Publications by authors named "Ovdi Dagan"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Blood Cultures Drawn From Arterial Catheters Are Reliable for the Detection of Bloodstream Infection in Critically Ill Children.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 05;19(5):e213-e218

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: Arterial catheters may serve as an additional source for blood cultures in children when peripheral venipuncture is challenging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of cultures obtained through indwelling arterial catheters for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections in critically ill pediatric patients.

Design: Observational and comparative.

Setting: General and cardiac ICUs of a tertiary, university-affiliated pediatric medical center.

Patients: The study group consisted of 138 patients admitted to the general or cardiac PICU in 2014-2015 who met the following criteria: presence of an indwelling arterial catheter and indication for blood culture.

Interventions: Blood was drawn by peripheral venipuncture and through the arterial catheter for each patient and sent for culture (total 276 culture pairs).

Measurements And Main Results: Two specialists blinded to the blood source evaluated each positive culture to determine if the result represented true bloodstream infection or contamination. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the arterial catheter and peripheral cultures for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection were calculated. Of the 56 positive cultures, 41 (15% of total samples) were considered diagnostic of true bloodstream infection. In the other 15 (5%), the results were attributed to contamination. The rate of false-positive results was higher for arterial catheter than for peripheral venipuncture cultures (4% vs 1.5%) but did not lead to prolonged unnecessary antibiotic treatment. On statistical analysis, arterial catheter blood cultures had high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (95%) for the diagnosis of true bloodstream infection, with comparable performance to peripheral blood cultures.

Conclusion: Cultures of arterial catheter-drawn blood are reliable for the detection of bloodstream infection in PICUs.
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May 2018

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Resuscitation Measure in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Isr Med Assoc J 2015 Oct;17(10):639-41

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may serve as a bridge to regain cardiac function in refractory resuscitation. However, its use has so far been limited owing to low availability, especially in emergency departments.

Objectives: To describe two children with acute myocarditis successfully treated with ECMO in the emergency department of a tertiary pediatric medical center.

Description: The children presented with vomiting, followed by rapid deterioration to cardiogenic shock that failed to respond to conservative treatment. Given the urgency of their condition and its presumably reversible (viral) etiology, treatment with ECMO was initiated in the department's resuscitation room.

Results: Outcome was excellent, and cardiac function remained normal throughout 6 and 10 months follow-up.

Conclusions: Extracorporeal life support has enormous potential in the emergency department and warrants further assessment.
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October 2015

Predictive value of B-type natriuretic peptide level on the postoperative course of infants with congenital heart disease.

Isr Med Assoc J 2013 May;15(5):216-20

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Less is known about its prognostic value in infants.

Objectives: To investigate the predictive value of BNP levels regarding the severity of the postoperative course in infants undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart disease.

Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study. Plasma BNP levels in infants aged 1-12 months with congenital heart disease undergoing complete repair were measured preoperatively and 8, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Demographic and clinical data included postoperative inotropic support and lactate level, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization stay.

Results: Cardiac surgery was performed in 19 infants aged 1-12 months. Preoperative BNP level above 170 pg/ml had a positive predictive value of 100% for inotropic score > or = 7.5 at 24 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 57%) and 48 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 100%), and was associated with longer ICU stay (P = 0.05) and a trend for longer mechanical ventilation (P = 0.12). Similar findings were found for 8 hours postoperative BNP above 1720 pg/ml. BNP level did not correlate with measured fractional shortening.

Conclusions: In infants undergoing heart surgery, preoperative and 8 hour BNP levels were predictive of inotropic support and longer ICU stay. These findings may have implications for preplanning ICU loads in clinical practice. Further studies with larger samples are needed.
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May 2013

Adrenal insufficiency in children undergoing heart surgery does not correlate with more complex postoperative course.

Pediatr Cardiol 2013 23;34(8):1860-7. Epub 2013 Jun 23.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, 49202, Petach Tikva, Israel,

