Publications by authors named "Nada Jabado"

187 Publications

Recurrent fusions in PLAGL1 define a distinct subset of pediatric-type supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Neuropathology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Ependymomas encompass a heterogeneous group of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms that occur along the entire neuroaxis. In recent years, extensive (epi-)genomic profiling efforts have identified several molecular groups of ependymoma that are characterized by distinct molecular alterations and/or patterns. Based on unsupervised visualization of a large cohort of genome-wide DNA methylation data, we identified a highly distinct group of pediatric-type tumors (n = 40) forming a cluster separate from all established CNS tumor types, of which a high proportion were histopathologically diagnosed as ependymoma. RNA sequencing revealed recurrent fusions involving the pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1 (PLAGL1) gene in 19 of 20 of the samples analyzed, with the most common fusion being EWSR1:PLAGL1 (n = 13). Five tumors showed a PLAGL1:FOXO1 fusion and one a PLAGL1:EP300 fusion. High transcript levels of PLAGL1 were noted in these tumors, with concurrent overexpression of the imprinted genes H19 and IGF2, which are regulated by PLAGL1. Histopathological review of cases with sufficient material (n = 16) demonstrated a broad morphological spectrum of tumors with predominant ependymoma-like features. Immunohistochemically, tumors were GFAP positive and OLIG2- and SOX10 negative. In 3/16 of the cases, a dot-like positivity for EMA was detected. All tumors in our series were located in the supratentorial compartment. Median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 6.2 years. Median progression-free survival was 35 months (for 11 patients with data available). In summary, our findings suggest the existence of a novel group of supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors that are characterized by recurrent PLAGL1 fusions and enriched for pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02356-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Polycomb repressive complex 2 in the driver's seat of childhood and young adult brain tumours.

Trends Cell Biol 2021 Oct 3;31(10):814-828. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, Montreal, H4A 3J, Canada. Electronic address:

Deregulation of the epigenome underlies oncogenesis in numerous primary brain tumours in children and young adults. In this review, we describe how recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases or histone 3 variants (oncohistones) in gliomas, expression of the oncohistone mimic enhancer of Zeste homologs inhibiting protein (EZHIP) in a subgroup of ependymoma, and epigenetic alterations in other embryonal tumours promote oncogenicity. We review the proposed mechanisms of cellular transformation, current tumorigenesis models and their link to development. We further stress the narrow developmental windows permissive to their oncogenic potential and how this may stem from converging effects deregulating polycomb repressive complex (PRC)2 function and targets. As altered chromatin states may be reversible, improved understanding of aberrant cancer epigenomes could orient the design of effective therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2021.05.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Inhibition of nuclear export restores nuclear localization and residual tumor suppressor function of truncated SMARCB1/INI1 protein in a molecular subset of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 08 18;142(2):361-374. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Pottkamp 2, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Loss of nuclear SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5/BAF47) protein expression due to biallelic mutations of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene is a hallmark of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), but the presence of cytoplasmic SMARCB1 protein in these tumors has not yet been described. In a series of 102 primary ATRT, distinct cytoplasmic SMARCB1 staining on immunohistochemistry was encountered in 19 cases (19%) and was highly over-represented in cases showing pathogenic sequence variants leading to truncation or mutation of the C-terminal part of SMARCB1 (15/19 vs. 4/83; Chi-square: 56.04, p = 1.0E-10) and, related to this, in tumors of the molecular subgroup ATRT-TYR (16/36 vs. 3/66; Chi-square: 24.47, p = 7.6E-7). Previous reports have indicated that while SMARCB1 lacks a bona fide nuclear localization signal, it harbors a masked nuclear export signal (NES) and that truncation of the C-terminal region results in unmasking of this NES leading to cytoplasmic localization. To determine if cytoplasmic localization found in ATRT is due to unmasking of NES, we generated GFP fusions of one of the SMARCB1 truncating mutations (p.Q318X) found in the tumors along with a p.L266A mutation, which was shown to disrupt the interaction of SMARCB1-NES with exportin-1. We found that while the GFP-SMARCB1(Q318X) mutant localized to the cytoplasm, the double mutant GFP-SMARCB1(Q318X;L266A) localized to the nucleus, confirming NES requirement for cytoplasmic localization. Furthermore, cytoplasmic SMARCB1(Q318X) was unable to cause senescence as determined by morphological observations and by senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, while nuclear SMARCB1(Q318X;L266A) mutant regained this function. Selinexor, a selective exportin-1 inhibitor, was effective in inhibiting the nuclear export of SMARCB1(Q318X) and caused rapid cell death in rhabdoid tumor cells. In conclusion, inhibition of nuclear export restores nuclear localization and residual tumor suppressor function of truncated SMARCB1. Therapies aimed at preventing nuclear export of mutant SMARCB1 protein may represent a promising targeted therapy in ATRT harboring truncating C-terminal SMARCB1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02328-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270878PMC
August 2021

Oncohistones: a roadmap to stalled development.

