Publications by authors named "Pierre Labauge"

222 Publications

Cerebral Vasoreactivity as an Indirect MRI Marker of White Matter Tracts Alterations in Multiple Sclerosis.

Brain Topogr 2021 Mar 23;34(2):245-255. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, I2FH, Institut d'Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Cedex 5, Montpellier, France.

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show a diffuse cerebral perfusion decrease, presumably related to multiple metabolism and vascular alterations. It is assumed that white matter fiber alterations cause a localized cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) disruption through astrocytes metabolism alteration, leading to hypoperfusion. We proposed to (1) evaluate the CVR disruptions in MS, (2) in relation to white matter lesions and (3) compare CVR disruptions maps with standard imaging biomarkers. Thirty-five MS patients (10 progressive, 25 relapsing-remitting) and 22 controls underwent MRI with hypercapnic challenge, DTI imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Areas with disrupted CVR were assessed using a general linear model. Resulting maps were associated with clinical scores, compared between groups, and related to DTI metrics and white matter lesions. MS patients showed stronger disrupted CVR within supratentorial white matter, linking the left anterior insula to both the precentral gyrus and the right middle and superior frontal gyrus through the corpus callosum (P < 0.05, FWE corrected). Patient's verbal intellectual quotient was negatively associated with a pathway linking both hippocampi to the ispilateral prefrontal cortex (P < 0.05, FWE corrected). Disrupted CVR maps unrelated to DTI metrics and white matter lesions. We have demonstrated for the first time that white matter alterations can be indirectly identified through surrounding vessel alterations, and are related to clinical signs of MS. This offers a new, likely independent marker to monitor MS and supports a mediator role of the astrocytes in the fibers/vessels relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-021-00819-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Determinants of therapeutic lag in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jan 11:1352458520981300. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

CORe, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/Melbourne MS Centre, Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: A delayed onset of treatment effect, termed therapeutic lag, may influence the assessment of treatment response in some patient subgroups.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the associations of patient and disease characteristics with therapeutic lag on relapses and disability accumulation.

Methods: Data from MSBase, a multinational multiple sclerosis (MS) registry, and OFSEP, the French MS registry, were used. Patients diagnosed with MS, minimum 1 year of exposure to MS treatment and 3 years of pre-treatment follow-up, were included in the analysis. Studied outcomes were incidence of relapses and disability accumulation. Therapeutic lag was calculated using an objective, validated method in subgroups stratified by patient and disease characteristics. Therapeutic lag under specific circumstances was then estimated in subgroups defined by combinations of clinical and demographic determinants.

Results: High baseline disability scores, annualised relapse rate (ARR) ⩾ 1 and male sex were associated with longer therapeutic lag on disability progression in sufficiently populated groups: females with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) < 6 and ARR < 1 had mean lag of 26.6 weeks (95% CI = 18.2-34.9), males with EDSS < 6 and ARR < 1 31.0 weeks (95% CI = 25.3-36.8), females with EDSS < 6 and ARR ⩾ 1 44.8 weeks (95% CI = 24.5-65.1), and females with EDSS ⩾ 6 and ARR < 1 54.3 weeks (95% CI = 47.2-61.5).

Conclusions: Pre-treatment EDSS and ARR are the most important determinants of therapeutic lag.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520981300DOI Listing
January 2021

First line treatment failure: Predictive factors in a cohort of 863 Relapsing Remitting MS patients.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Feb 13;48:102686. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

CRC SEP, Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier. Electronic address:

Background: The advent of new, potent, disease-modifying therapies has dramatically changed the management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Along with these possibilities, it is crucial to better recognize patients who are at risk of first line treatment (FLT) failure and switch to highly effective therapies (HET).

Objectives: To identify baseline prognostic factors associated with FLT failure in relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS) patients.

Methods: We included recently diagnosed RR-MS patients starting an FLT identified from 3 French MS centers databases. Baseline characteristics were included in a multivariable Cox analysis to identify the main factors associated with FLT failure.

Results: Eight hundred sixty-three patients were included. We observed an overall rate of treatment failure of 23.5%. The main baseline characteristics associated with treatment failure were age <26 years at treatment start (HR= 2.1, p<0.001), EDSS ≥2 (HR=2.1, p<0.001) and ≥2relapses in the previous year (HR=1.5, p=0.04). The association with the presence of gadolinium enhancement on MRI was not statistically significant. EDSS progression was only significantly associated with age at treatment start and treatment failure.

Conclusion: Our series demonstrates that some clinical and imaging factors are associated with treatment failure, and should be considered when planning treatment strategy in patients with recently diagnosed RR-MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102686DOI Listing
February 2021

BEST-MS: A prospective head-to-head comparative study of natalizumab and fingolimod in active relapsing MS.

Mult Scler 2020 Oct 30:1352458520969145. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Service de Neurologie, CRCSEP, Unité de Recherche Clinique Cote d'Azur (UR2CA), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pasteur 2, Nice, France.

Background: There are few head-to-head studies to compare highly active treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness between natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) in active relapsing-remitting MS.

Method: Best Escalation STrategy in Multiple Sclerosis (BEST-MS) is a multicentric, prospective study with a 12-month follow-up including patients with active MS. Treatment choice was at the discretion of physician. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected at baseline and at 12 months. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reaching no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included annualized relapse rate and MRI activity.

Results: A total of 223 patients were included (NTZ: 109 and FTY: 114). Treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. Proportion of NEDA patients was 47.8% in NTZ group versus 30.4% in FTY group ( = 0.015). This superiority was driven by annualized relapse rate and MRI activity. In the multivariate analysis, treatment group was the only factor associated with NEDA at 12 months with a lower probability in FTY group (odds ratio (OR) = 0.49,  = 0.029).