Although some evidence suggests benefit of steroid supplementation after pediatric cardiac surgery, data correlating adrenal function with the postoperative course is scarce. This study sought to determine if adrenal insufficiency (AI) after cardiac surgery is associated with a more complicated postoperative course in children. A prospective study was performed during a 6-month period at a pediatric medical center. Included were 119 children, 3 months and older, who underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Cortisol levels were measured before and 18 h after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups by procedure complexity (low or high), and clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with and without AI within each complexity group. In the low-complexity group, 45 of the 65 patients had AI. The normal adrenal function (NAF) subgroup had greater inotropic support at 12, 24, and 36 h after surgery and a higher lactate level at 12 and 24 h after surgery. There were no significant differences between subgroups in duration of ventilation, sedation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or urine output. In the high-complexity group, 27 patients had AI, and 27 did not. There were no significant differences between subgroups in inotropic support or urine output during the first 36 h or in mechanical ventilation, sedation, or ICU stay duration. Children with AI after heart surgery do not have a more complex postoperative course than children with NAF. The adrenal response of individual patients seems to be appropriate for their cardiovascular status.
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July 2014

Long-term follow-up evaluation of renal function in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis after cardiac surgery for correction of congenital anomalies.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Jan 30;147(1):451-5. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Available data on the long-term renal outcome of patients who required renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery for correction of congenital cardiac anomalies are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term renal prognosis of children treated with peritoneal dialysis after surgical correction of congenital heart anomalies.

Methods: The present single-center cohort study was based on clinical data from patients who underwent surgery for the correction of congenital heart disease between 1996 and 2004 at the Schneider's Children's Medical Center of Israel, and developed acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring peritoneal dialysis. Perioperative risk factors were analyzed. Survivors were followed up for 3.5 to 10.5 years after their surgery. Renal function was assessed in survivors by physical examination, including blood pressure, growth evaluation, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate estimated from plasma creatinine using the Schwartz formula, and ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys.

Results: There were 2994 children who underwent surgery during the study period. Eighty-four children (2.84%) developed postoperative AKI that was managed with peritoneal dialysis. Seventy-six children were included in our study, 8 were excluded because of a lack of complete data. Of the 76 children included, 35 died during the immediate postoperative period, 15 died during the interim of nonrenal causes, and 26 were alive at the time of follow-up evaluation. Twenty-five patients with a complete evaluation had blood pressure measurements in the normal range. Plasma creatinine levels were normal for age. Only 1 child, who had a pre-existing congenital renal anomaly, had an abnormal glomerular filtration rate. None of the children had proteinuria. Three children were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and 2 were treated with furosemide for congestive heart failure. We found no risk factors associated with immediate postoperative death.

Conclusions: Despite the development of AKI requiring dialysis after surgical correction of congenital cardiac anomalies, the long-term renal prognosis in survivors is good.
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January 2014

Procalcitonin level as an aid for the diagnosis of bacterial infections following pediatric cardiac surgery.

J Crit Care 2012 Apr 29;27(2):220.e11-6. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 49202, Israel.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine if blood procalcitonin can serve as an aid to differentiate between bacterial and nonbacterial cause of fever in children after cardiac surgery.

Materials And Methods: A nested case-control study of children who underwent open cardiac surgery in critical care units of fourth-level pediatric hospital was performed. Blood samples for procalcitonin level were collected 1 day before operation; 1 hour postoperation; on postoperative days 1, 2, and 5; and on the day of fever, when it occurred.

Results: Of 665 children who underwent cardiac bypass surgery, 126 had a febrile episode postoperatively, 47 children with a proven bacterial infection and 79 without bacterial infection. Among the 68 children in whom fever developed within the first 5 postoperative days, procalcitonin level at fever day was significantly higher in those with bacterial infection (n = 16) than in those without infection (n = 52). Similarly, among the 58 children in whom fever developed after day 5 postoperation, a significant difference was found in procalcitonin level at fever day between those with (n = 31) and without (n = 27) bacterial infection.

Conclusion: During the critical early and late periods after cardiac surgery in children, procalcitonin level may help to differentiate patients with bacterial infection from patients in whom the fever is secondary to nonbacterial infectious causes.
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April 2012

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a case report and review of the literature.

J Extra Corpor Technol 2011 Mar;43(1):5-12

Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqwa, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated coagulation side effect of heparin therapy characterized by thrombocytopenia and by a paradoxical prothrombotic state following heparin exposure when thrombotic or thromboembolic events accurse, the condition is classified as Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (HITT). We report a case of HITT with evidence of small-vessel arterial thrombosis in a 5-day-old newborn receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and our attempt of bivalirudin alternative treatment. We also review previous reports regarding HIT and ECMO with the alternative management in this unique population.
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March 2011

Favorable outcome of pediatric fulminant myocarditis supported by extracorporeal membranous oxygenation.

Pediatr Cardiol 2010 Oct 24;31(7):1059-63. Epub 2010 Aug 24.