FEBS J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Since the discovery of recurrent mutations in histone H3 variants in paediatric brain tumours, so-called 'oncohistones' have been identified in various cancers. While their mechanism of action remains under active investigation, several studies have shed light on how they promote genome-wide epigenetic perturbations. These findings converge on altered post-translational modifications on two key lysine (K) residues of the H3 tail, K27 and K36, which regulate several cellular processes, including those linked to cell differentiation during development. We will review how these oncohistones affect the methylation of cognate residues, but also disrupt the distribution of opposing chromatin marks, creating genome-wide epigenetic changes which participate in the oncogenic process. Ultimately, tumorigenesis is promoted through the maintenance of a progenitor state at the expense of differentiation in defined cellular and developmental contexts. As these epigenetic disruptions are reversible, improved understanding of oncohistone pathogenicity can result in needed alternative therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15963DOI Listing
May 2021

The transcriptional landscape of Shh medulloblastoma.

Nat Commun 2021 03 19;12(1):1749. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among molecular subtypes of the disease, and demonstrate the previously unappreciated importance of non-coding RNA transcripts. We identify alterations within the cAMP dependent pathway (GNAS, PRKAR1A) which converge on GLI2 activity and show that 18% of tumors have a genetic event that directly targets the abundance and/or stability of MYCN. Furthermore, we discover an extensive network of fusions in focally amplified regions encompassing GLI2, and several loss-of-function fusions in tumor suppressor genes PTCH1, SUFU and NCOR1. Molecular convergence on a subset of genes by nucleotide variants, copy number aberrations, and gene fusions highlight the key roles of specific pathways in the pathogenesis of Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma and open up opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21883-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979819PMC
March 2021

ZFTA-RELA Dictates Oncogenic Transcriptional Programs to Drive Aggressive Supratentorial Ependymoma.

Cancer Discov 2021 Sep 19;11(9):2200-2215. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

More than 60% of supratentorial ependymomas harbor a (ZR) gene fusion (formerly ). To study the biology of ZR, we developed an autochthonous mouse tumor model using electroporation (IUE) of the embryonic mouse brain. Integrative epigenomic and transcriptomic mapping was performed on IUE-driven ZR tumors by CUT&RUN, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing, and RNA sequencing and compared with human ZR-driven ependymoma. In addition to direct canonical NFκB pathway activation, ZR dictates a neoplastic transcriptional program and binds to thousands of unique sites across the genome that are enriched with PLAGL family transcription factor (TF) motifs. ZR activates gene expression programs through recruitment of transcriptional coactivators (Brd4, Ep300, Cbp, Pol2) that are amenable to pharmacologic inhibition. Downstream ZR target genes converge on developmental programs marked by PLAGL TF proteins, and activate neoplastic programs enriched in Mapk, focal adhesion, and gene imprinting networks. SIGNIFICANCE: Ependymomas are aggressive brain tumors. Although drivers of supratentorial ependymoma (- and -associated gene fusions) have been discovered, their functions remain unclear. Our study investigates the biology of -driven ependymoma, specifically mechanisms of transcriptional deregulation and direct downstream gene networks that may be leveraged for potential therapeutic testing..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418998PMC
September 2021

Glioblastoma cell populations with distinct oncogenic programs release podoplanin as procoagulant extracellular vesicles.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(6):1682-1694

Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Vascular anomalies, including local and peripheral thrombosis, are a hallmark of glioblastoma (GBM) and an aftermath of deregulation of the cancer cell genome and epigenome. Although the molecular effectors of these changes are poorly understood, the upregulation of podoplanin (PDPN) by cancer cells has recently been linked to an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in GBM patients. Therefore, regulation of this platelet-activating protein by transforming events in cancer cells is of considerable interest. We used single-cell and bulk transcriptome data mining, as well as cellular and xenograft models in mice, to analyze the nature of cells expressing PDPN, as well as their impact on the activation of the coagulation system and platelets. We report that PDPN is expressed by distinct (mesenchymal) GBM cell subpopulations and downregulated by oncogenic mutations of EGFR and IDH1 genes, along with changes in chromatin modifications (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) and DNA methylation. Glioma cells exteriorize their PDPN and/or tissue factor (TF) as cargo of exosome-like extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from cells in vitro and in vivo. Injection of glioma-derived podoplanin carrying extracelluar vesicles (PDPN-EVs) activates platelets, whereas tissue factor carrying extracellular vesicles (TF-EVs) activate the clotting cascade. Similarly, an increase in platelet activation (platelet factor 4) or coagulation (D-dimer) markers occurs in mice harboring the corresponding glioma xenografts expressing PDPN or TF, respectively. Coexpression of PDPN and TF by GBM cells cooperatively affects tumor microthrombosis. Thus, in GBM, distinct cellular subsets drive multiple facets of cancer-associated thrombosis and may represent targets for phenotype- and cell type-based diagnosis and antithrombotic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993100PMC
March 2021

De novo Leu619Pro variant causes a new channelopathy characterised by giant cell lesions of the jaws and skull, skeletal abnormalities and polyneuropathy.

