Publications by authors named "P Peduzzi"

186 Publications

Effect of the STRIDE fall injury prevention intervention on falls, fall injuries, and health-related quality of life.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 Aug 6. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Yale Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Falls are common in older adults and can lead to severe injuries. The Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders (STRIDE) trial cluster-randomized 86 primary care practices across 10 health systems to a multifactorial intervention to prevent fall injuries, delivered by registered nurses trained as falls care managers, or enhanced usual care. STRIDE enrolled 5451 community-dwelling older adults age ≥70 at increased fall injury risk.

Methods: We assessed fall-related outcomes via telephone interviews of participants (or proxies) every 4 months. At baseline, 12 and 24 months, we assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS. We used Poisson models to assess intervention effects on falls, fall-related fractures, fall injuries leading to hospital admission, and fall injuries leading to medical attention. We used hierarchical longitudinal linear models to assess HRQOL.

Results: For recurrent event models, intervention versus control incidence rate ratios were 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.00; p = 0.048) for falls, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.80-1.08; p = 0.337) for self-reported fractures, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.73-1.07; p = 0.205) for adjudicated fractures, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.07; p = 0.263) for falls leading to hospital admission, and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89-1.06; p = 0.477) for falls leading to medical attention. Similar effect sizes (non-significant) were obtained for dichotomous outcomes (e.g., participants with ≥1 events). The difference in least square mean change over time in EQ-5D-5L (intervention minus control) was 0.009 (95% CI, -0.002 to 0.019; p = 0.106) at 12 months and 0.005 (95% CI, -0.006 to 0.015; p = 0.384) at 24 months.

Conclusions: Across a standard set of outcomes typically reported in fall prevention studies, we observed modest improvements, one of which was statistically significant. Future work should focus on patient-, practice-, and organization-level operational strategies to increase the real-world effectiveness of interventions, and improving the ability to detect small but potentially meaningful clinical effects.

Clinicaltrials: gov identifier: NCT02475850.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17964DOI Listing
August 2022

Engagement of older adults in STRIDE's multifactorial fall injury prevention intervention.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Evidence-based multifactorial fall prevention interventions in clinical practice have been less effective than expected. One plausible reason is that older adults' engagement in fall prevention care is suboptimal.

Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of 2403 older adults' engagement in a multifactorial fall prevention intervention in the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders (STRIDE) pragmatic trial. Based on the direct clinical care level of the Patient and Family Continuum of Engagement (CE) framework, three indicators of progressively interactive engagement were assessed: (1) Consultation (receiving information), (2) Involvement (prioritizing risks), and (3) Partnership (identifying prevention actions). Drop off at each step was determined as well as predictors of engagement.

Results: The participants' engagement waned with increasingly interactive CE domains. Although all participants received information about their positive fall risk factors (consultation) and most (51%-96%) prioritized them (involvement), fewer participants (33%-55%) identified fall prevention actions (partnership) for most of their risk factors, except for strength gait or balance problems (95%). More participants (70%) identified home exercises than other actions. Finally, fall prevention actions were identified more commonly among participants who received two visits compared to one (OR = 2.33 [95% CI, 2.06-2.64]), were ≥80 years old (OR = 1.83 [95% CI, 1.51-2.23]), and had fewer fall risk factors (OR = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.99]).

Conclusions: The drop-off in participants' engagement based on the level of their interaction with clinicians suggests that future multifactorial fall prevention interventions need to be more focused on interactive patient-clinician partnerships that help older adults increase and maintain fall prevention actions. Our analyses suggest that more frequent contact with clinicians and more monitoring of the implementation and outcomes of Fall Prevention Care Plans could potentially improve engagement and help older adults maintain fall prevention actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17983DOI Listing
August 2022

A comparison of analytical strategies for cluster randomized trials with survival outcomes in the presence of competing risks.

Stat Methods Med Res 2022 Jul 15;31(7):1224-1241. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

310058Department of Biostatistics, 50296Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

While statistical methods for analyzing cluster randomized trials with continuous and binary outcomes have been extensively studied and compared, little comparative evidence has been provided for analyzing cluster randomized trials with survival outcomes in the presence of competing risks. Motivated by the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders trial, we carried out a simulation study to compare the operating characteristics of several existing population-averaged survival models, including the marginal Cox, marginal Fine and Gray, and marginal multi-state models. For each model, we found that adjusting for the intraclass correlations through the sandwich variance estimator effectively maintained the type I error rate when the number of clusters is large. With no more than 30 clusters, however, the sandwich variance estimator can exhibit notable negative bias, and a permutation test provides better control of type I error inflation. Under the alternative, the power for each model is differentially affected by two types of intraclass correlations-the within-individual and between-individual correlations. Furthermore, the marginal Fine and Gray model occasionally leads to higher power than the marginal Cox model or the marginal multi-state model, especially when the competing event rate is high. Finally, we provide an illustrative analysis of Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders trial using each analytical strategy considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09622802221085080DOI Listing
July 2022

A comparison of analytical strategies for cluster randomized trials with survival outcomes in the presence of competing risks.

Stat Methods Med Res 2022 Jul 15;31(7):1224-1241. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

310058Department of Biostatistics, 50296Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

While statistical methods for analyzing cluster randomized trials with continuous and binary outcomes have been extensively studied and compared, little comparative evidence has been provided for analyzing cluster randomized trials with survival outcomes in the presence of competing risks. Motivated by the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders trial, we carried out a simulation study to compare the operating characteristics of several existing population-averaged survival models, including the marginal Cox, marginal Fine and Gray, and marginal multi-state models. For each model, we found that adjusting for the intraclass correlations through the sandwich variance estimator effectively maintained the type I error rate when the number of clusters is large. With no more than 30 clusters, however, the sandwich variance estimator can exhibit notable negative bias, and a permutation test provides better control of type I error inflation. Under the alternative, the power for each model is differentially affected by two types of intraclass correlations-the within-individual and between-individual correlations. Furthermore, the marginal Fine and Gray model occasionally leads to higher power than the marginal Cox model or the marginal multi-state model, especially when the competing event rate is high. Finally, we provide an illustrative analysis of Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders trial using each analytical strategy considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09622802221085080DOI Listing
July 2022

Optimizing the Impact of Pragmatic Clinical Trials for Veteran and Military Populations: Lessons From the Pain Management Collaboratory.

Mil Med 2022 07;187(7-8):179-185

Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.

Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) are well-suited to address unmet healthcare needs, such as those arising from the dual public health crises of chronic pain and opioid misuse, recently exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. These overlapping epidemics have complex, multifactorial etiologies, and PCTs can be used to investigate the effectiveness of integrated therapies that are currently available but underused. Yet individual pragmatic studies can be limited in their reach because of existing structural and cultural barriers to dissemination and implementation. The National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Department of Veterans Affairs formed an interagency research partnership, the Pain Management Collaboratory. The partnership combines pragmatic trial design with collaborative tools and relationship building within a large network to advance the science and impact of nonpharmacological approaches and integrated models of care for the management of pain and common co-occurring conditions. The Pain Management Collaboratory team supports 11 large-scale, multisite PCTs in veteran and military health systems with a focus on team science with the shared aim that the "whole is greater than the sum of the parts." Herein, we describe this integrated approach and lessons learned, including incentivizing all parties; proactively offering frequent opportunities for problem-solving; engaging stakeholders during all stages of research; and navigating competing research priorities. We also articulate several specific strategies and their practical implications for advancing pain management in active clinical, "real-world," settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab458DOI Listing
July 2022
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