Publications by authors named "Pavel Fabian"

48 Publications

The use of cisplatin in patients after kidney transplantation with chronic renal insufficiency: Is the benefit higher than potential risks in therapy of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors?

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26381

Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute.

Rationale: The use of cisplatin in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is risky and depends on a number of factors. The optimal procedure in stage I of a non seminomatous germ cell tumor without proven lymphangioinvasion after orchiectomy is controversial and is the subject of a number of discussions due to the lack of randomized studies assessing individual treatment options. The adjuvant method of choice is surveillance or application of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with the risk of treatment related nephrotoxicity. Information about cisplatin safety in renal transplant patients is particularly limited. The aim of this paper is to share the experience with the application of adjuvant chemotherapy Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatin (BEP) in high-risk patient with nonseminoma after kidney transplantation.

Patient Concerns: We report a case report of rare group of high-risk patient with non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumor (NSGCT) after kidney transplantation before application of adjuvant chemotherapy BEP. Patient presented with month-long discomfort in the scrotal area. Previously, he was treated with chronic kidney disease based on chronic glomerulonephritis, which was treated with repeated kidney transplantation.

Diagnosis: The ultrasound examination for a month-long discomfort in the scrotal area found a solid mass of the left testis. Radical inguinal orchiectomy confirmed NSGCT with the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI). Postoperative staging with computed tomography of the chest and abdomen did not show obvious dissemination of the disease.

Interventions: Reducing original dose of chemotherapeutics according to the recommendations of the summary of product characteristics led to only a transient increase in creatinine levels.

Outcomes: The 5-year risk of relapse in surveillance was reduced to around 3% by applying cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

Lessons: Application of cisplatin-based chemotherapy is safe and effective in patients with CKD and in patients with a kidney transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213256PMC
June 2021

A selective p53 activator and anticancer agent to improve colorectal cancer therapy.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):108982

LAQV/REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Microbiologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Impairment of the p53 pathway is a critical event in cancer. Therefore, reestablishing p53 activity has become one of the most appealing anticancer therapeutic strategies. Here, we disclose the p53-activating anticancer drug (3S)-6,7-bis(hydroxymethyl)-5-methyl-3-phenyl-1H,3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazole (MANIO). MANIO demonstrates a notable selectivity to the p53 pathway, activating wild-type (WT)p53 and restoring WT-like function to mutant (mut)p53 in human cancer cells. MANIO directly binds to the WT/mutp53 DNA-binding domain, enhancing the protein thermal stability, DNA-binding ability, and transcriptional activity. The high efficacy of MANIO as an anticancer agent toward cancers harboring WT/mutp53 is further demonstrated in patient-derived cells and xenograft mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC), with no signs of undesirable side effects. MANIO synergizes with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, and in vitro and in vivo studies predict its adequate drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic properties for a clinical candidate. As a single agent or in combination, MANIO will advance anticancer-targeted therapy, particularly benefiting CRC patients harboring distinct p53 status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108982DOI Listing
April 2021

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Evaluation of Early Clinical Response, Pathological Complete Response Rates, and Addition of Platinum Salts Benefit Based on Real-World Evidence.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic.

Pathological complete response (pCR) achievement is undoubtedly the essential goal of neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer, directly affecting survival endpoints. This retrospective study of 237 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with a median follow-up of 36 months evaluated the role of adding platinum salts into standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). After the initial four standard NACT cycles, early clinical response (ECR) was assessed and used to identify tumors and patients generally sensitive to NACT. mutation, smaller unifocal tumors, and Ki-67 ≥ 65% were independent predictors of ECR. The total pCR rate was 41%, the achievement of pCR was strongly associated with ECR (OR = 15.1, < 0.001). According to multivariable analysis, the significant benefit of platinum NACT was observed in early responders ≥45 years, Ki-67 ≥ 65% and persisted lymph node involvement regardless of status. Early responders with pCR had a longer time to death (HR = 0.28, < 0.001) and relapse (HR = 0.26, < 0.001). The pCR was achieved in only 7% of non-responders. However, platinum salts favored non-responders' survival outcomes without statistical significance. Toxicity was significantly often observed in patients with platinum NACT ( = 0.003) but not for grade 3/4 ( = 0.155). These results based on real-world evidence point to the usability of ECR in NACT management, especially focusing on the benefit of platinum salts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036281PMC
March 2021

Recurrent novel HMGA2-NCOR2 fusions characterize a subset of keratin-positive giant cell-rich soft tissue tumors.

