Publications by authors named "Ovadia Dagan"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fluid Responsiveness Predictability in Immediate Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. Is the Old Slandered Central Venous Pressure Back Again?

Shock 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel, 4920235 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6997801.

Objective: Acute low cardiac output (CO) is a frequent scenario in pediatric cardiac intensive care units (PCICU). While fluid responsiveness has been studied extensively, literature is scarce for the immediate postoperative congenital heart surgery population admitted to PCICUs. This study analyzed the utility of hemodynamic, bedside ultrasound and Doppler parameters for prediction of fluid responsiveness in infants and neonates in the immediate postoperative cardiac surgery period.

Design: A prospective observational study.

Setting: University affiliated, tertiary care hospital, PCICU.

Participants: Immediate postoperative pediatric patients displaying a presumed hypovolemic low CO state were included. A clinical, arterial derived, hemodynamic, sonographic, Doppler-based, and echocardiographic parameter assessment was performed, followed by a fluid bolus therapy.

Interventions: 15-20cc/kg Crystalloid fluid bolus.

Main Outcome Measures: Fluid responsiveness was defined as an increase in cardiac index > 10% by echocardiography.

Results: Of 52 patients, 34 (65%) were fluid responsive. Arterial systolic pressure variation (SPV), continuous-Doppler preload parameters, and inferior vena-cava distensibility index (IVCDI) by bedside ultrasound all failed to predict fluid responsiveness. Dynamic central venous pressure (CVP) change yielded a significant but modest fluid responsiveness predictability of AUC 0.654 (p = 0.0375).

Conclusions: In a distinct population of mechanically ventilated, young, pediatric cardiac patients in the immediate postoperative period, SPV, USCOM preload parameters, as well as IVC-based parameters by bedside ultrasound failed to predict fluid responsiveness. Dynamic CVP change over several hours was the only parameter that yielded significant but modest fluid responsiveness predictability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001786DOI Listing
April 2021

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Rescue Therapy for Postoperative Diastolic Dysfunction and Refractory Chylothorax.

ASAIO J 2021 May;67(5):e99-e101

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

This is the first published case, as far as we know, of a term neonate with refractory chylothorax secondary to diastolic dysfunction in the cardiac postoperative period, where extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used to improve the physiologic derangements, thus allowing resolution of the chylous effusion. The infant was prenatally diagnosed with d-transposition of the great arteries. He was started on prostaglandin infusion and underwent balloon atrial septostomy followed by arterial switch operation. After surgery, he developed anasarca and high-volume chylothorax that did not respond to medical management and fasting. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated severe diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. On postoperative day 19, he was placed on veno-arterial (VA) ECMO and had gradual regression of the chylothorax and edema. After 13 days on ECMO support, he was decannulated with small, self-limiting, reaccumulation of chylous effusion. He was discharged home on postoperative day 57, and has since been thriving with no evidence of reaccumulation of the chylous effusion. In summary, VA ECMO support could be considered as a rescue modality for patients with uncontrollable refractory high-volume chylous effusion, after other treatment options have been pursued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000001279DOI Listing
May 2021

Transposition of the Great Arteries-Are We Doing Better? Correlating Outcome to Change in Renal Function Over 2 Decades of Arterial Switch Operation.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 09;21(9):e782-e788

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: It is believed that management of neonates with dextro-transposition of the great arteries is constantly improving. Renal function may play a role in the prognosis of patients after congenital heart surgery. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of neonates who underwent arterial switch operation during the past 2 decades using renal function as a surrogate marker for morbidity and mortality.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Dedicated cardiac ICU of a university-affiliated pediatric medical center.