Conclusion: BEST-MS is a prospective study that compared head-to-head the effectiveness of NTZ and FTY in active relapsing-remitting MS. Our results suggest a superiority of NTZ over FTY.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520969145DOI Listing
October 2020

Outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with neuromyelitis optica and associated disorders.

Eur J Neurol 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Service de Neurologie and CIC INSERM 1434, CHU de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), often treated with immunosuppressive therapies, are still unknown.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study among all French expert centers for neuromyelitis optica and related disorders. Patients with NMOSD or MOGAD included in the study received a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 and 30 June 2020. Main outcome was COVID-19 severity score assessed on a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from 1 (not hospitalized with no limitations on activities) to 7 (death).

Results: Fifteen cases (mean [SD] age: 39.3 [14.3] years, 11 female) were included. Five patients (33.3%) were hospitalized, all receiving rituximab. A 24-year-old patient with positive aquaporine-4 antibody, with obesity as comorbidity, needed mechanical ventilation. Outpatients were receiving anti-CD20 (5), mycophenolate mofetil (3) or azathioprine (3). They were younger (mean [SD] age: 37.0 [13.4] years), with a longer disease duration (mean [SD]: 8.3 [6.3] years) and had a lower expanded disability severity score (EDSS) score (median [range] EDSS: 2.5 [0-4]) relative to patients requiring hospitalization (mean [SD] age: 44.0 [16.4] years, mean [SD] disease duration: 5.8 [5.5] years, median [range] EDSS: 4 [0-6.5]).

Conclusions: COVID-19 outcome was overall favorable in this cohort. Larger international studies are needed to identify risk factors of severe COVID-19; however, we recommend personal protective measures to reduce risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this immunocompromised population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14612DOI Listing
October 2020

Cerebrospinal fluid A beta 1-40 peptides increase in Alzheimer's disease and are highly correlated with phospho-tau in control individuals.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 10 2;12(1):123. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Univ Montpellier, INSERM, CHU Montpellier (CMRR), Montpellier, France.

Background: Amyloid pathology, which is one of the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD), results from altered metabolism of the beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in terms of synthesis, clearance, or aggregation. A decrease in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level Aβ1-42 is evident in AD, and the CSF ratio Aβ42/Aβ40 has recently been identified as one of the most reliable diagnostic biomarkers of amyloid pathology. Variations in inter-individual levels of Aβ1-40 in the CSF have been observed in the past, but their origins remain unclear. In addition, the variation of Aβ40 in the context of AD studied in several studies has yielded conflicting results.

Methods: Here, we analyzed the levels of Aβ1-40 using multicenter data obtained on 2466 samples from six different cohorts in which CSF was collected under standardized protocols, centrifugation, and storage conditions. Tau and p-tau (181) concentrations were measured using commercially available in vitro diagnostic immunoassays. Concentrations of CSF Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40 were measured by ELISA, xMAP technology, chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were calculated for parametric and non-parametric comparisons, linear regression, correlation, and odds ratios. The statistical tests were adjusted for the effects of covariates (age, in particular).

Results: Regardless of the analysis method used and the cohorts, a slight but significant age-independent increase in the levels of Aβ40 in CSF was observed in AD. We also found a strong positive correlation between the levels of Aβ1-40 and p-tau (181) in CSF, particularly in control patients.

Conclusions: These results indicate that an increase in the baseline level of amyloid peptides, which are associated with an increase in p-tau (181), may be a biological characteristic and possibly a risk factor for AD. Further studies will be needed to establish a causal link between increased baseline levels of Aβ40 and the development of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00696-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532565PMC
October 2020

POLR3-related disorder revealed by movement disorders.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

MS Unit and Reference Center for adult-onset leukoencephalopathies (MT, PP, XA, CCD, PL) and department of Neurology (VG), Montpellier University Hospital, Gui de Chauliac, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2020.06.013DOI Listing
September 2020

Relapses in Patients Treated with High-Dose Biotin for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurotherapeutics 2020 Sep 22. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

High-dose biotin (HDB) is a therapy used in non-active progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). Several reports have suggested that HDB treatment may be associated with an increased risk of relapse. We aimed to determine whether HDB increases the risk of clinical relapse in PMS and describe the characteristics of the patients who experience it. We conducted a French, multicenter, retrospective study, comparing a group of PMS patients treated with HDB to a matched control group. Poisson regression was applied to model the specific statistical distribution of the annualized relapse rate (ARR). A propensity score (PS), based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), was used to adjust for indication bias and included the following variables: gender, primary PMS or not, age, EDSS, time since the last relapse, and co-prescription of a DMT. Two thousand six hundred twenty-eight patients treated with HDB and 654 controls were analyzed with a follow-up of 17 ± 8 months. Among them, 148 validated relapses were observed in the group treated with biotin and 38 in the control group (p = 0.62). After adjustment based on the PS, the ARR was 0.044 ± 0.23 for the biotin-treated group and 0.028 ± 0.16 for the control group (p = 0.18). The more relapses there were before biotin, the higher the risk of relapse during treatment, independently from the use of HDB. While the number of relapses reported for patients with no previous inflammatory activity receiving biotin has gradually increased, the present retrospective study is adequately powered to exclude an elevated risk of relapse for patients with PMS treated with HDB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-00926-2DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical Features and Risk of Relapse in Children and Adults with Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease.

Ann Neurol 2021 01 15;89(1):30-41. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Neurology, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroinflammation, Pierre Wertheimer Neurological Hospital, Lyon Civil Hospices, Lyon, France.

Objective: The main objective was to compare clinical features, disease course, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody (Ab) dynamics between children and adults with MOG-Ab-associated disease (MOGAD).

Methods: This retrospective multicentric, national study included 98 children and 268 adults with MOGAD between January 2014 and September 2019. Cox regression model for recurrent time-to-event data and Kaplan-Meier curves for time to antibody negativity were performed for the objectives.