Mod Pathol 2021 Aug 19;34(8):1507-1520. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Giant cell tumors of soft tissue (GCT-ST) are rare low-grade neoplasms that were at one time thought to represent the soft tissue counterparts of GCT of bone (GCT-B) but are now known to lack the H3F3 mutations characteristic of osseous GCT. We present six distinctive giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms that expressed keratins and carried a recurrent HMGA2-NCOR2 gene fusion. Patients were five females and one male aged 14-60 years (median, 29). All presented with superficial (subcutaneous) masses that were removed by conservative marginal (3) or wide (2) local excision. The tumors originated in the upper extremity (2), lower extremity (2), head/neck (1), and trunk (1). Five patients with follow-up (median, 21 months; range, 14-168) remained disease-free. Grossly, all tumors were well-demarcated but not encapsulated with variable lobulation. Histologically, they were composed of bland plump epithelioid or ovoid to spindled mononuclear cells admixed with evenly distributed multinucleated osteoclast-type giant cells. Foci of stromal hemorrhage and hemosiderin were seen in all cases. The mitotic activity ranged from 2 to 14/10 high power fields (median: 10). Foci of necrosis and vascular invasion were seen in one case each. The mononuclear cells were immunoreactive with the AE1/AE3 keratin cocktail and less frequently/less diffusely for K7 and K19 but lacked expression of other lineage-associated markers. RNA-based next-generation sequencing revealed an HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion in all tumors. None of the keratin-negative conventional GCT-ST showed the HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion (0/7). Metaplastic bone (4/9) and SATB2 expression (3/4) were frequent in keratin-negative conventional GCT-ST but were lacking in keratin-positive HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion-positive tumors. The distinctive immunophenotype and genotype of these tumors strongly suggest that they represent a discrete entity, differing from conventional GCT-ST and other osteoclast-rich morphologic mimics. Their natural history appears favorable, although a study of additional cases and longer follow-up are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00789-8DOI Listing
August 2021

SDHC Methylation Pattern in Patients With Carney Triad.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Sikl's Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Teaching Hospital in Plzen, Charles University Bioptical Laboratory Ltd, Plzen Department of Oncological Pathology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute Department of Pathology, University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Carney triad is a multitumor syndrome affecting almost exclusively young women in a nonfamilial setting, which manifests by multifocal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, paragangliomas, and pulmonary chondroma. The Carney triad-associated tumors are characterized by a deficiency of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex. Recently, it has been observed that the deficiency results from epigenetic silencing of the SDHC gene by its promoter hypermethylation. To elucidate anatomic distribution of SDHC promoter methylation in Carney triad patients and thus to shed some light on the possible natural development of this epigenetic change, both neoplastic and available non-neoplastic tissues of 3 patients with Carney triad were tested for hypermethylation at the SDHC promoter site. SDHC promoter hypermethylation was proven in all tumors studied. Lack of SDHC epigenetic silencing in the non-neoplastic lymphoid and duodenal tissue (ie, tissues not involved in the development of Carney triad-associated tumors) together with the finding of SDHC promoter hypermethylation in the non-neoplastic gastric wall favors the hypothesis of postzygotic somatic mosaicism as the biological background of Carney triad; it also offers an explanation of the multifocality of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach occurring in this scenario as well. However, the precise mechanism responsible for the peculiar organ-specific distribution of Carney triad-associated tumors is still unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000920DOI Listing
February 2021

How Different Are the Molecular Mechanisms of Nodal and Distant Metastasis in Luminal A Breast Cancer?

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 16;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic.

Lymph node status is one of the best prognostic factors in breast cancer, however, its association with distant metastasis is not straightforward. Here we compare molecular mechanisms of nodal and distant metastasis in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, with major focus on luminal A patients. We analyze a new cohort of 706 patients (MMCI_706) as well as an independent cohort of 836 primary tumors with full gene expression information (SUPERTAM_HGU133A). We evaluate the risk of distant metastasis, analyze targetable molecular mechanisms in Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and identify relevant inhibitors. Lymph node positivity is generally associated with NF-κB and Src pathways and is related to high risk (OR: 5.062 and 2.401 in MMCI_706 and SUPERTAM_HGU133A, respectively, < 0.05) of distant metastasis in luminal A patients. However, a part (≤15%) of lymph node negative tumors at the diagnosis develop the distant metastasis which is related to cell proliferation control and thrombolysis. Distant metastasis of lymph node positive patients is mostly associated with immune response. These pro-metastatic mechanisms further vary in other molecular subtypes. Our data indicate that the management of breast cancer and prevention of distant metastasis requires stratified approach based on targeted strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563588PMC
September 2020

Keratin 36, a specific marker of tongue filiform papillae, is downregulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue.

Mol Clin Oncol 2020 May 26;12(5):421-428. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Medical Biosciences, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea, Sweden.

Human keratin 36 (K36) is a member of the hair keratin family and is a marker of hair cortex differentiation. The human gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 17 and belongs to the cluster of structurally unrelated acidic hair keratins. Recently, it has been reported that mRNA is specifically expressed in normal tongue epithelium and downregulated in squamous cell carcinomas of the mobile tongue. Furthermore, levels have been reported to be downregulated in clinically normal mobile tongue tissue that is adjacent to tumours, suggesting it could be a marker of pre-neoplastic changes. However, the exact role and the potential role of K36 in tongue tumour formation remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate expression of K36 in a series of squamous cell carcinomas of the mobile tongue, normal mobile tongue and a small panel of other human tissues (normal tissue from the appendix, cervix, hair, lip, mamilla, nail, oesophagus, skin, thymus and vagina) and selected cancer tissue (cervical cancer, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma). Affinity purified polyclonal antibodies against K36 were generated and used for immunohistochemical analysis. The results revealed that in the normal tongue, K36 was detected specifically in the filiform papillae of the dorsal surface of the tongue. Additionally, none of the tongue cancer tissue samples were K36-positive. Immunostaining also revealed that K36 was expressed in nail beds, Hassal's corpuscles in the thymus and the hair cortex. However, K36 was not expressed in the squamous epithelia of the skin, cervix and oesophagus, and the squamous cells of cervical carcinomas, basal cell carcinoma or melanoma. The present data indicated that K36 may be inactivated in tumours of the tongue. However, whether this is part of the tumoural process or if it is an effect of the tumour itself remains to be elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7087467PMC
May 2020