Patients: Infants who underwent arterial switch surgery in 1993-2015.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The cohort included 336 infants who underwent arterial switch operation for dextro-transposition of the great arteries (n = 169, 50%), transposition of the great arteries/ventricular septal defect (n = 133, 40%), or Taussig-Bing anomaly (n = 34, 10%). Between 1993-1998 and 2012-2015, the mean minimal postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate rose from 30 mL/min/1.73 m to 40 mL/min/1.73 m (p < 0.05), and the proportion of patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m decreased from 56% to 23% (p < 0.05). The daily furosemide dosage decreased from 4 mg/kg/d to 0.5 mg/kg/d (p < 0.05). Urinary output on operative day 0 decreased over time, but urinary output on operative day 2 significantly increased. Maximal lactate levels and time to lactate normalization decreased steadily. Dialysis was performed in only a few patients in the early periods, and in none in the last 6 years. The mean mortality rate of patients with dextro-transposition of the great arteries and transposition of the great arteries/ventricular septal defect decreased to 2.7% in the last 6 years. The odds ratio of a prolonged hospital stay (≥ 28 d) in a patient with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m was 18.79, and in a patient with transposition of the great arteries/ventricular septal defect, 3.39. The odds ratio of dying after Rashkind atrial septostomy was 4.42.

Conclusions: During the past 2 decades, there has been significant improvement in outcome of patients undergoing transposition of the great arteries repair. Renal function was found to be a good prognostic marker of morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002387DOI Listing
September 2020

The Utility of Albumin Level as a Marker of Postoperative Course in Infants Undergoing Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

Pediatr Cardiol 2020 Jun 14;41(5):939-946. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, 4920235, Petach Tikva, Israel.

We sought to examine the role of preoperative and 2nd postoperative day albumin levels as predictors for postoperative course in infants undergoing repair of congenital heart disease. This retrospective, single-center, observational study comprised consecutive infants younger than 1 year who had undergone repair of tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defect, complete atrioventricular canal or transposition of the great arteries over a 25 months period. We correlated preoperative and postoperative day (POD) #2 albumin level to vaso-inotropic score (VIS) and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) as markers for degree and duration of postoperative cardiac support. A composite outcome was defined as maximal vaso-inotropic score of > 10 and ICU LOS > 96 h. Preoperative albumin level negatively correlated with VIS and ICU LOS. Compared to preoperative albumin level of > 4 g/dL, the relative risk of meeting composite criteria was 1.5 for preoperative albumin of 3.1-4 g/dL and 2.6 for preoperative albumin ≤ 3 g/dL. Compared to POD#2 albumin level > 3 g/dL, the relative risk of meeting composite criteria was 1.8 for albumin of 2.6-3 g/dL, and 2.5 for albumin ≤ 2.5 g/dL. In summary, we found that preoperative and POD#2 albumin levels predicted prolonged and complicated postoperative course. These finding may help clinicians to inform the patient's parents, early in the ICU hospitalization, as to the predicted risks and difficulties of their infant's postoperative course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02339-6DOI Listing
June 2020

Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Reach-Out Program: Successes and Insights.

ASAIO J 2020 Sep/Oct;66(9):1036-1041

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

The shortage of dedicated pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers and the expanding indications for pediatric ECMO necessitate a regional program for transport of ECMO-supported patients. Data about feasibly and safety of pediatric ECMO transport are scarce. Our aim is to describe our experience with a pediatric ECMO reach-out program and review pertinent literature. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected retrospectively from the charts of all patients cannulated onto ECMO at referring centers and transported to our center from 2003 to 2018. Similar data were recorded for patients who were referred for ECMO support from within the hospital. The cohort included 80 patients cannulated at 17 referring centers. The transport team included a senior pediatric cardiac surgeon and an ECMO specialist. All transfers but one were done by special emergency medical service ambulance. No major complications or deaths occurred during transport, and all patients were stable upon arrival to our unit. Mortality was lower in the ECMO reach-out cohort than in-house patients referred for ECMO support. This is the first study from Israel and one of the largest to date describing a dedicated pediatric ECMO transport program. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation transport appears to be feasible and safe when conducted by a small, highly skilled mobile team. Successful reach-out program requires open communication between the referring physician and the accepting center. As survival correlates with ECMO volume, maintaining a large ECMO center with 24/7 retrieval capabilities may be the best strategy for pediatric mechanical circulatory support program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000001110DOI Listing
March 2021

Alveolar Dead-Space Fraction and Arterial Saturation Predict Postoperative Course in Fontan Patients.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 04;21(4):e200-e206

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: Fontan surgery, the final surgical stage in single ventricle palliation, redirects systemic venous blood into the pulmonary circulation for gas exchange. A decrease in pulmonary blood flow can lead to major complications and grave outcomes. Alveolar dead-space fraction represents the portion of inhaled air that does not participate in gas exchange and hence quantifies ventilation-perfusion abnormalities in the lung. Increased alveolar dead-space fraction has been associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and worse outcome after congenital heart surgery. The association of alveolar dead-space fraction with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing Fontan operation has not been reported.