J Med Genet 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Background: Pathogenic germline variants in ransient eceptor otential anilloid 4 ation hannel () lead to channelopathies, which are phenotypically diverse and heterogeneous disorders grossly divided in neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasia. We recently reported in sporadic giant cell lesions of the jaws (GCLJs) novel, somatic, heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations in , at Met713.

Methods: Here we report two unrelated women with a de novo germline p.Leu619Pro variant and an overlapping systemic disorder affecting all organs individually described in TRPV4 channelopathies.

Results: From an early age, both patients had several lesions of the nervous system including progressive polyneuropathy, and multiple aggressive giant cell-rich lesions of the jaws and craniofacial/skull bones, and other skeletal lesions. One patient had a relatively milder disease phenotype possibly due to postzygotic somatic mosaicism. Indeed, the p.Leu619Pro variant was present at a lower frequency (variant allele frequency (VAF)=21.6%) than expected for a heterozygous variant as seen in the other proband, and showed variable regional frequency in the GCLJ (VAF ranging from 42% to 10%). In silico structural analysis suggests that the gain-of-function p.Leu619Pro alters the ion channel activity leading to constitutive ion leakage.

Conclusion: Our findings define a novel polysystemic syndrome due to germline p.Leu619Pro and further extend the spectrum of channelopathies. They further highlight the convergence of mutations on different organ systems leading to complex phenotypes which are further mitigated by possible post-zygotic mosaicism. Treatment of this disorder is challenging, and surgical intervention of the GCLJ worsens the lesions, suggesting the future use of MEK inhibitors and TRPV4 antagonists as therapeutic modalities for unmet clinical needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107427DOI Listing
March 2021

Dual targeting of polyamine synthesis and uptake in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

Nat Commun 2021 02 12;12(1):971. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Children's Cancer Institute, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable malignant childhood brain tumor, with no active systemic therapies and a 5-year survival of less than 1%. Polyamines are small organic polycations that are essential for DNA replication, translation and cell proliferation. Ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is irreversibly inhibited by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Herein we show that polyamine synthesis is upregulated in DIPG, leading to sensitivity to DFMO. DIPG cells compensate for ODC1 inhibition by upregulation of the polyamine transporter SLC3A2. Treatment with the polyamine transporter inhibitor AMXT 1501 reduces uptake of polyamines in DIPG cells, and co-administration of AMXT 1501 and DFMO leads to potent in vitro activity, and significant extension of survival in three aggressive DIPG orthotopic animal models. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of dual targeting of polyamine synthesis and uptake as a therapeutic strategy for incurable DIPG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20896-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881014PMC
February 2021

Clinical Outcomes and Patient-Matched Molecular Composition of Relapsed Medulloblastoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 03 27;39(7):807-821. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: We sought to investigate clinical outcomes of relapsed medulloblastoma and to compare molecular features between patient-matched diagnostic and relapsed tumors.

Methods: Children and infants enrolled on either SJMB03 (NCT00085202) or SJYC07 (NCT00602667) trials who experienced medulloblastoma relapse were analyzed for clinical outcomes, including anatomic and temporal patterns of relapse and postrelapse survival. A largely independent, paired molecular cohort was analyzed by DNA methylation array and next-generation sequencing.

Results: A total of 72 of 329 (22%) SJMB03 and 52 of 79 (66%) SJYC07 patients experienced relapse with significant representation of Group 3 and wingless tumors. Although most patients exhibited some distal disease (79%), 38% of patients with sonic hedgehog tumors experienced isolated local relapse. Time to relapse and postrelapse survival varied by molecular subgroup with longer latencies for patients with Group 4 tumors. Postrelapse radiation therapy among previously nonirradiated SJYC07 patients was associated with long-term survival. Reirradiation was only temporizing for SJMB03 patients. Among 127 patients with patient-matched tumor pairs, 9 (7%) experienced subsequent nonmedulloblastoma CNS malignancies. Subgroup (96%) and subtype (80%) stabilities were largely maintained among the remainder. Rare subgroup divergence was observed from Group 4 to Group 3 tumors, which is coincident with genetic alterations involving , , and . Subgroup-specific patterns of alteration were identified for driver genes and chromosome arms.

Conclusion: Clinical behavior of relapsed medulloblastoma must be contextualized in terms of up-front therapies and molecular classifications. Group 4 tumors exhibit slower biological progression. Utility of radiation at relapse is dependent on patient age and prior treatments. Degree and patterns of molecular conservation at relapse vary by subgroup. Relapse tissue enables verification of molecular targets and identification of occult secondary malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078396PMC
March 2021

Canadian Consensus for Biomarker Testing and Treatment of TRK Fusion Cancer in Pediatric Patients.