Hepatocellular carcinoma: Gene expression profiling and regulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochromes P450.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 07 13;177:113912. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Diagnostics, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a highly prevalent and deadly disease, being among the top causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that the liver is the major site of biotransformation, studies on drug metabolizing enzymes in HCC are scarce. It is known that malignant transformation of hepatocytes leads to a significant alteration of their metabolic functions and overall deregulation of gene expression. Advanced stages of the disease are thus frequently associated with liver failure, and severe alteration of drug metabolism. However, the impact of dysregulation of metabolic enzymes on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity in HCC patients is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate a significant down-regulation in European Caucasian patients of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, in HCC tumour samples as compared to their surrounding non-cancerous (reference) tissue. Moreover, we report for the first time the association of the unique CYP profiles with specific transcriptome changes, and interesting correlations with expression levels of nuclear receptors and with the histological grade of the tumours. Integrated analysis has suggested certain co-expression profiles of CYPs with lncRNAs that need to be further characterized. Patients with large tumours with down-regulated CYPs could be more vulnerable to drug toxicity; on the other hand, such tumours would eliminate drugs more slowly and should be more sensitive to pharmacotherapy (except in the case of pro-drugs where activation is necessary).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113912DOI Listing
July 2020

Comprehensive Molecular Profiling for Relapsed/Refractory Pediatric Burkitt Lymphomas-Retrospective Analysis of Three Real-Life Clinical Cases-Addressing Issues on Randomization and Customization at the Bedside.

Front Oncol 2019 7;9:1531. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia.

In order to identify reasons for treatment failures when using targeted therapies, we have analyzed the comprehensive molecular profiles of three relapsed, poor-prognosis Burkitt lymphoma cases. All three cases had resembling clinical presentation and histology and all three patients relapsed, but their outcomes differed significantly. The samples of their tumor tissue were analyzed using whole-exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, phosphoproteomic assays, and single-cell phosphoflow cytometry. These results explain different treatment responses of the three histologically identical but molecularly different tumors. Our findings support a personalized approach for patient with high risk, refractory, and rare diseases and may contribute to personalized and customized treatment efforts for patients with limited treatment options like relapsed/refractory Burkitt lymphoma.

Summary: The main aim of this study is to analyze three relapsed Burkitt lymphoma patients using a comprehensive molecular profiling, in order to explain their different outcomes and to propose a biomarker-based targeted treatment. In cases 1 and 3, the tumor tissue and the host were analyzed prospectively and appropriate target for the treatment was successfully implemented; however, in case 2, analyses become available only retrospectively and his empirically based rescue treatment did not hit the right target of his disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027364PMC
February 2020

MiR-376b-3p Is Associated With Long-term Response to Sunitinib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2019 Sep-Oct;16(5):353-359

Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Background/aim: Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor routinely used as first-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) could be suitable biomarkers with predictive potential in mRCC. The aim of this study was to identify miRNA-based predictive biomarkers of therapy response to avoid unnecessary therapy to non-responding patients.

Patients And Methods: High-throughput miRNA microarray profiling was performed on a cohort of 47 patients treated with sunitinib. Validation of candidate miRNAs was carried out on an independent cohort of 132 mRCC patients using qRT-PCR.

Results: Out of 158 miRNAs (65 down-regulated, 93 up-regulated), six miRNAs were chosen for independent validation and miR-376b-3p was confirmed to be differentially expressed in tumors of patients with primary resistance versus long-term response (p<0.0002).

Conclusion: A predictive miRNA associated with progression-free survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with sunitinib was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727077PMC
January 2020

BAP1 Syndrome - Predisposition to Malignant Mesothelioma, Skin and Uveal Melanoma, Renal and Other Cancers.

Klin Onkol 2019 ;32(Supplementum2):118-122

Background: BAP1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome associated with increased risk of malignant mesothelioma; uveal and cutaneous melanoma; kidney cancer; lung adenocarcinoma; meningioma; basaliomas; and breast, ovarian, and prostate tumors. The BAP1 gene (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in DNA repair via homologous recombination. BAP1 regulates the cell cycle, differentiation, DNA damage responses, and cell proliferation through deubiquitination. Somatic mutations in the BAP1 gene are common in many types of tumors.