Interventions: None.

Design, Setting, And Patients: A retrospective charts review of all pediatric patients who underwent Fontan surgery during June 2010-November 2018 in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Associations between alveolar dead-space fraction and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation to a composite outcome (surgical or catheter-based intervention, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use, prolonged ventilation, prolonged hospital length of stay, or death) were explored. Secondary endpoints were parameters of severity of illness, chest drainage duration, and length of stay.

Measurements And Main Results: Of 128 patients undergoing Fontan operation, 34 met criteria for composite outcome. Alveolar dead-space fraction was significantly higher in the composite (0.33 ± 0.14) versus control (0.25 ± 0.26; p = 0.016) group. Alveolar dead-space fraction greater than or equal to 0.29 indicated a 37% increase in risk to meet composite criteria. Admission arterial oxygen saturation was significantly lower in composite versus control group (93.4% vs 97.1%; p = 0.005). Alveolar dead-space fraction was significantly associated with increased durations of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, duration of thoracic drainage, and parameters of severity of illness.

Conclusions: Alveolar dead-space fraction and arterial saturation may predict complicated postoperative course in patients undergoing the Fontan operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002205DOI Listing
April 2020

Vacuum-Assisted Closure for the Treatment of Deep Sternal Wound Infection After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 02;21(2):150-155

Infectious Disease Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: Vacuum-assisted closure is being increasingly used to treat deep sternal wound infection following cardiac surgery, but most of the data refer to adults. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure in pediatric patients.

Design: Retrospective file review.

Setting: Tertiary pediatric medical center.

Patients: All children with deep sternal wound infection treated with vacuum-assisted closure in 2003-2016.

Interventions: Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data were collected from the medical records.

Measurements And Main Results: The cohort included 50 patients (0.9% of cardiac patients operated during the study period) of median age 6.5 months (interquartile range, 2-12.75 mo; range, 1 wk to 14 yr) and median weight 5.1 kg (interquartile range, 4-9.75 kg). The most frequent heart defects were tetralogy of Fallot (22%) and ventricular septal defect (20%); 38% of patients had cyanotic heart disease. Deep sternal wound infections appeared a median of 10 days postoperatively (interquartile range, 7-14 d; range 3-100 d). Vacuum-assisted closure was applied a median of 13 days postoperatively (interquartile range, 10-18.5 d; range, 5-103 d) for a median duration of 10 days (interquartile range, 7-13.25 d; range, 1-21 d). Wound cultures were positive in 48 patients (96%); most isolates were Gram-positive (76%). The main bacterial pathogen was methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (61%). Most patients were treated with cloxacillin for a median of 38 days (interquartile range, 28-42 d; range, 9-189 d). There were no statistically significant differences in clinical or treatment characteristics between bacteremic (56%) and nonbacteremic patients. Compared with older patients, infants less than 3 months old (36%) had a significantly longer hospitalization time (41 vs 25 d; p = 0.001) and higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Mortality Category (3 vs 2; p = 0.003). All cases except one (contact dermatitis) were uneventful. In 10 patients, wounds were closed surgically after vacuum-assisted closure. Two patients required a pectoralis flap, both treated before 2005. One of the two deaths was infection-related.

Conclusions: Vacuum-assisted closure is a feasible treatment option of deep sternal wound infection after pediatric cardiac surgery and was not associated with independent morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002131DOI Listing
February 2020

Improvement in Creatinine Clearance after Open Heart Surgery in Infants as an Early Indicator of Surgical Success.