Results: Isolated optic neuritis was the most frequent clinical presentation in both children (40.8%) and adults (55.9%, p = 0.013), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome was more frequent in children (36.7% vs 5.6%, p < 0.001). Compared to adults, children displayed better recovery (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≥ 3.0 at last follow-up reached only by 10 of 97 [10.3%] vs 66/247 [26.7%], p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, adults were at higher risk of relapse than children (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.78, p = 0.003). At 2 years, 64.2% (95% CI = 40.9-86.5) of nonrelapsing children became MOG-Ab negative compared to 14.1% (95% CI = 4.7-38.3) of relapsing children (log-rank p < 0.001), with no differences observed in adults (log-rank p = 0.280).

Interpretation: MOGAD patients differ in the clinical presentation at onset, showing an age-related shift in the clinical features across age groups. Compared to children, adults have a higher risk of relapse and worse functional recovery. Finally, children with monophasic disease become MOG-Ab negative earlier than relapsing children, but this is not true in adults. Considering these differences, management and treatment guidelines should be considered independently in children and adults. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:30-41.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25909DOI Listing
January 2021

Serum GFAP in multiple sclerosis: correlation with disease type and MRI markers of disease severity.

Sci Rep 2020 07 2;10(1):10923. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratoire de Biochimie-Protéomique Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) has been demonstrated to correlate with multiple sclerosis disease severity as well as treatment response. Nevertheless, additional serum biomarkers are still needed to better differentiate disease activity from disease progression. The aim of our study was to assess serum glial fibrillary acid protein (s-GFAP) and neurofilament light chain (s-NfL) in a cohort of 129 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and 111 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) were included. We showed that these 2 biomarkers were significantly correlated with each other (R = 0.72, p < 0.001). Moreover, both biomarkers were higher in PPMS than in RRMS even if multivariate analysis only confirmed this difference for s-GFAP (130.3 ± 72.8 pg/ml vs 83.4 ± 41.1 pg/ml, p = 0.008). Finally, s-GFAP was correlated with white matter lesion load and inversely correlated with WM and GM volume. Our results seem to confirm the added value of s-GFAP in the context of multiple sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67934-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331703PMC
July 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1079-1088

Service de Neurologie, Clinical Investigation Center Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 1434, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020.

Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes.

Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320356PMC
September 2020

Multiple sclerosis lesions in motor tracts from brain to cervical cord: spatial distribution and correlation with disability.

Brain 2020 07;143(7):2089-2105

NeuroPoly Lab, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada.

Despite important efforts to solve the clinico-radiological paradox, correlation between lesion load and physical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis remains modest. One hypothesis could be that lesion location in corticospinal tracts plays a key role in explaining motor impairment. In this study, we describe the distribution of lesions along the corticospinal tracts from the cortex to the cervical spinal cord in patients with various disease phenotypes and disability status. We also assess the link between lesion load and location within corticospinal tracts, and disability at baseline and 2-year follow-up. We retrospectively included 290 patients (22 clinically isolated syndrome, 198 relapsing remitting, 39 secondary progressive, 31 primary progressive multiple sclerosis) from eight sites. Lesions were segmented on both brain (T2-FLAIR or T2-weighted) and cervical (axial T2- or T2*-weighted) MRI scans. Data were processed using an automated and publicly available pipeline. Brain, brainstem and spinal cord portions of the corticospinal tracts were identified using probabilistic atlases to measure the lesion volume fraction. Lesion frequency maps were produced for each phenotype and disability scores assessed with Expanded Disability Status Scale score and pyramidal functional system score. Results show that lesions were not homogeneously distributed along the corticospinal tracts, with the highest lesion frequency in the corona radiata and between C2 and C4 vertebral levels. The lesion volume fraction in the corticospinal tracts was higher in secondary and primary progressive patients (mean = 3.6 ± 2.7% and 2.9 ± 2.4%), compared to relapsing-remitting patients (1.6 ± 2.1%, both P < 0.0001). Voxel-wise analyses confirmed that lesion frequency was higher in progressive compared to relapsing-remitting patients, with significant bilateral clusters in the spinal cord corticospinal tracts (P < 0.01). The baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale score was associated with lesion volume fraction within the brain (r = 0.31, P < 0.0001), brainstem (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and spinal cord (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001) corticospinal tracts. The spinal cord corticospinal tracts lesion volume fraction remained the strongest factor in the multiple linear regression model, independently from cord atrophy. Baseline spinal cord corticospinal tracts lesion volume fraction was also associated with disability progression at 2-year follow-up (P = 0.003). Our results suggest a cumulative effect of lesions within the corticospinal tracts along the brain, brainstem and spinal cord portions to explain physical disability in multiple sclerosis patients, with a predominant impact of intramedullary lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364770PMC
July 2020

Two neurologic facets of CTLA4-related haploinsufficiency.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2020 07 4;7(4). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

From the Department of Neurology (X.A., C.C.-D., P.L.), Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier; Internal Medicine Department (R.G.), Caremeau University Hospital, Nimes; Department of Paediatrics (E.J.), Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier; Médecine interne multi-organes (P.R., P.G.), Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier; Department of Immunology (C.L., P.P., T.V.), Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier; Internal Medicine Department (J.F.V.), Bordeaux University Hospital, Univ Bordeaux; Department of Neuroradiology (N.M.C.), Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier; Université de Paris (F.R.-L., C.B.), Imagine institute, Laboratory of Immunogenetics of Pediatric Autoimmune Diseases, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris; and Laboratory of Molecular Genetics (M.K., C.G.), Montpellier University Hospital, INSERM, Univ Montpellier, France.

Objective: To describe the clinical and radiologic neurologic characteristics of patients with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 () haploinsufficiency.

Methods: Three patients from 2 families had neurologic manifestations in the context of haploinsufficiency. Their clinical and MRI findings are presented.