Curr Oncol 2021 01 9;28(1):346-366. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase gene fusions () are oncogenic drivers present at a low frequency in most tumour types (<5%), and at a higher frequency (>80%) in a small number of rare tumours (e.g., infantile fibrosarcoma [IFS]) and considered mutually exclusive with other common oncogenic drivers. Health Canada recently approved two tyrosine receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitors, larotrectinib (for adults and children) and entrectinib (for adults), for the treatment of solid tumours harbouring gene fusions. In Phase I/II trials, these TRK inhibitors have demonstrated promising overall response rates and tolerability in patients with TRK fusion cancer who have exhausted other treatment options. In these studies, children appear to have similar responses and tolerability to adults. In this report, we provide a Canadian consensus on when and how to test for gene fusions and when to consider treatment with a TRK inhibitor for pediatric patients with solid tumours. We focus on three pediatric tumour types: non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma/unspecified spindle cell tumours including IFS, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and glioma. We also propose a tumour-agnostic consensus based on the probability of the tumour harbouring an gene fusion. For children with locally advanced or metastatic TRK fusion cancer who have either failed upfront therapy or lack satisfactory treatment options, TRK inhibitor therapy should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903261PMC
January 2021

Canadian Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Standards of Practice.

Front Oncol 2020 22;10:593192. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Primary CNS tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in pediatrics. It is essential to understand treatment trends to interpret national survival data. In Canada, children with CNS tumors are treated at one of 16 tertiary care centers. We surveyed pediatric neuro-oncologists to create a national standard of practice to be used in the absence of a clinical trial for seven of the most prevalent brain tumors in children. This allowed description of practice across the country, along with a consensus. This had a multitude of benefits, including understanding practice patterns, allowing for a basis to compare in future research and informing Health Canada of the current management of patients. This also allows all children in Canada to receive equivalent care, regardless of location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.593192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783450PMC
December 2020

Whole-exome sequencing reveals novel vacuolar ATPase genes' variants and variants in genes involved in lysosomal biology and autophagosomal formation in oral granular cell tumors.

J Oral Pathol Med 2021 Apr 19;50(4):410-417. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Pathology, Biological Sciences Institute, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Background: Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare neuroectodermal soft tissue neoplasms that mainly affect the skin of the upper limbs and trunks and the oral cavity. GCTs are derived from Schwann cells and, ultrastructurally, their intracytoplasmic granules are considered autophagosomes or autophagolysosomes and are consistent with myelin accumulation.

Methods: In this study, a convenience set of 22 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of oral GCTs, all but one sample located at the tongue, was screened for mutations by whole-exome (WES) or targeted sequencing.

Results: WES revealed two novel variants in genes of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) complex: ATP6AP1 frameshift c.746_749del, leading to p.P249Hfs*4, and ATP6V1A non-synonymous c.G868A, leading to p.D290N. Each of these mutations occurred in one case. With regard to the samples that were wild type for these V-ATPase variants, at least two samples presented variants in genes that are part of endosomal/lysosomal/autophagosomal networks including ABCA8, ABCC6, AGAP3, ATG9A, CTSB, DNAJC13, GALC, NPC1, SLC15A3, SLC31A2, and TMEM104.

Conclusion: Although the mechanisms involved in oral GCT initiation and progression remain unclear, our results suggest that oral GCTs have V-ATPase variants similarly to GCTs from other tissues/organs, and additionally show variants in lysosomes/endosomes/autophagosomal genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.13148DOI Listing
April 2021

Histone H3.3G34-Mutant Interneuron Progenitors Co-opt PDGFRA for Gliomagenesis.

Cell 2020 12 30;183(6):1617-1633.e22. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1A3, Canada.

Histone H3.3 glycine 34 to arginine/valine (G34R/V) mutations drive deadly gliomas and show exquisite regional and temporal specificity, suggesting a developmental context permissive to their effects. Here we show that 50% of G34R/V tumors (n = 95) bear activating PDGFRA mutations that display strong selection pressure at recurrence. Although considered gliomas, G34R/V tumors actually arise in GSX2/DLX-expressing interneuron progenitors, where G34R/V mutations impair neuronal differentiation. The lineage of origin may facilitate PDGFRA co-option through a chromatin loop connecting PDGFRA to GSX2 regulatory elements, promoting PDGFRA overexpression and mutation. At the single-cell level, G34R/V tumors harbor dual neuronal/astroglial identity and lack oligodendroglial programs, actively repressed by GSX2/DLX-mediated cell fate specification. G34R/V may become dispensable for tumor maintenance, whereas mutant-PDGFRA is potently oncogenic. Collectively, our results open novel research avenues in deadly tumors. G34R/V gliomas are neuronal malignancies where interneuron progenitors are stalled in differentiation by G34R/V mutations and malignant gliogenesis is promoted by co-option of a potentially targetable pathway, PDGFRA signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791404PMC
December 2020

H3K27M in Gliomas Causes a One-Step Decrease in H3K27 Methylation and Reduced Spreading within the Constraints of H3K36 Methylation.

