Publications by authors named "P I Ngom"

89 Publications

Absence of association between polymorphisms in the pfcoronin and pfk13 genes and the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites after treatment with artemisinin derivatives in Senegal.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 Dec 9;56(6):106190. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Unité Parasitologie et entomologie, Département Microbiologie et maladies infectieuses, Institut de recherche biomédicale des armées, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, IRD, SSA, AP-HM, VITROME, Marseille, France; IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France; Centre national de reference du paludisme, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Due to resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria switched to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 in Senegal. Several mutations in the gene encoding the kelch13 helix (pfk13-propeller) have been identified as associated with in vitro and in vivo artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. Additionally, three mutations in the pfcoronin gene (G50E, R100K and E107V) have been identified in two culture-adapted Senegalese field isolates that became resistant in vitro to artemisinin after 4 years of intermittent selection with dihydroartemisinin. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of pfcoronin and pfk13 mutations in Senegalese field isolates from Dakar and to investigate their association with artemisinin derivative clinical failures. A total of 348 samples of P. falciparum from 327 patients, collected from 2015-2019 in Dakar, were successfully analysed. All sequences had wild-type pfk13 allele. The three mutations (G50E, R100K and E107V), previously identified in parasites with reduced susceptibility to artemisinin, were not found in this study, but a new mutation (P76S) was detected (mean prevalence 16.2%). The P76S mutation was identified in 5 (31.3%) of 16 isolates collected from patients still parasitaemic on Day 3 after ACT treatment and in 31 samples (15.3%) among 203 patients considered successfully cured. There was no significant association between in vivo reduced efficacy to artemisinin derivatives and the P76S mutation (P = 0.151, Fisher's exact test). These data suggest that polymorphisms in pfk13 and pfcoronin are not the best predictive markers for artemisinin resistance in Senegal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106190DOI Listing
December 2020

[Long-term stability and relapse of deep bite correction: a systematic review].

Orthod Fr 2019 Jun 26;90(2):169-187. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Service d'orthodontie, Département d'odontologie, Faculté de médecine, de pharmacie et d'odontologie, Université Cheikh Anta DIOP Dakar, Sénégal.

Introduction:  Deep overbite is one of the most common malocclusions and is the most difficult to treat successfully. The real challenge remains the stability of long-term deep overbite correction. A search through the scientific literature revealed only one systematic review on this subject. Given the recent publications on the stability of deep bite correction and the development of new processes designed to avoid relapse of these treatments, this one existing systematic review needs to be updated. The purpose of the present systematic review is to evaluate the long-term stability of deep overbite correction.

Materials And Methods:  Electronic databases were searched and nonelectronic journals were manually explored for papers on long-term stability and relapse of deep overbite correction. Articles deemed appropriate for inclusion in this review were selected and analyzed. Their scientific quality was assessed and the data they contained were extracted and summarized.

Results:  The rate of deep overbite relapse was 47.27%. Patients treated with the straight wire appliance showed a 67.74% relapse rate whereas those treated with the Ricketts biological progressive segmented mechanics appliance displayed a 30.38% rate. Subjects treated towards the end of adolescence presented a 14.3% rate of deep overbite relapse whereas those treated in their early teens or in adulthood had a deep overbite relapse rate of 30% and 30.8%, respectively. Intramuscular injections of botox helped obtain 100% stability in maxillofacial surgery to correct deep bite.

Conclusion:  Age at initiation of treatment and treatment technique are two factors impacting the long-term stability of deep overbite correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/orthodfr/2019016DOI Listing
June 2019

Orthopantomographic analysis of the intraosseus position of the maxillary canines.

Int Orthod 2019 06 12;17(2):324-332. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, faculté de médecine de pharmacie et d'odontologie, département d'odontologie, service d'orthodontie, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Dakar, Senegal.

The aim of this work was to analyse the intraosseous position of the maxillary canine in orthodontic patients. It was an exploratory pilot study prior to the next research work to develop a predictive model based on a regression analysis initially including a large number of variables. 105 subjects from 6 to 12 years from both genders were included in this study. Four variables were used. The study showed that there was no marked gender dimorphism concerning the intrabony position of the canine; the latter is quite similar on both sides, and the older the age, the smaller the angulation of the canine. The values obtained for the angulation of the canine, its depth of impaction, its position in relation to the lateral incisor and the premolars, correspond to an average impaction severity and treatment difficulties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ortho.2019.03.015DOI Listing
June 2019

Comparison of dental arch measurements according to the grade and the obstructive character of adenoids.

Int Orthod 2019 06 12;17(2):333-341. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Université Cheikh Anta DIOP Dakar, Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d'Odontologie, Service d'Orthodontie, Département d'Odontologie, Senegal.

Introduction: Obstructive adenoid hypertrophy is cited as one of the causes of mouth breathing and leads to disharmony in the development of orofacial structures. The objective of this study was to compare the measurements of dental arches according to the grade and the obstructive character of adenoids.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 86 children. The grade and the obstructive character of adenoids were determined from Holmberg and Cohen's radiographic methods respectively. Dental arch measurements were taken on dental casts. A t-test and a Chi test were performed respectively to compare the quantitative and qualitative variables of dental arches according to the obstructive character. An Anova test made it possible to compare the quantitative variables according to the grade as Holmberg defined it. For variables that showed significant differences, a Post Hoc test was used. The significance level was set at P=0.05.

Results: Subjects with obstructive adenoids had a shorter posterior mandibular length (P=0.04) and a greater overbite (P=0.04) than those with non-obstructive adenoids. Those with grade 4 had a greater arch depth (P=0.02) and were more prone to open bite(P=0.03).

Conclusion: A prevention program involving the otorhinolaryngologist and the orthodontist for subjects with obstructive adenoids or grade 4 is necessary to minimize their influence on dental arch relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ortho.2019.03.016DOI Listing
June 2019

Impact of recent artisanal small-scale gold mining in Senegal: Mercury and methylmercury contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 9;669:185-193. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, rue des Maraîchers 13, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

In Senegal, the environmental impact of artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) is poorly documented despite its intensification over the past two decades. We report here a complete dataset including the distribution and speciation of Hg in soil, sediment, and water in pristine and ASGM impacted sites of the Gambia River ecosystem (Kedougou region - eastern Senegal). Selective extraction showed that soils surrounding ASGM activities were contaminated with elemental Hg [Hg(0)] at concentrations up to 3.9 mg kg. In the Gambia River, high total Hg (THg: 1.16 ± 0.80 mg kg) and methylmercury (MeHg: 3.2 ± 2.3 ng g) were also measured in sediment samples collected at ASGM sites. Along the stream, THg concentrations in sediment decrease with distance from the ASGM sites, while those of methylmercury increase downstream. The study of THg and MeHg partitioning between filtered surface water and suspended particles demonstrate that particulate transport is responsible for the downstream dissemination of the Hg contamination from ASGM sites. Sedimentation of fine particles enriched in Hg downstream ASGM sites likely favors MeHg production and accumulation in sediment. Although elemental Hg is weakly labile, surface soil erosion may also provide important and long-term Hg inputs to downstream aquatic ecosystems, where it can be oxidized and methylated. Finally, the dissemination of THg and MeHg downstream from the ASGM sites in the Gambia River may constitute a long-term source of contamination and can have a large scale impact on the aquatic ecosystem through biomagnification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.108DOI Listing
June 2019