Results: A 16-year-old boy with a previous diagnosis of combined immunodeficiency presented with severe recurrent episodes of headaches, motor deficit, and seizures associated with waxing and waning gadolinium-enhancing FLAIR cortical/juxtacortical hyperintensities. His sister, who also had combined immunodeficiency, had a brain MRI when she was aged 13 years due to recent headaches and transient right hemianopsia. It revealed a gadolinium-enhancing left occipital white matter hyperintensity. Another 49-year-old woman had progressive visual loss and cerebellar ataxia in the context of recurrent pulmonary infections. All 3 patients were found to have inherited haploinsufficiency. Patient 1's general condition and neurologic manifestations were completely controlled with abatacept (CTLA4-Ig).

Conclusions: These cases suggest that in addition to the variable clinical penetrance and wide spectrum of haploinsufficiency, its neurologic spectrum is broad, ranging from recurrent tumefactive lesions to progressive deficits including cerebellar ataxia and optic atrophy with leukoencephalopathy. These phenotypes must be recognized, and should lead to a complete immunologic workup, because potentially effective targeted immunotherapy exists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286662PMC
July 2020

Outcome and risk of recurrence in a large cohort of idiopathic longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis without AQP4/MOG antibodies.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Apr 23;17(1):128. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Service de neurologie, sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuro-inflammation, and Centre de Référence des Maladies Inflammatoires Rares du Cerveau et de la Moelle, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69677, Lyon/Bron, France.

Background: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is classically related to aquaporin (AQP4)-antibodies (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or more recently to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab associated disease. However, some patients remain negative for any diagnosis, despite a large work-up including AQP4-Ab and MOG-Ab. Data about natural history, disability outcome, and treatment are limited in this group of patients. We aimed to (1) describe clinical, biological, and radiological features of double seronegative LETM patients; (2) assess the clinical course and identify prognostic factors; and (3) assess the risk of recurrence, according to maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.

Methods: Retrospective evaluation of patients with a first episode of LETM, tested negative for AQP-Ab and MOG-Ab, from the French nationwide observatory study NOMADMUS.

Results: Fifty-three patients (median age 38 years (range 16-80)) with double seronegative LETM were included. Median nadir EDSS at onset was 6.0 (1-8.5), associated to a median EDSS at last follow-up of 4.0 (0-8). Recurrence was observed in 24.5% of patients in the 18 following months, with a median time to first relapse of 5.7 months. The risk of recurrence was lower in the group of patients treated early with an immunosuppressive drug (2/22, 9%), in comparison with untreated patients (10/31, 32%).

Conclusions: A first episode of a double seronegative LETM is associated to a severe outcome and a high rate of relapse in the following 18 months, suggesting that an early immunosuppressive treatment may be beneficial in that condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01773-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178729PMC
April 2020

Novel CCM2 missense variants abrogating the CCM1-CCM2 interaction cause cerebral cavernous malformations.

J Med Genet 2020 06 14;57(6):400-404. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

UMR-S1141, INSERM, Paris, Île-de-France, France

Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations mostly located within the central nervous system. Most deleterious variants are loss of function mutations in one of the three genes. These genes code for proteins that form a ternary cytosolic complex with CCM2 as a hub. Very few missense variants have been shown to be deleterious by modifying the ternary CCM complex stability.

Objectives: To investigate the causality of novel missense variants detected in patients with CCM.

Methods: The three CCM genes were screened in 984 patients referred for molecular screening. Interaction between CCM1 and CCM2 proteins was tested using co-immunoprecipitation experiments for the missense variants located in the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain.

Results: 11 distinct rare missense variants were found. Six variants predicted to be damaging were located in the PTB domain, four of them were novel. When co-transfected with CCM1 in HEK293T cells, a loss of interaction between CCM1 and CCM2 was observed for all six variants.

Conclusion: We showed, using co-immunoprecipitation experiments, that CCM2 missense variants located in the PTB domain were actually damaging by preventing the normal interaction between CCM1 and CCM2. These data are important for diagnosis and genetic counselling, which are challenging in patients harbouring such variants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106401DOI Listing
June 2020

Tardive Reactivation of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis During Treatment with Biotin.

Neurol Ther 2020 Jun 19;9(1):181-185. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Neurology, Reference Centre for Adult Leukodystrophies, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France, Montpellier, France.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, causing neurological disability in young adults. A growing understanding of its immunopathogenesis has led to an expanding array of therapies. Notable new advances in disease-modifying therapies for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis that are based on anti-inflammatory activity have recently been developed. Management of progressive MS is still challenging. Data published in 2014 suggested that daily high doses of biotin, a vitamin involved in myelin synthesis, might have a beneficial impact on disability and progression in progressive MS. However, some patients worsened while on biotin without any clear explanation for this effect. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient suffering from primary progressive (PP) MS who presented after 16 months of treatment with high doses of biotin (QIZENDAY) with worsening of his Expanding Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and the appearance of a symptomatic new T2 pseudo-tumoural lesion on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), suggestive of tardive inflammatory reactivation possibly due to the biotin. The newer and more effective therapies for MS are, however, associated with risks that necessitate an active management strategy and continuous vigilance. Physicians should be aware of iatrogenic neurological complications and the possible paradoxical effects of biotin. Future treatment approaches to progressive MS must include identification of a biomarker of disease activity. The study of neurofilaments in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the serum could be of interest when determining the optimal treatment strategy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-019-00175-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229143PMC
June 2020

Unstable TTTTA/TTTCA expansions in MARCH6 are associated with Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy type 3.

Nat Commun 2019 10 29;10(1):4919. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45147, Essen, Germany.

Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy (FAME) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by cortical tremor and seizures. Intronic TTTTA/TTTCA repeat expansions in SAMD12 (FAME1) are the main cause of FAME in Asia. Using genome sequencing and repeat-primed PCR, we identify another site of this repeat expansion, in MARCH6 (FAME3) in four European families. Analysis of single DNA molecules with nanopore sequencing and molecular combing show that expansions range from 3.3 to 14 kb on average. However, we observe considerable variability in expansion length and structure, supporting the existence of multiple expansion configurations in blood cells and fibroblasts of the same individual. Moreover, the largest expansions are associated with micro-rearrangements occurring near the expansion in 20% of cells. This study provides further evidence that FAME is caused by intronic TTTTA/TTTCA expansions in distinct genes and reveals that expansions exhibit an unexpectedly high somatic instability that can ultimately result in genomic rearrangements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12763-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820781PMC
October 2019

Intronic ATTTC repeat expansions in STARD7 in familial adult myoclonic epilepsy linked to chromosome 2.

Nat Commun 2019 10 29;10(1):4920. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Adelaide Medical School and Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, SA, Australia.

Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy (FAME) is characterised by cortical myoclonic tremor usually from the second decade of life and overt myoclonic or generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Four independent loci have been implicated in FAME on chromosomes (chr) 2, 3, 5 and 8. Using whole genome sequencing and repeat primed PCR, we provide evidence that chr2-linked FAME (FAME2) is caused by an expansion of an ATTTC pentamer within the first intron of STARD7. The ATTTC expansions segregate in 158/158 individuals typically affected by FAME from 22 pedigrees including 16 previously reported families recruited worldwide. RNA sequencing from patient derived fibroblasts shows no accumulation of the AUUUU or AUUUC repeat sequences and STARD7 gene expression is not affected. These data, in combination with other genes bearing similar mutations that have been implicated in FAME, suggest ATTTC expansions may cause this disorder, irrespective of the genomic locus involved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12671-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820779PMC
October 2019

Expert opinion: Criteria for second-line treatment failure in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Nov 19;36:101406. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

CHU de Montpellier, 191 Av. du Doyen Gaston Giraud, Montpellier, France.

Objectives: In the management of multiple sclerosis (MS), defining criteria for identification of suboptimal therapy responses and switching treatment is essential to avoid worsening. Despite the lack of a standardised definition, criteria for first-line treatment are well documented in the literature, based on clinical measures or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gadolinium enhancing [Gd] lesions or new/enlarging T2 lesions) assessed during the first 6-18 months after treatment initiation. However, it is unknown whether the same criteria can be used for second-line treatment failure.

Methods: Five regional boards involving 36 French MS experts were convened to discuss published literature regarding criteria for first- and second-line treatment failure, and to identify differences in local therapeutic practices. A national board of 11 experts was subsequently conducted to identify convergences and differences between regions, and to propose second-line criteria for the definition of therapeutic failure.

Results: Published information is lacking regarding second-line treatment failure criteria. In light of this, regional differences in current therapeutic practices are justifiable. Due to the risk-benefit ratio of these treatments and limited options for third-line treatments, the authors recommend a different therapeutic approach when assessing second-line treatment failure. The treatment switch for second-line treatment should be informed by confirmed disease progression, after 6 months, or combined clinical and MRI outcomes, but only after at least 1 year of treatment.

Conclusions: Experts compared therapeutic attitudes and practices regarding second-line treatment failure between French regions. They identified convergences that were used to propose a national agreement on second-line treatment failure criteria, which should be evaluated in real-life prospective cohorts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.101406DOI Listing
November 2019

A Clinico-Radiological Study of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Inflammation.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 24;48(1-2):38-44. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France,

Objective: To describe the clinico-radiological features and long-term prognosis in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri).

Methods: Twenty-eight CAA-ri patients were recruited retrospectively from 6 neurological centers. We recorded the clinico-radiological and biological data, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated with relapse risk and prognosis were assessed.

Results: Five patients had pathologically confirmed CAA-ri whereas 23 had probable (n = 21) or possible (n = 2) CAA-ri. The mean age was 72 years; main clinical symptoms included confusion (54%), hemiparesis (36%), and aphasia (29%). Cerebral MRI disclosed a brain parenchymal lesion (89%), which was usually multifocal (82%) and bilateral (89%). It was associated with gadolinium enhancement (84%), small ischemic lesions (39%), cortical superficial siderosis (CSS; 50%), and a high number of microbleeds (mean 240 ± 277). An isolated leptomeningeal involvement was observed in 3 patients with pathological confirmation. Despite a favorable initial evolution after treatment, we observed a 42% risk of relapse, mostly within the first year (83%). After a mean follow-up of 2 years, 29% died and 25% had a marked disability. Disseminated CSS was associated with death.

Conclusion: Despite an apparently favorable initial evolution, CAA-ri is characterized by a poor prognosis. Diagnostic criteria should consider patients with isolated leptomeningeal involvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502832DOI Listing
May 2020

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Incidence and Risk Stratification Among Natalizumab Users in France.

JAMA Neurol 2020 01;77(1):94-102

CHU de Nantes, Service de Neurologie, CIC015 INSERM, Nantes, France.

Importance: Risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the major barrier to using natalizumab for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, the association of risk stratification with PML incidence has not been evaluated.

Objective: To describe the temporal evolution of PML incidence in France before and after introduction of risk minimization recommendations in 2013.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This observational study used data in the MS registry OFSEP (Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques) collected between April 15, 2007, and December 31, 2016, by participating MS expert centers and MS-dedicated networks of neurologists in France. Patients with an MS diagnosis according to current criteria, regardless of age, were eligible, and those exposed to at least 1 natalizumab infusion (n = 6318) were included in the at-risk population. A questionnaire was sent to all centers, asking for a description of their practice regarding PML risk stratification. Data were analyzed in July 2018.