Cell Rep 2020 11;33(7):108390

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1B1, Canada; McGill Genome Centre, Montreal, QC H3A 0G1, Canada. Electronic address:

The discovery of H3K27M mutations in pediatric gliomas marked a new chapter in cancer epigenomics. Numerous studies have investigated the effect of this mutation on H3K27 trimethylation, but only recently have we started to realize its additional effects on the epigenome. Here, we use isogenic glioma H3K27M cell lines to investigate H3K27 methylation and its interaction with H3K36 and H3K9 modifications. We describe a "step down" effect of H3K27M on the distribution of H3K27 methylation: me3 is reduced to me2, me2 is reduced to me1, whereas H3K36me2/3 delineates the boundaries for the spread of H3K27me marks. We also observe a replacement of H3K27me2/3 silencing by H3K9me3. Using a computational simulation, we explain our observations by reduced effectiveness of PRC2 and constraints imposed on the deposition of H3K27me by antagonistic H3K36 modifications. Our work further elucidates the effects of H3K27M in gliomas as well as the general principles of deposition in H3K27 methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703850PMC
November 2020

A subset of pediatric-type thalamic gliomas share a distinct DNA methylation profile, H3K27me3 loss and frequent alteration of EGFR.

Neuro Oncol 2021 01;23(1):34-43

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Malignant astrocytic gliomas in children show a remarkable biological and clinical diversity. Small in-frame insertions or missense mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) have recently been identified in a distinct subset of pediatric-type bithalamic gliomas with a unique DNA methylation pattern.

Methods: Here, we investigated an epigenetically homogeneous cohort of malignant gliomas (n = 58) distinct from other subtypes and enriched for pediatric cases and thalamic location, in comparison with this recently identified subtype of pediatric bithalamic gliomas.

Results: EGFR gene amplification was detected in 16/58 (27%) tumors, and missense mutations or small in-frame insertions in EGFR were found in 20/30 tumors with available sequencing data (67%; 5 of them co-occurring with EGFR amplification). Additionally, 8 of the 30 tumors (27%) harbored an H3.1 or H3.3 K27M mutation (6 of them with a concomitant EGFR alteration). All tumors tested showed loss of H3K27me3 staining, with evidence of overexpression of the EZH inhibitory protein (EZHIP) in the H3 wildtype cases. Although some tumors indeed showed a bithalamic growth pattern, a significant proportion of tumors occurred in the unilateral thalamus or in other (predominantly midline) locations.

Conclusions: Our findings present a distinct molecular class of pediatric-type malignant gliomas largely overlapping with the recently reported bithalamic gliomas characterized by EGFR alteration, but additionally showing a broader spectrum of EGFR alterations and tumor localization. Global H3K27me3 loss in this group appears to be mediated by either H3 K27 mutation or EZHIP overexpression. EGFR inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in these highly aggressive gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850075PMC
January 2021

Successful treatment of non-midline primary malignant germ cell tumors with yolk sac components in neonates: report of 2 cases.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Oct 30:1-5. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

3Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal.

Here, the authors present 2 cases of nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT): a neonate with a mixed malignant germ cell tumor, 5% yolk sac tumor (YST) and 95% immature teratoma components, originating from the right mesial temporal lobe; and a 2-month-old infant with a pure YST originating from the left middle cranial fossa. These tumors with yolk sac components, which are thought to have a poor prognosis, were successfully treated with complete tumor resection alone and subtotal tumor resection with chemotherapy, respectively. Event-free survival exceeds 5 years for each patient even though neither received radiotherapy. The authors highlight the role of radical surgery and the successful treatment of neonatal YST with aggressive resection (and chemotherapy in 1 case) while avoiding radiation therapy. They also report the very rare non-midline location of these neonatal NGGCTs and emphasize the importance of considering YSTs and mixed NGGCTs with YST components in the differential diagnosis of non-midline hemispheric or skull base tumors in newborns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.PEDS19719DOI Listing
October 2020

Senescence Induced by BMI1 Inhibition Is a Therapeutic Vulnerability in H3K27M-Mutant DIPG.

Cell Rep 2020 10;33(3):108286

Department of Pediatrics and Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/BMT, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; The Morgan Adams Foundation Pediatric Brain Tumor Research Program, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable brain tumor of childhood characterized by histone mutations at lysine 27, which results in epigenomic dysregulation. There has been a failure to develop effective treatment for this tumor. Using a combined RNAi and chemical screen targeting epigenomic regulators, we identify the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) component BMI1 as a critical factor for DIPG tumor maintenance in vivo. BMI1 chromatin occupancy is enriched at genes associated with differentiation and tumor suppressors in DIPG cells. Inhibition of BMI1 decreases cell self-renewal and attenuates tumor growth due to induction of senescence. Prolonged BMI1 inhibition induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which promotes tumor recurrence. Clearance of senescent cells using BH3 protein mimetics co-operates with BMI1 inhibition to enhance tumor cell killing in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574900PMC
October 2020

Entering the era of precision medicine in pediatric oncology.