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Tel Aviv University, Petach Tikva, 49202, Israel.

Myocarditis among pediatric patients varies in severity from mild disease to a fulminant course with overwhelming refractory shock and a high risk of death. Because the disease is potentially reversible, it is reasonable to deploy extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) to bridge patients until recovery or transplantation. This study aimed to review the course and outcome of children with acute fulminant myocarditis diagnosed by clinical and echocardiographic data only who were managed by ECMO because of refractory circulatory collapse. A chart review of a single center identified 12 children hospitalized over an 8-year period who met the study criteria. Data were collected on demographics, diagnosis, disease course, and outcome. The patients ranged in age from 20 days to 8 years (25.5 ± 29.6 months). Echocardiography showed a severe global biventricular decrease in myocardial function, with a shortening fraction of 12% or less. Ten children (83.3%) were weaned off extracorporeal support after 100-408 h (mean, 209.9 ± 82.4 h) and discharged home. Two patients died: one due to multiorgan failure and one due to sustained refractory heart failure. During a long-term follow-up period, all survivors showed normal function in daily activities and normal myocardial function. The study showed that ECMO can be safely and successfully used for children with acute fulminant myocarditis diagnosed solely on clinical and radiographic grounds who need mechanical support. These patients usually have a favorable outcome, regaining normal or near normal heart function without a need for heart transplantation.
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October 2010

Patterns and prognostic value of troponin, interleukin-6, and leptin after pediatric open-heart surgery.

J Crit Care 2009 Sep 8;24(3):419-25. Epub 2009 May 8.

Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer 52621, Israel.

Purpose: Leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are inversely correlated and associated with decreased survival in critically ill patients. We investigated changes in leptin, IL-6, and troponin in children undergoing open-heart surgery, hypothesizing that IL-6 and troponin will increase after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and will be negatively correlated with leptin.

Patients And Methods: Serial blood samples were collected from 21 patients 24 hours before and up to 48 hours after surgery.

Results: Leptin levels decreased by 50% during CPB (P < .001), then gradually increased, reaching baseline levels 12 hours after surgery. The IL-6 levels increased (P < .001) during CPB, peaking 2 hours after surgery and remaining slightly elevated at 24 hours after surgery (P < .001). Leptin and IL-6 were negatively correlated (R = -0.448, P < .001). Troponin levels increased during CPB (P < .001). Postoperative leptin and troponin were inversely correlated (r = -0.535, P < .001). Patients with modest elevations in troponin levels (<20 microg/L) had a shorter aortic clamp and CPB time (P < .01), lower IL-6 peak levels (P = .03), and shorter duration of ventilation and inotropic support compared with patients with peak troponin levels greater than 20 microg/L.

Conclusions: Lower leptin and higher IL-6 levels correlated with troponin, a marker of myocardial injury. Because leptin may have cardioprotective effects, the postoperative drop in its levels may further contribute to myocardial dysfunction.
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September 2009

Resting energy expenditure in children with cyanotic and noncyanotic congenital heart disease before and after open heart surgery.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2003 Jan-Feb;27(1):47-51

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Background: Failure to thrive is a common problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Resting energy expenditure (REE) in cyanotic and noncyanotic children with CHD before and after open heart surgery has hardly been investigated.

Methods: Twenty-nine children younger than 3 years of age with CHD (14 cyanotic and 15 noncyanotic CHD) who were referred for open heart surgery were enrolled. Data on dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and indirect calorimetry parameters were measured 24 hours before the surgery, (day -1), and on day 5 after surgery. The measured REE was compared with the Schofield and World Health Organization (WHO) REE prediction equations.

Results: The mean +/- SD measured REE was similar in the cyanotic and noncyanotic children before and after surgery (before surgery: 57 +/- 13 and 58 +/- 9 kcal/kg per day, respectively; 5 days after surgery: 59 +/- 10 and 62 +/- 10 kcal/kg per day, respectively). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) did not change significantly before and after surgery and were similar in both groups. The measured REE for all children on day -1 and day 5 was similar to the calculated REE using the Schofield equation but was significantly different from the calculated REE using the WHO equation (p < .01).

Conclusions: Significant changes in REE, VCO2, and VO2 were not observed before and 5 days after open heart surgery in children with CHD. These parameters (REE, VCO2, and VO2) were also similar in children with cyanotic versus noncyanotic CHD. The Schofield equation is more accurate than the WHO equation in predicting energy needs of children with CHD, but measurement of REE is preferred over calculation of REE.
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July 2003

Neuroimaging findings in neonates and infants from superior vena cava obstruction after cardiac operation.