Exposures: Time from the first natalizumab infusion to the occurrence of PML, natalizumab discontinuation plus 6 months, or the last clinical evaluation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incidence was the number of PML cases reported relative to the person-years exposed to natalizumab. A Poisson regression model for the 2007 to 2016 period estimated the annual variation in incidence and incidence rate ratio (IRR), adjusted for sex and age at treatment initiation and stratified by period (2007-2013 and 2013-2016).

Results: In total, 6318 patients were exposed to natalizumab during the study period, of whom 4682 (74.1%) were female, with a mean (SD [range]) age at MS onset of 28.5 (9.1 [1.1-72.4]) years; 45 confirmed incident cases of PML were diagnosed in 22 414 person-years of exposure. The crude incidence rate for the whole 2007 to 2016 period was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.46-2.69) per 1000 patient-years. Incidence significantly increased by 45.3% (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.15-1.83; P = .001) each year before 2013 and decreased by 23.0% (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97; P = .03) each year from 2013 to 2016.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study suggest, for the first time, a decrease in natalizumab-associated PML incidence since 2013 in France that may be associated with a generalized use of John Cunningham virus serologic test results; this finding appears to support the continuation and reinforcement of educational activities and risk-minimization strategies in the management of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724170PMC
January 2020

Comparative effectiveness of teriflunomide vs dimethyl fumarate in multiple sclerosis.

Neurology 2019 08 12;93(7):e635-e646. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

From INSERM (D.-A.L., L.B.), CIC 0004, Nantes; CRTI-INSERM UMR U1064 (D.-A.L.), Université de Nantes; Service de Neurologie (D.-A.L., S.W., L. Michel), CHU Nantes; Centre des Neurosciences de Lyon (R.C., F.R., S.V.), Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques, INSERM 1028 and CNRS UMR5292, Lyon; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (R.C., F.R., S.V.), Université de Lyon; Department of Neurology (M.D.), Nancy University Hospital; Université de Lorraine (M.D.), EA 4360 APEMAC, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy; Department of Neurology and Clinical Investigation Center (J.D.S.), CHU de Strasbourg, INSERM 1434; Department of Neurology (D.B.), CHU de Toulouse; Service de Neurologie (B. Brochet), CHU de Bordeaux; Service de Neurologie (J.P.), Hôpital de la Timone, CRMBM, CNRS, APHM, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille; Univ Lille (P.V.), CHU Lille, LIRIC (Lille Inflammation Research International Center), INSERM UMR995; Service de Neurologie (G.E., L. Michel), CHU de Rennes; CRCSEP Nice (C.L.-F.), Neurologie Pasteur 2, Université Nice Cote d'Azur, Nice; Service de Neurologie (P. Clavelou), CHU de Clermont-Ferrand; Service de Neurologie (E.T.), CHU de Nîmes; Department of Neurology (J.-P.C.), Hôpital Nord, CHU Saint-Étienne; Service de Neurologie et Faculté de Médecine de Reims (A.T.), CHU de Reims, URCA; Service de Neurologie (B.S.), CHU Saint-Antoine; Service de Neurologie (A.A.K.), CHU d'Amiens; Service de Neurologie (P. Cabre), CHU de Fort de France; Service de Neurologie (C. Lubetzki, C.P.), CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière; Service de Neurologie (E.B.), CHU de Besançon; Service de Neurologie (O.H.), CH de Poissy; Service de Neurologie (T.D.), CH de Saint-Denis; Service de Neurologie (T.M.), CHU de Dijon; Service de Neurologie (O.G.), Fondation Rothschild; Service de Neurologie (B. Bourre), CHU de Rouen; Department of Neurology (A.W.), Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil; Service de Neurologie (P.L.), CHU de Montpellier; Service de Neurologie (L. Magy), CHU de Limoges; Service de Neurologie (G.D.), CHU de Caen; CRC SEP and Department of Neurology (A.-M.G.), CHU Bretonneau, Tours; Department of Neurology (N.M.), CHU La Milétrie, Poitiers; Department of Neurology (C. Labeyrie), CHU Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre; Department of Neurology (I.P.), Hôpital Sud Francilien, Corbeil Essonnes; Department of Neurology (C.N.), CHU Versailles; Department of Neurology (O.C.), CHU de Grenoble; Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (E.L.), Rennes; Service de Neurologie, Sclérose en Plaques, Pathologies de la Myéline et Neuro-inflammation (S.V.), Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon/Bron; and INSERM (Y.F.), UMR 1246-SPHERE, Nantes University, Tours University, Nantes, France.

Objective: In this study, we compared the effectiveness of teriflunomide (TRF) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on both clinical and MRI outcomes in patients followed prospectively in the Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques.

Methods: A total of 1,770 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) (713 on TRF and 1,057 on DMF) with an available baseline brain MRI were included in intention to treat. The 1- and 2-year postinitiation outcomes were relapses, increase of T2 lesions, increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score, and reason for treatment discontinuation. Propensity scores (inverse probability weighting) and logistic regressions were estimated.

Results: The confounder-adjusted proportions of patients were similar in TRF- compared to DMF-treated patients for relapses and disability progression after 1 and 2 years. However, the adjusted proportion of patients with at least one new T2 lesion after 2 years was lower in DMF compared to TRF (60.8% vs 72.2%, odds ratio [OR] 0.60, < 0.001). Analyses of reasons for treatment withdrawal showed that lack of effectiveness was reported for 8.5% of DMF-treated patients vs 14.5% of TRF-treated patients (OR 0.54, < 0.001), while adverse events accounted for 16% of TRF-treated patients and 21% of DMF-treated patients after 2 years (OR 1.39, < 0.001).