Nat Med 2020 11;26(11):1684-1685

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1119-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Histone H3.3 G34 mutations promote aberrant PRC2 activity and drive tumor progression.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 11 16;117(44):27354-27364. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706;

A high percentage of pediatric gliomas and bone tumors reportedly harbor missense mutations at glycine 34 in genes encoding histone variant H3.3. We find that these H3.3 G34 mutations directly alter the enhancer chromatin landscape of mesenchymal stem cells by impeding methylation at lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36) by SETD2, but not by the NSD1/2 enzymes. The reduction of H3K36 methylation by G34 mutations promotes an aberrant gain of PRC2-mediated H3K27me2/3 and loss of H3K27ac at active enhancers containing SETD2 activity. This altered histone modification profile promotes a unique gene expression profile that supports enhanced tumor development in vivo. Our findings are mirrored in G34W-containing giant cell tumors of bone where patient-derived stromal cells exhibit gene expression profiles associated with early osteoblastic differentiation. Overall, we demonstrate that H3.3 G34 oncohistones selectively promote PRC2 activity by interfering with SETD2-mediated H3K36 methylation. We propose that PRC2-mediated silencing of enhancers involved in cell differentiation represents a potential mechanism by which H3.3 G34 mutations drive these tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006076117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959516PMC
November 2020

H3 K27M and EZHIP Impede H3K27-Methylation Spreading by Inhibiting Allosterically Stimulated PRC2.

Mol Cell 2020 11 12;80(4):726-735.e7. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Diffuse midline gliomas and posterior fossa type A ependymomas contain the recurrent histone H3 lysine 27 (H3 K27M) mutation and express the H3 K27M-mimic EZHIP (CXorf67), respectively. H3 K27M and EZHIP are competitive inhibitors of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) lysine methyltransferase activity. In vivo, these proteins reduce overall H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) levels; however, residual peaks of H3K27me3 remain at CpG islands (CGIs) through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that EZHIP and H3 K27M preferentially interact with PRC2 that is allosterically activated by H3K27me3 at CGIs and impede its spreading. Moreover, H3 K27M oncohistones reduce H3K27me3 in trans, independent of their incorporation into the chromatin. Although EZHIP is not found outside placental mammals, expression of human EZHIP reduces H3K27me3 in Drosophila melanogaster through a conserved mechanism. Our results provide mechanistic insights for the retention of residual H3K27me3 in tumors driven by H3 K27M and EZHIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.09.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680438PMC
November 2020

Paediatric Strategy Forum for medicinal product development of epigenetic modifiers for children: ACCELERATE in collaboration with the European Medicines Agency with participation of the Food and Drug Administration.

Eur J Cancer 2020 11 26;139:135-148. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Solving Kids' Cancer, USA.

The fifth multistakeholder Paediatric Strategy Forum focussed on epigenetic modifier therapies for children and adolescents with cancer. As most mutations in paediatric malignancies influence chromatin-associated proteins or transcription and paediatric cancers are driven by developmental gene expression programs, targeting epigenetic mechanisms is predicted to be a very important therapeutic approach in paediatric cancer. The Research to Accelerate Cures and Equity (RACE) for Children Act FDARA amendments to section 505B of the FD&C Act was implemented in August 2020, and as there are many epigenetic targets on the FDA Paediatric Molecular Targets List, clinical evaluation of epigenetic modifiers in paediatric cancers should be considered early in drug development. Companies are also required to submit to the EMA paediatric investigation plans aiming to ensure that the necessary data to support the authorisation of a medicine for children in EU are of high quality and ethically researched. The specific aims of the forum were i) to identify epigenetic targets or mechanisms of action associated with epigenetic modification relevant to paediatric cancers and ii) to define the landscape for paediatric drug development of epigenetic modifier therapies. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors/hypomethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors were largely excluded from discussion as the aim was to discuss those targets for which therapeutic agents are currently in early paediatric and adult development. Epigenetics is an evolving field and could be highly relevant to many paediatric cancers; the biology is multifaceted and new targets are frequently emerging. Targeting epigenetic mechanisms in paediatric malignancy has in most circumstances yet to reach or extend beyond clinical proof of concept, as many targets do not yet have available investigational drugs developed. Eight classes of medicinal products were discussed and prioritised based on the existing level of science to support early evaluation in children: inhibitors of menin, DOT1L, EZH2, EED, BET, PRMT5 and LSD1 and a retinoic acid receptor alpha agonist. Menin inhibitors should be moved rapidly into paediatric development, in view of their biological rationale, strong preclinical activity and ability to fulfil an unmet clinical need. A combination approach is critical for successful utilisation of any epigenetic modifiers (e.g. EZH2 and EED) and exploration of the optimum combination(s) should be supported by preclinical research and, where possible, molecular biomarker validation in advance of clinical translation. A follow-up multistakeholder meeting focussing on BET inhibitors will be held to define how to prioritise the multiple compounds in clinical development that could be evaluated in children with cancer. As epigenetic modifiers are relatively early in development in paediatrics, there is a clear opportunity to shape the landscape of therapies targeting the epigenome in order that efficient and optimum plans for their evaluation in children and adolescents are developed in a timely manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.08.014DOI Listing
November 2020

H3.3 G34W Promotes Growth and Impedes Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Mesenchymal Progenitors in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