Observation: Two families harboring a germline mutation in the BAP1 gene were diagnosed at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI). A 27-year-old index female from one family was followed-up for multiple nevi. Her mother and uncle had malignant mesothelioma, and her maternal grandmother had uveal melanoma. The index case tested positive for a BAP1 (NM_004656.2): c.217delG/p.Asp73Metfs*5 frame-shift mutation. The melanoma was removed at the age of 28 and 31. In the second family, an 11-year-old index female had two nevi removed from her head, and a spitzoid-type skin lesion was diagnosed at the age of 11. Her 34-year-old mother had multiple nevi, and a skin lesion of spitzoid-type was removed from the abdomen. Both patients harbored a BAP1 (NM_004656.2): c.123-1G>T acceptor splice site mutation (IARC [International Agency for Research on Cancer] class 4 [probably pathogenic]). Preventive measures for BAP1 syndrome should include known risks for cancer. Tumors occur early and repeatedly. At the MMCI, we recommend physical examination by an oncologist, eyes and skin examination, every 6 months; whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, including the central nervous system, every year (or low-dose computed tomography/chest and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging); annual abdominal ultrasound, breast ultrasound, or mammography; a gynecological ultrasound examination every 6 months; colonoscopy starting at the age of 45; and other suitable surveillances based on family history.

Conclusion: BAP1 syndrome is a complex cancer syndrome with a high risk of rare malignant mesothelioma, malignant skin and uveal melanoma, spitzoid-type skin lesions, and other tumors. Detection of this syndrome is essential for the survival of high-risk individuals. Supported by the grant project MH CZ - RVO (MMCI, 00209805). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 21. 5. 2019 Accepted: 6. 6. 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14735/amko2019S118DOI Listing
January 2020

GAPPS - Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach Syndrome in 8 Families Tested at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute - Prevention and Prophylactic Gastrectomies.

Klin Onkol 2019 ;32(Supplementum2):109-117

Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is a rare variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with massive polyposis of the stomach and a significant risk of gastric adenocarcinoma. Li et al., 2016, described point mutations in the Ying Yang 1 binding site of the APC gene 1B promoter associated with GAPPS syndrome. The first GAPPS syndrome in a Czech family was described in 2016. At Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, GAPPS syndrome was diagnosed in eight families using Sanger sequencing. In all families, one mutation in promoter 1B of APC gene NM_001127511: c.-191T>C was detected. This mutation was not found in any patient with multiple colon polyposis without a detected classic mutation in the APC gene. In total, 24 carriers of this mutation in promoter 1B of the APC gene were detected. Out of those 24 carriers, 20 had massive gastric polyposis with more than 100 fundic glandular polyps diagnosed between the age of 22 and 65, 5 had already died of adenocarcinoma of the stomach (at the ages of 29, 40, 59, 60 and 64, respectively) and another woman was treated at the age of 29. Two female carriers do not yet have polyposis of the stomach at the ages of 31 and 65, respectively; one female carrier has incipient polyposis at the age of 58. A male carrier does not have any clinical symptoms, gastroscopy was not indicated because of his age. Prophylactic total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy has already been performed 6 times at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, in 5 cases without adenocarcinoma at the ages of 27, 34, 44, 51 and 66, respectively; in one female carrier adenocarcinoma of the stomach was detected in a histology specimen. Two prophylactic gastrectomies with D1 lymphadenectomy were performed at University Hospital Brno at the ages of 42 and 50, respectively. In the Czech Republic point mutation c.-191T>C (rs879253783) in the 1B promoter of the APC gene is a frequent cause of gastric polyposis with a high risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, even at a young age. Positively tested individuals are recommended to high-risk oncology clinic. A necessary part of the discussion with the patient is information about a preventive gastrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14735/amko2019S109DOI Listing
January 2020

Gastrointestinal Polyposes and Lynch Syndrome - a Pathologists Perspective.

Klin Onkol 2019 ;32(Supplementum2):92-96

Gastrointestinal polyposes and Lynch syndrome are a group of heterogenous hereditary tumor syndromes associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal carcinoma and other malignancies. Typical early manifestations of gastrointestinal polyposes include multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract. Early recognition of these syndromes enables patients carrying a pathogenic mutation to undergo screening and to instigate precautions to minimize the risk of developing tumors. In some cases, gastrointestinal lesions could be an early indicator of tumor syndrome and histopathologic examination could lead to a recommendation for genetic testing of patients and their families. Supported by Ministry of Health, Czech Republic - Conceptual Development of Research Organization (MMCI, 00209805). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products,or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 16. 4. 2019 Accepted: 6. 6. 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14735/amko2019S92DOI Listing
January 2020

Deficient mismatch repair as a prognostic marker in stage II colon cancer patients.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2019 Oct 28;45(10):1854-1861. Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: A number of reports have evaluated the relationship between deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) and colorectal cancer prognosis. Unfortunately, the exact prognostic role of dMMR has not been clearly established due to contradictory results. This study aims to determine the prognostic impact of dMRR in stage II colon cancer patients only. The appropriate identification of high-risk stage II colon cancers is of paramount importance in the selection of patients who may benefit from adjuvant treatment after surgery.

Methods: Four hundred and fifty-two patients with curative resection of stage II colon cancer were included. Hospital records were used as data source, providing clinical, surgical, pathology, oncology and follow-up information for statistical analysis focusing on overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). Mismatch repair status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Patient survival was followed-up for a mean of 77·35 months.

Results: dMMR was detected in 93 of 452 patients (20·6%). No impact on overall survival (Log-Rank, p = 0·583, 95% CI 0·76-1·67). However, the hazard ratio 0·50 for TTP was highly significant (Log-Rank, p = 0·012, 95% CI 0·28-0·87) in patients with dMMR compared with those with mismatch repair proficient tumours (pMMR).

