic liver disease ( = 0.39). The area under the curve of ssDNA for HCC diagnosis was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.879-0.933). The ssDNA levels decreased by 3.19-fold ( < 0.001) after HCC radical resection. In six patients, the ssDNA levels increased about 3-6 months before a recurrence was detected by AFP and imaging.

Conclusions: ssDNA might be a noninvasive indicator for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. ssDNA could eventually be complementary to AFP levels and imaging, but confirmatory studies are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9958909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360730PMC
August 2021

Mechanisms of peripheral neurotoxicity associated with four chemotherapy drugs using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived peripheral neurons.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Aug 12;77:105233. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai InnoStar Bio-Tech Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

The awareness of the long-term toxicities of cancer survivors after chemotherapy treatment has been gradually strengthened as the population of cancer survivors grows. Generally, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is studied by animal models which are not only expensive and time-consuming, but also species-specific differences. The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and differentiation of peripheral neurons have provided an in vitro model to elucidate the risk of CIPN. Here, we developed a drug-induced peripheral neurotoxicity model using hiPSC-derived peripheral neurons (hiPSC-PNs) to study the mechanisms of different chemotherapeutic agents on neuronal viability using LDH assay, a cell apoptosis assay determined by caspase 3/7 activation, neurite outgrowth, ion channel expression and neurotransmitter release following treatment of cisplatin, bortezomib, ixabepilone, or pomalidomide. Our data showed that the multiple endpoints of the hiPSC-PNs model had different sensitivity to various chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the chemotherapeutics separated cell viability from the decrease in neurite lengthand changed levels of ion channels and neurotransmitters to a certain extent. Thus, we study the mechanisms of peripheral neurotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents through changes in these indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2021.105233DOI Listing
August 2021

Action Mode of Gut Motility, Fluid and Electrolyte Transport in Chronic Constipation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:630249. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for TCM Compatibility, and State Key Laboratory of Research and Development of Characteristic Qin Medicine Resources (Cultivation), and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Fundamentals and New Drugs Research, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, China.

Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder, with a worldwide incidence of 14-30%. It negatively affects quality of life and is associated with a considerable economic burden. As a disease with multiple etiologies and risk factors, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of chronic constipation. The purpose of this review is to discuss latest findings on the roles of gut motility, fluid, and electrolyte transport that contribute to chronic constipation, and the main drugs available for treating patients. We conducted searches on PubMed and Google Scholar up to 9 February 2021. MeSH keywords "constipation", "gastrointestinal motility", "peristalsis", "electrolytes", "fluid", "aquaporins", and "medicine" were included. The reference lists of searched articles were reviewed to identify further eligible articles. Studies focusing on opioid-induced constipation, evaluation, and clinic management of constipation were excluded. The occurrence of constipation is inherently connected to disorders of gut motility as well as fluid and electrolyte transport, which involve the nervous system, endocrine signaling, the gastrointestinal microbiota, ion channels, and aquaporins. The mechanisms of action and application of the main drugs are summarized; a better understanding of ion channels and aquaporins may be helpful for new drug development. This review aims to provide a scientific basis that can guide future research on the etiology and treatment of constipation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.630249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353128PMC
July 2021

Machine Learning-Enabled Determination of Diffuseness of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations from Magnetic Resonance Angiography.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 119 South Fourth Ring Road West, Fengtai District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The diffuseness of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is a significant factor in surgical outcome evaluation and hemorrhagic risk prediction. However, there are still predicaments in identifying diffuseness, such as the judging variety resulting from different experience and difficulties in quantification. The purpose of this study was to develop a machine learning (ML) model to automatically identify the diffuseness of bAVM niduses using three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) images. A total of 635 patients with bAVMs who underwent TOF-MRA imaging were enrolled. Three experienced neuroradiologists delineated the bAVM lesions and identified the diffuseness on TOF-MRA images, which were considered the ground-truth reference. The U-Net-based segmentation model was trained to segment lesion areas. Eight mainstream ML models were trained through the radiomic features of segmented lesions to identify diffuseness, based on which an integrated model was built and yielded the best performance. In the test set, the Dice score, F2 score, precision, and recall for the segmentation model were 0.80 [0.72-0.84], 0.80 [0.71-0.86], 0.84 [0.77-0.93], and 0.82 [0.69-0.89], respectively. For the diffuseness identification model, the ensemble-based model was applied with an area under the Receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) of 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-0.99) in the training set. The AUC, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score for the diffuseness identification model were 0.95, 0.90, 0.81, 0.84, and 0.83, respectively, in the test set. The ML models showed good performance in automatically detecting bAVM lesions and identifying diffuseness. The method may help to judge the diffuseness of bAVMs objectively, quantificationally, and efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00933-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Remodeling of Tumor Microenvironment by Tumor-Targeting Nanozymes Enhances Immune Activation of CAR T Cells for Combination Therapy.