Isr Med Assoc J 2016 Dec;18(12):735-738

Institute of Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function.

Objectives: To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight < 5 kg) scheduled for open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Urine collection measurement of creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery.

Results: Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery.

Conclusions: In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.
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December 2016

Role of C-reactive protein velocity in the diagnosis of early bacterial infections in children after cardiac surgery.

J Intensive Care Med 2012 May-Jun;27(3):191-6. Epub 2011 May 11.

Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Fever after cardiac surgery in children may be due to bacterial infection or noninfectious origin like systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) secondary to bypass procedure. A marker to distinguish bacterial from nonbacterial fever in these conditions is clinically important. The purpose of our study was to evaluate, in the early postcardiac surgery period, whether serial measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) and its change over time (CRP velocity) can assist in detecting bacterial infection. A series of consecutive children who underwent cardiac surgery with bypass were tested for serum levels of CRP at several points up to 5 days postoperatively and during febrile episodes (>38.0°C). Findings were compared among febrile patients with proven bacterial infection (FWI group; sepsis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, deep wound infection), febrile patients without bacterial infection (FNI group), and patients without fever (NF group). In all, 121 children were enrolled in the study, 31 in the FWI group, 42 in the FNI group, and 48 patients in the NF group. Ages ranged from 4 days to 17.8 years (median 19.0, mean 46 ± 56 months). There was no significant difference among the groups in mean CRP level before surgery, 1 hour, and 18 hours after. A highly significant interaction was found in the change in CRP over time by FWI group compared with FNI group (P < .001). Mean CRP velocity ([fCRP - 18hCRP]/[fever time (days) - 0.75 day]) was significantly higher in the infectious group (4.0 ± 4.2 mg/dL per d) than in the fever-only group (0.60 ± 1.6 mg/dL per d; P < .001). A CRP velocity of 4 mg/dL per d had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.7% for bacterial infection with 95.2% specificity. Serial measurements of CRP/CRP velocity after cardiac surgery in children may assist clinicians in differentiating postoperative fever due to bacterial infection from fever due to noninfectious origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066610396642DOI Listing
October 2012

Bilateral diaphragm paralysis following cardiac surgery in children: 10-years' experience.

Intensive Care Med 2006 Aug 2;32(8):1222-6. Epub 2006 Jun 2.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objective: To review the incidence and complications of conservative management of bilateral diaphragm paralysis following pediatric cardiac surgery.

Design And Setting: Retrospective clinical review based on computerized database with daily follow-up in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a tertiary care center. PATIENT AND PARTICIPANTS: Were reviewed the data on nine patients with bilateral diaphragm paralysis from the 3,214 consecutive children (0.28%) after operations performed between 1995 and 2004.

Measurements And Results: A fluoroscopy-confirmed diagnosis of bilateral diaphragm paralysis was made in all nine patients. Mechanical ventilation was required for 14-62 days; maximum time to recovery was 7 weeks. Three patients underwent unilateral plication. Patients with a complicated postoperative course required longer mechanical ventilation. All patients were managed with a nasotracheal tube. One patient had minor subglottic stenosis. All patients survived.

Conclusions: Bilateral diaphragm paralysis can be managed conservatively with good prognosis and minor complications. The recovery time is relatively short, less than 7 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-006-0207-5DOI Listing
August 2006

Relationship between changes in thyroid hormone level and severity of the postoperative course in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery.

Paediatr Anaesth 2006 May;16(5):538-42

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqwa, Israel.

Background: Our aim was to determine whether the changes in thyroid function after open-heart surgery in neonates depend on the postoperative course.

Methods: Twenty neonates undergoing open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease were prospectively studied in the cardiac intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. The patients were divided into two groups by level of inotropic support (high or mild).

Results: The groups were similar in age, bypass time and ultrafiltration volume. In both groups, there was a significant reduction in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and FT4 at 24 h postoperatively. However, in the high inotropic support group, FT4 was lower for a longer time. This group also had a significantly higher score on The Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM; P < 0.042) and a longer duration of ventilation (P < 0.014).