Conclusions: Patients with dMMR tumours have a lower risk for recurrence compared to those with pMMR tumours, but this finding did not correlate to better overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2019.05.023DOI Listing
October 2019

[Remission of the disease associated/related with immunoglobulin IgG4 accompanied by multiple lymphadenopathy after treatment with rituximab and dexamethasone: a case report].

Vnitr Lek Spring 2018;64(3):290-299

A disease associated with immunoglobulin IgG4 is a rare unit with very variable symptoms. We describe the course and treatment of the disease in a patient who presented with multiple lymphadenopathy and infiltrates in the area of the retroperitoneum and pelvis and signs of chronic sclerosing pancreatitis. The disease was clinically manifested by a significant loss of weight, but also by a loss of perception of taste and smell. The diagnosis was made based on a high amount of IgG4 expressing plasma cells in the sampled tissue and an increased concentration of immunoglobulins of type IgG and mainly subclass IG4. Rituximab in 475 mg/m2 dose was used in the treatment, the initial four doses of rituximab were administered at 14-day intervals, always with a one-off administration of a 40 mg dose of dexamethasone. According to FDG-PET/CT, only partial remission of the disease was reached after 4 applications of rituximab and dexamethasone. The patient recovered its sense of smell and taste. In another 4 cycles ritu-ximab was administered on day 1 of a 28-day cycle. On days 1 and 15 of the cycle dexamethasone at 40 mg and cyclophosphamide at 600 mg were administered by intravenous infusion. After the completion of 8 cycles of treatment based on rituximab and dexamethasone and with cyclophosphamide added in the second half of the treatment, the control FDG-PET/CT examination proved the complete remission. Before the treatment commencement the concentration of the subclass of immunoglobulin IgG4 was equal to 51.0 g/l, after the completion of the aforementioned treatment it dropped to 3.5 g/l. The patient tolerated the treatment without any adverse effects. Ritu-ximab, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide induced the complete remission of this disease.Key words: IgG4-associated/releated disease - rituximab.
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May 2019

[Prediction of EGFR blockade responses in metastatic colorectal carcinoma].

Cesk Patol Spring 2018;54(1):17-21

The combination of modern systemic chemotherapy and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies improves overall survival and the quality of life for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. By contrast, the addition of anti-EGFR therapy to the treatment regime of resistant patients may lead to worse progression-free and overall survival. Therofore, identifying sensitive and resistant patients is key during initial decision-making. A number of clinical trials show that primary resistance to EGFR blockade is in most cases caused by constitutive activation of signalling pathways downstream of EGFR. Of the many biomarkers studied, only the KRAS and NRAS mutation status has reached clinical relevance in routine practice. The other markers (BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, PTEN and TP53 inactivation, EGFR and HER-2 amplification, epiregulin and amphiregulin overexpression, microRNA miR-31-3p and miR-31-5p etc.) still need to be validated. The accuracy of predictive diagnostic tools could also be increased by a combination of predictive markers on the next generation sequencing platform.
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April 2019

Plasticity and intratumoural heterogeneity of cell surface antigen expression in breast cancer.

Br J Cancer 2018 03 20;118(6):813-819. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, Brno 612 65, Czech Republic.

Background:The intratumoural heterogeneity, often driven by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), significantly contributes to chemoresistance and disease progression in adenocarcinomas. Methods:We introduced a high-throughput screening platform to identify surface antigens that associate with epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity in well-defined pairs of epithelial cell lines and their mesenchymal counterparts. Using multicolour flow cytometry, we then analysed the expression of 10 most robustly changed antigens and identified a 10-molecule surface signature, in pan-cytokeratin-positive/EpCAM-positive and -negative fractions of dissociated breast tumours. Results:We found that surface CD9, CD29, CD49c, and integrin ß5 are lost in breast cancer cells that underwent EMT in vivo. The tetraspanin family member CD9 was concordantly downregulated both in vitro and in vivo and associated with epithelial phenotype and favourable prognosis. Conclusions:We propose that overall landscape of 10-molecule surface signature expression reflects the epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886127PMC
March 2018

Adjustment of serum HE4 to reduced glomerular filtration and its use in biomarker-based prediction of deep myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer.

Oncotarget 2017 Dec 21;8(64):108213-108222. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Regional Centre of Applied Molecular Oncology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: We investigated the efficacy of circulating biomarkers together with histological grade and age to predict deep myometrial invasion (dMI) in endometrial cancer patients.

Methods: HE4ren was developed adjusting HE4 serum levels towards decreased glomerular filtration rate as quantified by the eGFR-EPI formula. Preoperative HE4, HE4ren, CA125, age, and grade were evaluated in the context of perioperative depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer (EC) patients. Continuous and categorized models were developed by binary logistic regression for any-grade and for G1-or-G2 patients based on single-institution data from 120 EC patients and validated against multicentric data from 379 EC patients.