Cancer Discov 2020 12 23;10(12):1968-1987. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Glycine 34-to-tryptophan (G34W) substitutions in H3.3 arise in approximately 90% of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT). Here, we show H3.3 G34W is necessary for tumor formation. By profiling the epigenome, transcriptome, and secreted proteome of patient samples and tumor-derived cells CRISPR-Cas9-edited for H3.3 G34W, we show that H3.3K36me3 loss on mutant H3.3 alters the deposition of the repressive H3K27me3 mark from intergenic to genic regions, beyond areas of H3.3 deposition. This promotes redistribution of other chromatin marks and aberrant transcription, altering cell fate in mesenchymal progenitors and hindering differentiation. Single-cell transcriptomics reveals that H3.3 G34W stromal cells recapitulate a neoplastic trajectory from a osteoblast-like progenitor population toward an myofibroblast-like population, which secretes extracellular matrix ligands predicted to recruit and activate osteoclasts. Our findings suggest that H3.3 G34W leads to GCT by sustaining a transformed state in osteoblast-like progenitors, which promotes neoplastic growth, pathologic recruitment of giant osteoclasts, and bone destruction. SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that H3.3 G34W drives GCT tumorigenesis through aberrant epigenetic remodeling, altering differentiation trajectories in mesenchymal progenitors. H3.3 G34W promotes in neoplastic stromal cells an osteoblast-like progenitor state that enables undue interactions with the tumor microenvironment, driving GCT pathogenesis. These epigenetic changes may be amenable to therapeutic targeting in GCT...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710565PMC
December 2020

Epigenomic programming in early fetal brain development.

Epigenomics 2020 06 17;12(12):1053-1070. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

To provide a comprehensive understanding of gene regulatory networks in the developing human brain and a foundation for interpreting pathogenic deregulation. We generated reference epigenomes and transcriptomes of dissected brain regions and primary neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from cortical and ganglionic eminence tissues of four normal human fetuses. Integration of these data across developmental stages revealed a directional increase in active regulatory states, transcription factor activities and gene transcription with developmental stage. Consistent with differences in their biology, NPCs derived from cortical and ganglionic eminence regions contained common, region specific, and gestational week specific regulatory states. We provide a high-resolution regulatory network for NPCs from different brain regions as a comprehensive reference for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2019-0319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857341PMC
June 2020

Pontine gliomas a 10-year population-based study: a report from The Canadian Paediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC).

J Neurooncol 2020 Aug 7;149(1):45-54. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of Haematology Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are midline gliomas that arise from the pons and the majority are lethal within a few months after diagnosis. Due to the lack of histological diagnosis the epidemiology of DIPG is not completely understood. The aim of this report is to provide population-based data to characterize the descriptive epidemiology of this condition in Canadian children.

Patients And Methods: A national retrospective study of children and adolescents diagnosed with DIPG between 2000 and 2010 was undertaken. All cases underwent central review to determine clinical and radiological diagnostic characteristics. Crude incidence figures were calculated using age-adjusted (0-17 year) population data from Statistics Canada. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: A total of 163 patients with pontine lesions were identified. Central review determined one-hundred and forty-three patients who met clinical, radiological and/or histological criteria for diagnosis. We estimate an incidence rate of 1.9 DIPG/1,000,000 children/year in the Canadian population over a 10 years period. Median age at diagnosis was 6.8 years and 50.3% of patients were female. Most patients presented with cranial nerve palsies (76%) and ataxia (66%). Despite typical clinical and radiological characteristics, histological confirmation reported three lesions to be low-grade gliomas and three were diagnosed as CNS embryonal tumor not otherwise specified (NOS).

Conclusions: Our study highlights the challenges associated with epidemiology studies on DIPG and the importance of central review for incidence rate estimations. It emphasizes that tissue biopsies are required for accurate histological and molecular diagnosis in patients presenting with pontine lesions and reinforces the limitations of radiological and clinical diagnosis in DIPG. Likewise, it underscores the urgent need to increase the availability and accessibility to clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03568-8DOI Listing
August 2020

Metabolic Regulation of the Epigenome Drives Lethal Infantile Ependymoma.

Cell 2020 06 22;181(6):1329-1345.e24. Epub 2020 May 22.

The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Center, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada; Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada.

Posterior fossa A (PFA) ependymomas are lethal malignancies of the hindbrain in infants and toddlers. Lacking highly recurrent somatic mutations, PFA ependymomas are proposed to be epigenetically driven tumors for which model systems are lacking. Here we demonstrate that PFA ependymomas are maintained under hypoxia, associated with restricted availability of specific metabolites to diminish histone methylation, and increase histone demethylation and acetylation at histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27). PFA ependymomas initiate from a cell lineage in the first trimester of human development that resides in restricted oxygen. Unlike other ependymomas, transient exposure of PFA cells to ambient oxygen induces irreversible cellular toxicity. PFA tumors exhibit a low basal level of H3K27me3, and, paradoxically, inhibition of H3K27 methylation specifically disrupts PFA tumor growth. Targeting metabolism and/or the epigenome presents a unique opportunity for rational therapy for infants with PFA ependymoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.047DOI Listing
June 2020

Incidence trends in pediatric central nervous system tumors in Canada: a 15 years report from Cancer and Young People in Canada (CYP-C) registry.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa012. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Neurosciences, Division of Child Neurology CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

Background: The aim of this study is to present a national surveillance report on pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Canada during the period between 2001 and 2015.