Conclusions: Neonates after open-heart surgery undergo changes in thyroid function characteristic of euthyroid sick syndrome. The degree of hypothyroxinemia may be related to the severity of illness and the postoperative course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01808.xDOI Listing
May 2006

Anomalous hepatic venous drainage.

Ann Thorac Surg 2005 Sep;80(3):1113-5

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel.

We present a 3-year-old boy born with anomalous hepatic venous drainage into the left atrium and a small sinus venosus atrial septum defect, in whom pulmonary arteriovenous malformations developed with progressive cyanosis. Surgical redirection of the hepatic venous drainage to the right atrium and closure of the atrial septal defect led to regression of the pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. However, in contrast to other reports, progressive pulmonary hypertension developed postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.03.014DOI Listing
September 2005

Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of colonization of central venous catheters in infants and children: a randomized controlled study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005 Aug;24(8):676-9

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel.

Background: Infections of short term, nontunneled, intravascular catheters are often caused by migration of organisms from the insertion site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated dressing for the reduction of central venous catheter (CVC) colonization and CVC-associated bloodstream infections in infants and children after cardiac surgery.

Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit of a tertiary care pediatric medical center. Patients 0-18 years of age who were admitted to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit during a 14-month period and required a CVC for >48 hours were randomized to receive a transparent polyurethane insertion site dressing (control group) or a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge (Biopatch) dressing covered by a transparent polyurethane dressing (study group). The main outcome measures were rates of bacterial colonization, rates of CVC-associated bloodstream infections and adverse events.

Results: Seventy-one patients were randomized to the control group and 74 to the study group. There were no significant between group differences in age, sex, Pediatric Risk of Mortality score or cardiac severity score. CVC colonization occurred in 21 control patients (29%) and 11 (14.8%) study patients (P = 0.0446; relative risk, 0.6166; 95% confidence interval, 0.3716-1.023). Bloodstream infection occurred in 3 patients (4.2%) in the control group and 4 patients (5.4%) in the study group. Local redness was noted in 1 control patient and 4 study group patients.

Conclusions: The chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge is safe and significantly reduces the rates of CVC colonization in infants and children after cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000172934.98865.14DOI Listing
August 2005

Recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven) as a hemostatic agent after surgery for congenital heart disease.

Paediatr Anaesth 2005 Mar;15(3):235-40

Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Postoperative bleeding and blood product requirements can be substantial in children undergoing open-heart surgery, and reexploration is required in 1% of cases. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven, NovoNordisk, Denmark) is a hemostatic agent approved for the treatment of hemophilic patients with inhibitors to factor VIII or factor IX. It has also been used with success in other conditions. We present our experience with rFVIIa treatment for uncontrolled bleeding after open-heart surgery in five pediatric patients.

Methods: The study group consisted of five patients after open-heart surgery with excessive blood loss. The patients were treated with rFVIIa after failure of conventional treatment to control the bleeding. Blood loss, blood product consumption, and coagulation test results were recorded before and after rFVIIa administration.

Results: In all cases, blood loss decreased considerably after rFVIIa administration (mean 7.8 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1)), almost eliminating the need for additional blood products, and the prolonged prothrombin time normalized. In two patients with thrombocytopathy, rFVIIa helped to discriminate surgical bleeding from bleeding caused by a defect in hemostasis. No side effects of rFVIIa treatment were noted.

Conclusions: These cases support the impression that RFVIIa is efficient and safe in correcting hemostasis in children after cardiopulmonary bypass when other means fail. However, the data are still limited, and more extensive research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01429.xDOI Listing
March 2005

The Ross procedure as the surgical treatment of active aortic valve endocarditis.

J Heart Valve Dis 2004 Jan;13(1):73-7

Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach-Tikva, Israel.

Background And Aim Of The Study: The authors' experience is reported of aortic valve replacement (AVR) using the pulmonary autograft in patients with active aortic valve endocarditis, including an urgent Ross procedure in infants with the acute condition.