Results: In non-cancer individuals, serum HE4 levels increase log-linearly with reduced glomerular filtration of eGFR ≤ 90 ml/min/1.73 m. HE4ren, adjusting HE4 serum levels to decreased eGFR, was calculated as follows: HE4ren = exp[ln(HE4) + 2.182 × (eGFR-90) × 10]. Serum HE4 but not HE4ren is correlated with age. Model with continuous HE4ren, age, and grade predicted dMI in G1-or-G2 EC patients with AUC = 0.833 and AUC = 0.715, respectively, in two validation sets. In a simplified categorical model for G1-or-G2 patients, risk factors were determined as grade 2, HE4ren ≥ 45 pmol/l, CA125 ≥ 35 U/ml, and age ≥ 60. Cumulation of weighted risk factors enabled classification of EC patients to low-risk or high-risk for dMI.

Conclusions: We have introduced the HE4ren formula, adjusting serum HE4 levels to reduced eGFR that enables quantification of time-dependent changes in HE4 production and elimination irrespective of age and renal function in women. Utilizing HE4ren improves performance of biomarker-based models for prediction of dMI in endometrial cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.22599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746137PMC
December 2017

Panitumumab use in metastatic colorectal cancer and patterns of RAS testing: results from a Europe-wide physician survey and medical records review.

BMC Cancer 2017 Nov 28;17(1):798. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: In Europe, treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with panitumumab requires prior confirmation of RAS wild-type mutation status. Two studies - a physician survey and a medical records review (MRR) - were conducted to evaluate the use of panitumumab and awareness among prescribing oncologists of the associated RAS testing requirements in clinical practice.

Methods: Both studies enrolled participants from nine European countries and were carried out in three consecutive rounds. Rounds 1 and 2 (2012-2013) examined KRAS (exon 2) testing only; the results have been published in full previously. Round 3 (2014-2015) examined full RAS testing (exons 2, 3, 4 of KRAS and NRAS) and was initiated following a change in prescribing guidelines, from requiring KRAS alone to requiring full RAS testing. For the physician survey, telephone interviews were conducted with oncologists who had prescribed panitumumab to patients with mCRC in the previous 6 months. For the MRR, oncologists were asked to provide anonymised clinical information, extracted from their patients' records.

Results: In Round 3, 152 oncologists and 131 patients' records were included in the physician survey and MRR, respectively. In Round 3 of the physician survey, 95.4% (n = 145) of participants correctly identified that panitumumab should only be prescribed in RAS wild-type mCRC compared with 99.0% (n = 298) of 301 participants in Rounds 1 and 2, responding to the same question about KRAS testing. In Round 3 of the MRR, 100% (n = 131) of patients included in the study had confirmed KRAS or RAS wild-type status prior to initiation of panitumumab compared with 97.7% (n = 299) of 306 patients in Rounds 1 and 2 (KRAS only). Of those patients in Round 3, 83.2% (n = 109) had been tested for RAS status and 16.8% (n = 22) had been tested for KRAS status only.

Conclusions: Physicians' adherence to prescribing guidelines has remained high over time in Europe, despite the change in indication for panitumumab treatment, from KRAS to RAS wild-type mCRC. Additionally, this study demonstrates the uptake of full RAS testing among the majority of oncologists and pathologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3740-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706421PMC
November 2017

RAS mutation prevalence among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of real-world data.

Biomark Med 2017 09 27;11(9):751-760. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany.

Aim: A confirmed wild-type RAS tumor status is commonly required for prescribing anti-EGFR treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. This noninterventional, observational research project estimated RAS mutation prevalence from real-world sources.

Materials & Methods: Aggregate RAS mutation data were collected from 12 sources in three regions. Each source was analyzed separately; pooled prevalence estimates were then derived from meta-analyses.

Results: The pooled RAS mutation prevalence from 4431 tumor samples tested for RAS mutation status was estimated to be 43.6% (95% CI: 38.8-48.5%); ranging from 33.7% (95% CI: 28.4-39.3%) to 54.1% (95% CI: 51.7-56.5%) between sources.

Conclusion: The RAS mutation prevalence estimates varied among sources. The reasons for this are not clear and highlight the need for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2016-0358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367778PMC
September 2017

[Breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers].

Cesk Patol Fall 2016;52(4):206-209

Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes represent the most important cause of hereditary breast cancer. This highly penetrating familial cancer syndrome, including also the onset of ovarian cancer and other malignancies at relatively low age, represents a substantial medical problem. The affected families should be managed actively. When compared to spontaneous tumors, the breast carcinomas in BRCA1 mutation carriers exhibit a relatively different, despite non-specific, phenotype (often triple negative, medullary features) arousing suspicion of hereditary background. In the contrary, the distribution of phenotypes of breast carcinomas in BRCA2 carriers is similar to distribution in the non-affected population. The lymphocytic lobulitis is observed significantly more often in non-cancerous breast tissue of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, but again, this feature is not specific.
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April 2018