Conclusions: After 2 years of treatment, we found similar effectiveness of DMF and TRF in terms of clinical outcomes, but with better MRI-based outcomes for DMF-treated patients, resulting in a lower rate of treatment discontinuation due to lack of effectiveness.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with RRMS, TRF and DMF have similar clinical effectiveness after 2 years of treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6715507PMC
August 2019

Evaluation of treatment response in adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jul 2;16(1):134. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Service de Neurologie, Sclérose en Plaques, Pathologies de la Myéline et Neuro-Inflammation, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) are related to several acquired demyelinating syndromes in adults, but the therapeutic approach is currently unclear. We aimed to describe the response to different therapeutic strategies in adult patients with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease.

Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in France and Spain including 125 relapsing MOG-Ab patients aged ≥ 18 years. First, we performed a survival analysis to investigate the relapse risk between treated and non-treated patients, performing a propensity score method based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting. Second, we assessed the annualised relapse rates (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and visual acuity pre-treatment and on/end-treatment.

Results: Median age at onset was 34.1 years (range 18.0-67.1), the female to male ratio was 1.2:1, and 96% were Caucasian. At 5 years, 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.1-89.8) patients relapsed. At the last follow-up, 66 (52.8%) received maintenance therapy. Patients initiating immunosuppressants (azathioprine, mycophenolate mophetil [MMF], rituximab) were at lower risk of new relapse in comparison to non-treated patients (HR, 0.41; 95CI%, 0.20-0.82; p = 0.011). Mean ARR (standard deviation) was reduced from 1.05(1.20) to 0.43(0.79) with azathioprine (n = 11; p = 0.041), from 1.20(1.11) to 0.23(0.60) with MMF (n = 11; p = 0.033), and from 1.08(0.98) to 0.43(0.89) with rituximab (n = 26; p = 0.012). Other immunosuppressants (methotrexate/mitoxantrone/cyclophosphamide; n = 5), or multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs (MS-DMD; n = 9), were not associated with significantly reduced ARR. Higher rates of freedom of EDSS progression were observed with azathioprine, MMF or rituximab.

Conclusion: In adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease, immunosuppressant therapy (azathioprine, MMF and rituximab) is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better disability outcomes. Such an effect was not found in the few patients treated with MS-DMD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1525-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6607517PMC
July 2019

MRI features of demyelinating disease associated with anti-MOG antibodies in adults.

J Neuroradiol 2019 Sep 20;46(5):312-318. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Neuroradiology department, Pierre-Paul-Riquet/Purpan university hospital, 31300 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

The spectrum of Myelin Oligodendrocytes Glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease constitutes a recently described challenging entity, referring to a relatively new spectrum of autoimmune disorders with antibodies against MOG predominantly involving the optic nerve and spinal cord. The purpose of this article is to describe MRI features of MOG-AD involvement in the optic nerves, spinal cord and the brain of adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2019.06.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in CSF1R-related adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 12 18;90(12):1375-1376. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Hematology Department, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-320701DOI Listing
December 2019

Assessing the risk of multiple sclerosis disease-modifying therapies.

Expert Rev Neurother 2019 07 26;19(7):695-706. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

c Neurology , Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM) , Montreal , Quebec , Canada.

: The number of immunomodulatory options approved for multiple sclerosis has increased over the past years, resulting in a better control of the disease. Depending on disease activity, neurologists can now propose treatments with different levels of efficacy, from injectable and oral treatments with modest efficacy, to highly active immunosuppressants. Nevertheless, this gain in efficacy has come with an increase in the global burden of treatment-related adverse events. : The authors have reviewed extensively the existing literature to gain insight into the adverse events associated with disease modifying therapies, so as to help neurologists choose the right treatment for their patients. The authors classified and summarized the adverse events based on frequency, severity and relevance. : As the number and diversity of adverse events is expected to increase, careful surveillance of patients under treatment will be even more important. The characteristics of the MS population, i.e. mainly young women of childbearing age, who will remain treated for decades, and the need for serial administration of distinct treatments with different mechanisms of action highlights the importance of a comprehensive risk-benefit assessment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2019.1627201DOI Listing
July 2019

CLIPPERS and its mimics: evaluation of new criteria for the diagnosis of CLIPPERS.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 09 9;90(9):1027-1038. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the recently proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS).

Methods: We enrolled 42 patients with hindbrain punctate and/or linear enhancements (<3 mm in diameter) and tested the CLIPPERS criteria.

Results: After a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 25-82), 13 out of 42 patients were CLIPPERS-mimics: systemic and central nervous system lymphomas (n=7), primary central nervous system angiitis (n=4) and autoimmune gliopathies (n=2). The sensitivity and specificity of the CLIPPERS criteria were 93% and 69%, respectively. Nodular enhancement ( ≥ 3 mm in diameter), considered as a red flag in CLIPPERS criteria, was present in 4 out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics but also in 2 out of 29 patients with CLIPPERS, explaining the lack of sensitivity. Four out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics who initially met the CLIPPERS criteria displayed red flags at the second attack with a median time of 5.5 months (min 3, max 18), explaining the lack of specificity. One of these four patients had antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies, and the three remaining patients relapsed despite a daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone ≥ 30 mg and a biopsy targeting atypical enhancing lesions revealed a lymphoma.

Conclusions: Our study highlights that (1) nodular enhancement should be considered more as an unusual finding than a red flag excluding the diagnosis of CLIPPERS; (2) red flags may occur up to 18 months after disease onset; (3) as opposed to CLIPPERS-mimics, no relapse occurs when the daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone is ≥ 30 mg; and (4) brain biopsy should target an atypical enhancing lesion when non-invasive investigations remain inconclusive.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2018-318957DOI Listing
September 2019

Pathologic and MRI analysis in acute atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions.

J Neurol 2019 Jul 23;266(7):1743-1755. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The diagnosis of atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions can be difficult. Brain biopsy is often required to exclude neoplasms. Moreover, the relationship between these lesions and multiple sclerosis and NMOSD is not clear.

Objectives: Our objectives were to describe radiological and pathological characteristics of patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating lesions.

Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with brain biopsy performed for diagnostic uncertainty revealing a demyelinating lesion. A complete clinical, biological, radiological and pathological analysis was performed.

Results: Twenty patients (15 with a single lesion) were included. MRI disclosed a wide range of lesions including infiltrative lesions (40%), ring-like lesion (15%) Baló-like lesion (15%) and acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (20%). In spite of a marked heterogeneity, some findings were common: a peripheral B1000 hyperintense rim (70%), a slight oedema with mild mass effect (75%) and an open-rim peripheral enhancement (75%). Histopathology revealed that all cases featured macrophages distributed throughout, extensive demyelination, axonal preservation and absence of haemorrhagic changes. In the majority of cases, macrophages were the predominant inflammatory infiltrate and astrocytes were reactive and dystrophic. Aquaporin-4 staining was systematically preserved. After a mean follow-up of 5 years (1-12), 16/20 patients had a diagnosis of monophasic acute atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesion. One patient was diagnosed with MS and 3 with AQP4 negative NMOSD.

Discussion: Although imaging findings in patients with atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions are heterogeneous, some common features such as peripheral DWI hyperintense rim with open-rim enhancement and absence of oedema argue in favour of a demyelinating lesion and should preclude a brain biopsy. In this context, AQP4 staining is systematically preserved and argues against an AQP4-positive NMOSD. Moreover, long-term follow-up is characterized by low recurrence rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09328-7DOI Listing
July 2019

Biallelic MYORG mutation carriers exhibit primary brain calcification with a distinct phenotype.

Brain 2019 06;142(6):1573-1586

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, F, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurogenetic disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Mutations in four genes cause autosomal dominant PFBC: SLC20A2, XPR1, PDGFB and PDGFRB. Recently, biallelic mutations in the MYORG gene have been reported to cause PFBC with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We screened MYORG in 29 unrelated probands negatively screened for the autosomal dominant PFBC genes and identified 11 families with a biallelic rare or novel predicted damaging variant. We studied the clinical and radiological features of 16 patients of these 11 families and compared them to that of 102 autosomal dominant PFBC patients carrying a mutation in one of the four known autosomal dominant PFBC genes. We found that MYORG patients exhibited a high clinical penetrance with a median age of onset of 52 years (range: 21-62) with motor impairment at the forefront. In particular, dysarthria was the presenting sign in 11/16 patients. In contrast to patients with autosomal dominant PFBC, 12/15 (80%) symptomatic patients eventually presented at least four of the following five symptoms: dysarthria, cerebellar syndrome, gait disorder of any origin, akinetic-hypertonic syndrome and pyramidal signs. In addition to the most severe clinical pattern, MYORG patients exhibited the most severe pattern of calcifications as compared to the patients from the four autosomal dominant PFBC gene categories. Strikingly, 12/15 presented with brainstem calcifications in addition to extensive calcifications in other brain areas (lenticular nuclei, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, ±cortex). Among them, eight patients exhibited pontine calcifications, which were observed in none of the autosomal dominant PFBC patients and hence appeared to be highly specific. Finally, all patients exhibited cerebellar atrophy with diverse degrees of severity on CT scans. We confirmed the existence of cerebellar atrophy by performing MRI voxel-based morphometry analyses of MYORG patients with autosomal dominant PFBC mutation carriers as a comparison group. Of note, in three families, the father carried small pallido-dentate calcifications while carrying the mutation at the heterozygous state, suggesting a putative phenotypic expression in some heterozygous carriers. In conclusion, we confirm that MYORG is a novel major PFBC causative gene and that the phenotype associated with such mutations may be recognized based on pedigree, clinical and radiological features.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz095DOI Listing
June 2019

Cranial nerve involvement in patients with MOG antibody-associated disease.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2019 03 1;6(2):e543. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Service de neurologie (A.C.-C., S.V., R.M.), sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuroinflammation and Centre de référence pour les maladies inflammatoires rares du cerveau et de la moelle (MIRCEM)- Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon, France; Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (A.C.-C., R.M.), U1028 INSERM, UMR5292 CNRS, FLUID Team, Lyon, France; Service de sclérose en plaques (X.A., P.L.), Hôpital Universitaire de Montpellier, France; Service de Neurologie (P.K.), Centre hospitalier de Luxembourg; Inserm (P.H.), U 1184, Center for Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, Université Paris-Sud 11, CEA, DSV/iMETI, Division of Immuno-Virology, IDMIT, Faculté de médecine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre Cedex, France; Service de Radiologie (F.C.), Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (F.C., S.V., R.M.), F-69100 Villeurbanne, France; Lyon's Neuroscience Research Center (S.V.), Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques, INSERM 1028 et CNRS UMR5292, Lyon, France; Service de neurologie pédiatrique (K.D.), Centre de référence pour les maladies inflammatoires rares du cerveau et de la moelle, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; and INSERM US27 MIRCen (C.S.), CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Objective: To describe clinical and radiologic features of cranial nerve (CN) involvement in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) and to assess the potential underlying mechanism of CN involvement using a nonhuman primate (NHP) model.

Methods: Epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic features from a national cohort of 273 MOG-IgG-positive patients were retrospectively reviewed for CN involvement between January 2014 and January 2018. MOG-IgG binding was evaluated in CNS, CN, and peripheral nerve tissues from NHP.

Results: We identified 3 MOG-IgG-positive patients with radiologic and/or clinical CN involvement. Two patients displayed either trigeminal or vestibulocochlear nerve lesions at the root level, and the remaining patient had an oculomotor nerve involvement at the root exit and at the cisternal level. Additional CNS involvement was found in all 3 patients. None of the 3 patients' sera recognized MOG expression in CN of NHP.

Conclusion: Craneal nerve involvement can coexist in patients with MOG antibody disease, although the underlying pathophysiology remains elusive.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384017PMC
March 2019