Methods: Nine patients aged between 8 months and 38 years, with a diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis, have undergone AVR using the Ross procedure at the authors' institution since October 1997. The diagnosis was established by clinical and echocardiographic findings. Indications for surgery were severe aortic insufficiency and congestive heart failure in all patients, with the addition of thromboembolic events (n = 3), persistent hyperpyrexia (n = 3) and vegetations (n = 5). Four infants with no history of congenital cardiac malformation underwent urgent surgery because of acute bacterial endocarditis and rapid hemodynamic deterioration. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae in three patients, and Kingella kingi and Staphylococcus aureus in one patient each. Four patients were culture-negative. All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics for four to six weeks postoperatively.

Results: There were no perioperative or late deaths, and no recurrent endocarditis at the implanted valves. Echocardiographic evaluation at discharge showed trivial to mild aortic insufficiency, with no stenosis at the left ventricular outflow tract. Similar findings were found across the right ventricular outflow tract. At follow up (range: 4 months to 5.5 years), none of the patients showed progression of aortic valve insufficiency or developed stenosis; three had mild and moderate homograft stenosis (Doppler gradient 20-40 mmHg), and all children had moderate homograft insufficiency.

Conclusion: The Ross procedure is an excellent therapeutic option for active aortic valve endocarditis in young patients, and demonstrates low morbidity and mortality. Early surgery may be indicated in patients with acute aortic valve endocarditis because of the rapidly progressive nature of this disease.
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January 2004

Surgical management of aortopulmonary window and associated lesions.

Ann Thorac Surg 2004 Feb;77(2):484-7

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Anesthesiology and Heart Institute, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Rabin Medical Center, affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Background: Aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital heart defect commonly associated with other cardiac anomalies. Although single institutional experience is low, several surgical techniques have been reported. The purpose of this study is to describe our approach to the management of aortopulmonary window and its associated lesions.

Methods: Between February 1996 and November 2002, 13 patients underwent repair of aortopulmonary window. The age range went from 4 days to 5.5 months (mean 42 +/- 52 days), with 9 patients younger than 1 month old. The weight range was from 1.9 to 6.7 kg (mean 3.5 +/- 1.2 kg). Concomitant cardiac anomalies were present in 11 patients. The major additional anomalies were interruption of aortic arch in 4 patients and tracheal stenosis in 1 patient. Initial diagnoses were made using two-dimensional echocardiography only.

Results: There was one postoperative death. In general, patients with aortopulmonary window and additional major defects had a prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay when compared with the other patients. Follow-up time ranged from 2 months to 6.8 years (mean of 2.5 +/- 2.2 years). There were no reoperations and no late deaths. Transcatheter balloon dilatation of the repaired aortic arch was required in 1 patient and of the right pulmonary artery in another. All other patients had good flow to both pulmonary arteries. No residual shunts were detected at the aortopulmonary window site, and pulmonary pressures were normal.

Conclusions: Aortopulmonary window may be effectively diagnosed with echocardiography. Early surgical treatment (neonatal period, if possible) is safe and associated with the best long-term results, even in the presence of other cardiac anomalies. Complete separation and reconstruction of both aorta and pulmonary arteries under direct vision may prevent recurrence and distortion of adjacent structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01603-5DOI Listing
February 2004

Relationship between caseload and morbidity and mortality in pediatric cardiac surgery--a four year experience.

Isr Med Assoc J 2003 Jul;5(7):471-4

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel.

Background: The mortality rate associated with congenital heart surgery is apparently related to caseload.

Objective: To determine whether an increase in caseload over the long term at a single center affects management and outcome in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 4 year period from the computerized registry of the hospital's pediatric intensive care unit. Five parameters were analyzed: age at surgery, type of surgery, preventive measures (open chest), surgery-related and other complications (diaphragm paralysis and acute renal failure, respectively), and mortality. The data of a single-type surgery (arterial switch) were analyzed for bypass time and mechanical ventilation on an annual basis.