Methods: All pediatric patients with a diagnosis of primary CNS tumors were collected by the Cancer in Young People in Canada (CYP-C) surveillance system that includes every patient less than 15 years of age with a tumor seen in one of the 17 pediatric oncology centres in Canada. This registry included malignant and benign CNS tumors. We calculated the age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) per 100 000 person-years for CNS tumors overall and by age group, major histology subgroups, and geographical distribution over the country.

Results: Overall, 3306 patients less than 15 years old had been diagnosed with a CNS tumor in Canada in 2001-2015 with a 1.23:1 male to female ratio. The overall AAIR is 3.80. The three most frequent groups of tumors were low-grade gliomas (36.4%), high-grade gliomas (22.3%), and embryonal tumors (18.7%) with incidence rates of 1.41, 0.86, and 0.72 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The incidence rate of pediatric CNS tumors is stable during the period 2001-2015 in Canada and no significant differences were seen between malignant and benign tumors over the country.

Conclusions: These data represent all the pediatric patients 0-14 years old with a CNS tumor in the Canadian population. Incidence rates by age group, sex, and subgroups of tumors are similar to those seen in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052796PMC
February 2020

A phase 2 study of trametinib for patients with pediatric glioma or plexiform neurofibroma with refractory tumor and activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway: TRAM-01.

BMC Cancer 2019 Dec 27;19(1):1250. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Hemato-Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Center, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) are the most frequent brain tumors in children. Up to 50% will be refractory to conventional chemotherapy. It is now known that the majority of PLGG have activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. The same pathway is also activated in plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) which are low-grade tumors involving peripheral nerves in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). These lesions are known to be refractory to chemotherapy. Specific MEK inhibitors such as trametinib are now available and have been approved for other cancers harboring mutations in the MAPK/ERK pathway such as melanoma. We have observed significant responses to trametinib in patients with refractory PLGG in our institutions and results from the phase I study are promising. The treatment appears not only efficacious but is also usually well tolerated. We hypothesize that we will observe responses in the majority of refractory PLGG and PN treated with trametinib in this phase 2 study.

Methods: The primary objective is to determine the objective response rate of trametinib as a single agent for treatment of progressing/refractory tumors with MAPK/ERK pathway activation. The TRAM-01 study is a phase II multicentric open-label basket trial including four groups. Group 1 includes NF1 patients with progressing/refractory glioma. Group 2 includes NF1 patients with plexiform neurofibroma. Group 3 includes patients with progressing/refractory glioma with KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Group 4 includes other patients with progressing/refractory glioma with activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Eligible patients for a given study group will receive daily oral trametinib at full dose for a total of 18 cycles of 28 days. A total of 150 patients will be enrolled in seven Canadian centers. Secondary objectives include the assessment of progression-free survival, overall survival, safety and tolerability of trametinib, serum levels of trametinib and evaluation of quality of life during treatment.

Discussion: Trametinib will allow us to target directly and specifically the MAPK/ERK pathway. We expect to observe a significant response in most patients. Following our study, trametinib could be integrated into standard treatment of PLGG and PN.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03363217 December 6, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6442-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935133PMC
December 2019

Pineoblastoma segregates into molecular sub-groups with distinct clinico-pathologic features: a Rare Brain Tumor Consortium registry study.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 02 9;139(2):223-241. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Pineoblastomas (PBs) are rare, aggressive pediatric brain tumors of the pineal gland with modest overall survival despite intensive therapy. We sought to define the clinical and molecular spectra of PB to inform new treatment approaches for this orphan cancer. Tumor, blood, and clinical data from 91 patients with PB or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNETs/CNS-PNETs), and 2 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) were collected from 29 centres in the Rare Brain Tumor Consortium. We used global DNA methylation profiling to define a core group of PB from 72/93 cases, which were delineated into five molecular sub-groups. Copy number, whole exome and targeted sequencing, and miRNA expression analyses were used to evaluate the clinico-pathologic significance of each sub-group. Tumors designated as group 1 and 2 almost exclusively exhibited deleterious homozygous loss-of-function alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8) in 62 and 100% of group 1 and 2 tumors, respectively. Recurrent alterations of the oncogenic MYC-miR-17/92-RB1 pathway were observed in the RB and MYC sub-group, respectively, characterized by RB1 loss with gain of miR-17/92, and recurrent gain or amplification of MYC. PB sub-groups exhibited distinct clinical features: group 1-3 arose in older children (median ages 5.2-14.0 years) and had intermediate to excellent survival (5-year OS of 68.0-100%), while Group RB and MYC PB patients were much younger (median age 1.3-1.4 years) with dismal survival (5-year OS 37.5% and 28.6%, respectively). We identified age < 3 years at diagnosis, metastatic disease, omission of upfront radiation, and chr 16q loss as significant negative prognostic factors across all PBs. Our findings demonstrate that PB exhibits substantial molecular heterogeneity with sub-group-associated clinical phenotypes and survival. In addition to revealing novel biology and therapeutics, molecular sub-grouping of PB can be exploited to reduce treatment intensity for patients with favorable biology tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02111-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673644PMC
February 2020
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