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated microRNA/mRNA signature is linked to metastasis and prognosis in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2016 08 23;6:31852. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are genetically heterogeneous tumors presenting diverse clinical courses. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process involved in initiation of metastatic cascade. The aim of our study was to identify an integrated miRNA/mRNA signature associated with metastasis and prognosis in ccRCC through targeted approach based on analysis of miRNAs/mRNAs associated with EMT. A cohort of 230 ccRCC was included in our study and further divided into discovery, training and validation cohorts. EMT markers were evaluated in ccRCC tumor samples, which were grouped accordingly to EMT status. By use of large-scale miRNA/mRNA expression profiling, we identified miRNA/mRNA with significantly different expression in EMT-positive tumors and selected 41 miRNAs/mRNAs for training phase of the study to evaluate their diagnostic and prognostic potential. Fifteen miRNAs/mRNAs were analyzed in the validation phase, where all evaluated miRNA/mRNA candidates were confirmed to be significantly deregulated in tumor tissue. Some of them significantly differed in metastatic tumors, correlated with clinical stage, with Fuhrman grade and with overall survival. Further, we established an EMT-based stage-independent prognostic scoring system enabling identification of ccRCC patients at high-risk of cancer-related death. Finally, we confirmed involvement of miR-429 in EMT regulation in RCC cells in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep31852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994011PMC
August 2016

Serum-based microRNA signatures in early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of colon cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2016 10 1;37(10):941-950. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Centre for Molecular Medicine, Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Early detection of colorectal cancer is the main prerequisite for successful treatment and reduction of mortality. Circulating microRNAs were previously identified as promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to identify serum microRNAs enabling early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of colon cancer. In total, serum samples from 427 colon cancer patients and 276 healthy donors were included in three-phase biomarker study. Large-scale microRNA expression profiling was performed using Illumina small RNA sequencing. Diagnostic and prognostic potential of identified microRNAs was validated on independent training and validation sets of samples using RT-qPCR. Fifty-four microRNAs were found to be significantly deregulated in serum of colon cancer patients compared to healthy donors (P < 0.01). A diagnostic four-microRNA signature consisting of miR-23a-3p, miR-27a-3p, miR-142-5p and miR-376c-3p was established (AUC = 0.917), distinguishing colon cancer patients from healthy donors with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 81% (AUC = 0.922). This panel of microRNAs exhibited high diagnostic performance also when analyzed separately in colon cancer patients in early stages of the disease (T1-4N0M0; AUC = 0.877). Further, a prognostic panel based on the expression of miR-23a-3p and miR-376c-3p independent of TNM stage was established (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.44-3.66; P < 0.0004). In summary, highly sensitive signatures of circulating microRNAs enabling non-invasive early detection and prognosis prediction of colon cancer were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgw078DOI Listing
October 2016

Decreased expression levels of PIWIL1, PIWIL2, and PIWIL4 are associated with worse survival in renal cell carcinoma patients.

Onco Targets Ther 2016 8;9:217-22. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Department of Urologic Oncology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Urology, University Hospital Brno, Masaryk University Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a newly discovered class of small non-coding RNAs involved in silencing of transposable elements and in sequence-specific chromatin modifications. PIWI proteins (PIWIL), which belong to the family of Argonaute genes/proteins, bind to piRNAs and function mainly in germ line cells, but more recently were described to be functional also in stem cells and cancer cells. To date, there have been four PIWI proteins discovered in humans: PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3, and PIWIL4. Recent studies suggested that deregulated expression of PIWI proteins and selected piRNAs is common to many types of cancers. We found significantly lower expression of PIWIL1 (P<0.0001) and piR-823 (P=0.0001) in tumor tissue in comparison to paired renal parenchyma. Further, we observed a progressive decrease in PIWIL1 (P=0.0228), PIWIL2 (P=0.0015), and PIWIL4 (P=0.0028) expression levels together with increasing clinical stage. PIWIL2 (P=0.0073) and PIWIL4 (P=0.0001) expression also progressively decreased with increasing Fuhrman grade. Most importantly, low-expression levels of PIWIL1 (P=0.009), PIWIL2 (P<0.0001), and PIWIL4 (P=0.0065) were significantly associated with worse overall survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Our results suggest the involvement of PIWIL genes and piR-823 in RCC pathogenesis, and indicate PIWIL1, PIWIL2, and PIWIL4 as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S91295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712976PMC
January 2016

Panitumumab Use in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and Patterns of KRAS Testing: Results from a Europe-Wide Physician Survey and Medical Records Review.

PLoS One 2015 22;10(10):e0140717. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Background: From 2008-2013, the European indication for panitumumab required that patients' tumor KRAS exon 2 mutation status was known prior to starting treatment. To evaluate physician awareness of panitumumab prescribing information and how physicians prescribe panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), two European multi-country, cross-sectional, observational studies were initiated in 2012: a physician survey and a medical records review. The first two out of three planned rounds for each study are reported.

Methods: The primary objective in the physician survey was to estimate the prevalence of KRAS testing, and in the medical records review, it was to evaluate the effect of test results on patterns of panitumumab use. The medical records review study also included a pathologists' survey.

Results: In the physician survey, nearly all oncologists (299/301) were aware of the correct panitumumab indication and the need to test patients' tumor KRAS status before treatment with panitumumab. Nearly all oncologists (283/301) had in the past 6 months of clinical practice administered panitumumab correctly to mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS status. In the medical records review, 97.5% of participating oncologists (77/79) conducted a KRAS test for all of their patients prior to prescribing panitumumab. Four patients (1.3%) did not have tumor KRAS mutation status tested prior to starting panitumumab treatment. Approximately one-quarter of patients (85/306) were treated with panitumumab and concurrent oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy; of these, 83/85 had confirmed wild-type KRAS status prior to starting panitumumab treatment. All 56 referred laboratories that participated used a Conformité Européenne-marked or otherwise validated KRAS detection method, and nearly all (55/56) participated in a quality assurance scheme.