Results: The age distribution changed over the years, with more children under 1 year of age (20% newborns) undergoing surgery by the fourth year of the study. The caseload increased from 216 in the first year to 330 in the fourth, with a concomitant decrease in mortality rate from 4.9% to 3.2%. The chest was left open in 3.2% of patients in the first year and in 9.2% in the fourth year. The rate of diaphragm paralysis decreased from 6% to 2.4%. Death due to acute renal failure in patients requiring dialysis decreased from more than 80% in the first 2 years to 36% in the last two. These changes show an improvement but failed to reach statistical significance. Regarding the arterial switch operation, there was a significant improvement in pump time and duration of mechanical ventilation.

Conclusions: The increase in caseload in pediatric cardiac surgery was accompanied by improved management, with a lower complications-related mortality rate. We suggest that for optimal care of children with congenital heart disorders, quality management resources should be concentrated in centers with high caseloads.
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July 2003

Efficacy of subcutaneous tunneling for prevention of bacterial colonization of femoral central venous catheters in critically ill children.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002 Nov;21(11):1000-4

Unit of Pediatric Intensive Care, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Blood stream infections are a common and serious complication of central venous catheters (CVCs). To decrease catheter colonization, some authors advocate tunneling the catheter in the subcutaneous tissue during insertion. This technique has proved effective in adults, but there are no data on its safety and efficacy in critically ill children. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tunneling of short term, noncuffed CVCs for the prevention of CVC-related infections in critically ill children.

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed at a tertiary children's medical center in Israel and included children ages 0 to 18 years admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit or the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit from September 2000 to April 2001 who required placement of a femoral central venous catheter for >48 h. The children were randomized for tunneled or nontunneled insertion. The main outcome measures were bacterial colonization of proximal and distal catheter segments tested by semiquantitative technique and infectious or noninfectious complications of the CVC.

Results: Of 98 eligible children, 49 received tunneled catheters and 49 received nontunneled catheters. Patients' age ranged from 1 month to 16.5 years (mean, 3.07 +/- 2.48 years). There were no significant differences between the groups in age, sex, disease severity [Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM) score], duration of catheterization and underlying diseases. Bacterial colonization was found in 11 (22.4%) catheters in the nontunneled group compared with 3 (6.1%) in the tunneled group (P = 0.004). Proximal segment colonization occurred in 7 (14.2%) nontunneled catheters and 2 (4.8%) tunneled catheters (P = 0.07), and distal segment colonization occurred in 3 (6.1%) and 9(18.3%) tunneled and nontunneled catheters, respectively (P = 0.053). The main pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the rate of bloodstream infection (2 in the tunneled group, 3 in the nontunneled). Except for 1 case of subcutaneous hematoma, which resolved, there were no immediate or late complications of the tunneling procedure.

Conclusion: Subcutaneous tunneling of CVCs in the femoral site is a safe procedure and decreases significantly the rate of CVC colonization in critically ill children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200211000-00005DOI Listing
November 2002

Tumor necrosis factor and clinical and metabolic courses after cardiac surgery in children.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002 Nov;124(5):991-8

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between plasma tumor necrosis factor concentrations and hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during the postoperative clinical course in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods: Tumor necrosis factor levels of 10 consecutive children undergoing surgery for repair of congenital heart defects were analyzed in blood samples drawn at predetermined time points during surgery and up to 24 hours thereafter. Clinical data were collected at these times for correlation to tumor necrosis factor levels.

Results: All the patients survived. Tumor necrosis factor was detected in all 10 children. Tumor necrosis factor levels declined after induction of general anesthesia (201 +/- 65 pg/mL) steadily decreasing during surgery, reaching 80 +/- 50 pg/mL at 24 hours after the operation. Tumor necrosis factor levels were found to be inversely correlated with mean blood pressure values and indicators of acidosis (bicarbonate levels and base excess, P <.03). They were not correlated with the durations of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamping.

Conclusions: Tumor necrosis factor released into the circulation during and after pediatric cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass may be related to the hemodynamic and acid-base changes observed after cardiac surgery. Elucidation of the relationship between tumor necrosis factor and patient outcome in high-risk patients awaits further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mtc.2002.124391DOI Listing
November 2002