Pediatr Radiol 2002 Nov 12;32(11):806-10. Epub 2002 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Extraventricular obstructive hydrocephalus may develop after superior vena cava obstruction, an uncommon complication after cardiac surgery.

Objective: To describe the neuroimaging findings in neonates and infants with superior vena cava thrombosis after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease.

Materials And Methods: Between 1993 and 2001, 333 neonates and infants in our hospital underwent cardiac surgery, of whom 13 (3.9%) subsequently acquired superior vena cava syndrome. Eleven of these 13 children (7 boys, 4 girls) were evaluated by head ultrasound and computed tomography scans.

Results: One child had normal findings on head ultrasound, and 10 children had extraventricular obstructive hydrocephalus (EVOH). In 6 children, aggravation of the hydrocephalus was noted up to 11.4 months after cardiac surgery; in 3 of them, the hydrocephalus was shunted to the peritoneum. One child had thrombosis of the dural sinuses, and 1 had hemorrhagic infarction. Two children died during follow-up.

Conclusion: EVOH is a common complication of superior vena cava thrombosis, and head ultrasound should be performed in all neonates and infants with superior vena cava thrombosis after cardiac surgery. Long-term follow-up is needed, as the hydrocephalus may worsen even months after surgery.
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November 2002

Plasma soluble L-selectin following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children: is it a marker of the postoperative course?

Med Sci Monit 2002 Jul;8(7):CR467-72

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care, Schneider Medical Center, the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Background: There is increasing evidence that cytokine-inducible leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules are instrumental in the postoperative inflammatory response following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). L-selectin was shown to be one of those neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion molecules. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of the soluble adhesion molecule, sL-selectin, and the postoperative course in children undergoing CPB.

Material/methods: To determine the time course of sL-selectin after CPB, serial blood samples of 9 children undergoing CPB were collected from the arterial line or from the bypass circuits preoperatively, on initiation of CPB and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Plasma was recovered immediately, aliquoted and frozen at -70 degrees C until use. Circulating sL-selectin molecules were measured with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) technique. There were significant changes in plasma levels of sL-selectin in patients following CPB, and these levels were associated with patient characteristics, operative variables and postoperative course. Low values of sL-selectin significantly correlated with inotropic support, low PRISM score, postoperative hypotension and fever. There was a significant association between the development of postoperative sepsis and low sL-selectin levels. No correlation was found between sL-selectin values and lactate concentration or neutrophil count.

Conclusions: Our results suggest a relation between CPB-induced mediators and both early and late clinical effects. Although the mechanism for the changes of sL-selectin remains undetermined, the down-regulation of sL-selectin indicates neutrophil activation and supports the possibility that anti-adhesion therapies might participate in the prevention and treatment of the inflammatory response associated with CPB.
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July 2002

Interleukin-8 secretion following cardiopulmonary bypass in children as a marker of early postoperative morbidity.

Paediatr Anaesth 2002 Feb;12(2):156-61

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel.

Background: Interleukin (IL)-8, an 8 kDa peptide, is the first chemoattractant identified as being specific for neutrophils. Its possible association with early postoperative morbidity following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants and children is unknown. This prospective cohort study sought possible roles of IL-8 in the inflammatory response to CPB and investigated if changes in IL-8 levels and clinical course and outcome were related.

Methods: IL-8 levels were measured in 16 children undergoing CPB. Systemic blood was collected after induction of anaesthesia (baseline), at 15 min after CPB onset and cessation, and at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h thereafter.

Results: Correlation coefficients between IL-8 levels and CPB time ranged from 0.45 to 0.55, heart rate 0.41--0.44, surgical time 0.41--0.63 and pH --0.56 to --0.50 (P < 0.05 for all parameters). Univariate analyses showed that patients requiring inotropic support and those with tachycardia had significantly higher postoperative IL-8 levels (P < 0.05). Furthermore, IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients with surgical times > 200 min and in patients with an aortic clamp in place for > 65 min.

Conclusions: There was an association between IL-8 and early postoperative heart rate, and the need for inotropic support IL-8 correlated positively with surgical time, CPB time and heart rate and negatively with pH. IL-8 release may be related to some of the haemodynamic changes in the early postoperative course following CPB. The relationship between IL-8 and late markers of patient outcome in high-risk infants awaits further studies.
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February 2002