Conclusions: There was a high level of knowledge amongst oncologists around panitumumab prescribing information and the need to test and confirm patients' tumors as being wild-type KRAS prior to treatment with panitumumab, with or without concurrent oxaliplatin-containing therapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0140717PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619650PMC
June 2016

Anterior gradient protein 3 is associated with less aggressive tumors and better outcome of breast cancer patients.

Onco Targets Ther 2015 24;8:1523-32. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology (RECAMO), Brno, Czech Republic.

Anterior gradient protein (AGR) 3 is a highly related homologue of pro-oncogenic AGR2 and belongs to the family of protein disulfide isomerases. Although AGR3 was found in breast, ovary, prostate, and liver cancer, it remains of yet poorly defined function in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to determine AGR3 expression in a cohort of 129 primary breast carcinomas and evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of AGR3 in these tumors. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of AGR3 staining to varying degrees in 80% of analyzed specimens. The percentage of AGR3-positive cells significantly correlated with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (both P<0.0001) as well as low histological grade (P=0.003), and inversely correlated with the level of Ki-67 expression (P<0.0001). In the whole cohort, AGR3 expression was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS), whereas AGR3-positive subgroup of low-histological grade tumors showed both significantly longer PFS and overall survival. In conclusion, AGR3 is associated with the level of differentiation, slowly proliferating tumors, and more favorable prognosis of breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S82235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485854PMC
July 2015

[Not Available].

Authors:
Pavel Fabian

Cesk Patol 2014 Jul;50(3):110

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July 2014

A simple model to assess the probability of invasion in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast diagnosed by needle biopsy.

Biomed Res Int 2014 8;2014:480840. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to develop a clinical prediction model for assessing the probability of having invasive cancer in the definitive surgical resection specimen in patients with biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, to facilitate decision making regarding axillary surgery.

Methods: In 349 women with DCIS, predictors of invasion in the definitive resection specimen were identified. A model to predict the probability of invasion was developed and subsequently simplified to divide patients into two risk categories. The model's performance was validated on another patient population.

Results: Multivariate logistic regression revealed four independent predictors of invasion: (i) suspicious (micro)invasion in the biopsy specimen; (ii) visibility of the lesion on ultrasonography; (iii) size of the lesion on mammography>30 mm; (iv) clinical palpability of the lesion. The actual frequency of invasion in the high-risk patient group in the test and validation population was 52.6% and 48.3%, respectively; in the low-risk group it was 16.8% and 7.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: The model proved to have good performance. In patients with a low probability of invasion, an axillary procedure can be omitted without a substantial risk of additional surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/480840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119639PMC
April 2015

Differential expression of anterior gradient protein 3 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Jun 18;96(3):375-81. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 65653 Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer next to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the significant difference of the therapeutic strategy for both diseases, their histological appearance may be very similar. Thus the correct diagnosis is crucial for treatment choice but is often difficult to achieve. The aim of our study was to evaluate anterior gradient 3 (AGR3) as a new diagnostic marker helping to distinguish between ICC and HCC. AGR3 is a putative transmembrane protein implicated in breast, prostate and ovary tumorigenesis and belongs to the family of protein disulfide isomerases. Since there is little information on how AGR3 is expressed in normal and diseased tissues and what its exact function is, we analyzed its expression pattern in normal liver and tumor tissue of ICC and HCC. The immunohistochemical analysis in normal tissue revealed specific AGR3 expression in intrahepatic bile duct cholangiocytes which was not present in liver hepatocytes. Consequently we analyzed AGR3 expression in 74 representative samples of puncture biopsies, tissue excisions and resection specimens from which 48 samples were diagnosed as HCC and 26 as ICC. Our results showed AGR3 expression negative and weakly positive respectively in hepatocellular carcinomas compared to stronger AGR3 positivity in cholangiocellular carcinomas. AGR3 expression statistically significantly correlated to acid mucopolysaccharide expression and negatively correlated to glypican-3 expression. We conclude that according to receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis AGR3 expression is relatively specific for ICC and is potentially linked to mucosecretion, which may indicate potential implication in treatment resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2014.04.002DOI Listing
June 2014

AGR2 predicts tamoxifen resistance in postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

Dis Markers 2013 3;35(4):207-12. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic.

Endocrine resistance is a significant problem in breast cancer treatment. Thus identification and validation of novel resistance determinants is important to improve treatment efficacy and patient outcome. In our work, AGR2 expression was determined by qRT-PCR in Tru-Cut needle biopsies from tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Our results showed inversed association of AGR2 mRNA levels with primary treatment response (P = 0.0011) and progression-free survival (P = 0.0366) in 61 ER-positive breast carcinomas. As shown by our experimental and clinical evaluations, elevated AGR2 expression predicts decreased efficacy of tamoxifen treatment. From this perspective, AGR2 is a potential predictive biomarker enabling selection of an optimal algorithm for adjuvant hormonal therapy in postmenopausal ER-positive breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/761537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776368PMC
June 2014