Small 2021 Aug 10:e2102624. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Cancer Centre, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau SAR, 999078, China.

Targeting B7-H3 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has antitumor potential for therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in preclinical studies. However, CAR T cell therapy remains a formidable challenge for the treatment of solid tumors due to the heterogeneous and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Nanozymes exhibit merits modulating the immunosuppression of the tumor milieu. Here, a synergetic strategy by combination of nanozymes and CAR T cells in solid tumors is described. This nanozyme with dual photothermal-nanocatalytic properties is endowed to remodel TME by destroying its compact structure. It is found that the B7-H3 CAR T cells infused in mice engrafted with the NSCLC cells have superior antitumor activity after nanozyme ablation of the tumor. Importantly, it is found that the changes altered immune-hostile cancer environment, resulting in enhanced activation and infiltration of B7-H3 CAR T cells. The first evidence that the process of combination nanozyme therapy effectively improves the therapeutic index of CAR T cells is presented. Thus, this study clearly supports that the TME-immunomodulated nanozyme is a promising tool to improve the therapeutic obstacles of CAR T cells against solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102624DOI Listing
August 2021

The mitochondrial genome sequence analysis of Ophidascaris baylisi from the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus).

Parasitol Int 2021 Dec 8;85:102434. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Prevention and Control, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510542, China. Electronic address:

Ophidascaris species are parasitic roundworms that inhabit the python gut, resulting in severe granulomatous lesions or even death. However, the classification and nomenclature of these roundworms are still controversial. Our study aims to identify a snake roundworm from the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) and analyze the mitochondrial genome. We identified this roundworm as Ophidascaris baylisi based on the morphology and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) sequence. Ophidascaris baylisi complete mitochondrial genome was 14,784 bp in length, consisting of two non-coding regions and 36 mitochondrial genes (12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes). The protein-coding genes used TTG, ATG, ATT, or TTA as start codons and TAG, TAA, or T as stop codons. All tRNA genes showed a TV-loop structure, except trnS1 and trnS2 revealed a D-loop structure. The mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit 16S (rrnL) and small ribosomal subunit 12S (rrnS) were 956 bp and 700 bp long, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on O. baylisi mitochondrial protein-coding genes demonstrated that O. baylisi clustered with the family Ascarididae members and was most closely related to Ophidascaris wangi. These results may enhance the nematode mitochondrial genome database and provide valuable molecular markers for further research on the taxonomy, phylogeny, and genetic relationships of Ophidascaris nematodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2021.102434DOI Listing
December 2021

Assessment of 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol safety and attractiveness to mature males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 4;223:112567. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Henan Key Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics, Cancer Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Clinical Medicine, Medical College of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China. Electronic address:

Males of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) are highly attracted to, and compulsively feed, on methyl eugenol (ME). ME is converted into 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (E-CF), which are temporarily sequestered in the fly's rectal gland prior to being released at dusk. Previous research initially confirmed that DMP is a relatively strong lure to B. dorsalis males. However, the characteristics of males' response to DMP and toxicology of DMP remains largely unclear. In our study, we demonstrated that DMP was more attractive to sexually mature males than E-CF tested in laboratory bioassays. Interestingly, the responsiveness of mature males to DMP was not uniform throughout the day, eliciting the highest response during the day and dropping to a low level at night. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the olfactory responses of virgin and mated mature males to DMP. No obvious signs of toxic symptom and deaths were observed in mice during a 14-day acute oral toxicity testing. Further, toxicologically significant changes were not observed in body weight, water intake, food consumption, and absolute and relative organ weights between control and treated groups, implying DMP could be regarded as nontoxic. Lastly, the cytotoxicity data of DMP on cells showed that it exhibited no significant cytotoxicity to normal human and mouse cells. Taken together, results from both the acute and cellular toxicity experiments demonstrated the nontoxic nature of DMP. In conclusion, DMP shows promise as an effective and eco-friendly lure for B. dorsalis males, and may contribute to controlling B. dorsalis in the flied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112567DOI Listing
October 2021

Quantum Simulation with Hybrid Tensor Networks.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(4):040501

Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

Tensor network theory and quantum simulation are, respectively, the key classical and quantum computing methods in understanding quantum many-body physics. Here, we introduce the framework of hybrid tensor networks with building blocks consisting of measurable quantum states and classically contractable tensors, inheriting both their distinct features in efficient representation of many-body wave functions. With the example of hybrid tree tensor networks, we demonstrate efficient quantum simulation using a quantum computer whose size is significantly smaller than the one of the target system. We numerically benchmark our method for finding the ground state of 1D and 2D spin systems of up to 8×8 and 9×8 qubits with operations only acting on 8+1 and 9+1 qubits, respectively. Our approach sheds light on simulation of large practical problems with intermediate-scale quantum computers, with potential applications in chemistry, quantum many-body physics, quantum field theory, and quantum gravity thought experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.040501DOI Listing
July 2021
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