Publications by authors named "Muhammad Usama"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A deep dive into COVID-19-related messages on WhatsApp in Pakistan.

Soc Netw Anal Min 2022 15;12(1). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

MIT, Cambridge, USA.

The spread of COVID-19 and the lockdowns that followed led to an increase in activity on online social networks. This has resulted in users sharing unfiltered and unreliable information on social networks like WhatsApp, Twitter, Facebook, etc. In this work, we give an extended overview of how Pakistan's population used public WhatsApp groups for sharing information related to the pandemic. Our work is based on a major effort to annotate thousands of text and image-based messages. We explore how information propagates across WhatsApp and the user behavior around it. Specifically, we look at political polarization and its impact on how users from different political parties shared COVID-19-related content. We also try to understand information dissemination across different social networks-Twitter and WhatsApp-in Pakistan and find that there is no significant bot involvement in spreading misinformation about the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13278-021-00833-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8590927PMC
November 2021

Challenges of left atrial appendage closure device and anticoagulation in a patient with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 25;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Cardiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have high risk of bleeding secondary to haematologic disorders, left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion therapy has been shown to be an excellent alternative to long-term use of oral anticoagulation for thromboembolic stroke prevention. However, there remains a major concern of device-associated thrombosis post-procedure, that can lead to life-threatening embolic events. To this date, there is no systematic guideline for the selection and management of patients with haematological disorders with LAA occlusion therapy, especially in those with platelet disorders such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Patients with platelet disorders are at a higher risk for bleeding; however, that does not prevent such patients from thromboembolic events secondary to AF. We present a case of ITP with permanent AF, where an LAA device was complicated by thrombus formation due to challenges faced with anticoagulation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-241985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006819PMC
March 2021

Securing Machine Learning in the Cloud: A Systematic Review of Cloud Machine Learning Security.

Front Big Data 2020 12;3:587139. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha, Qatar.

With the advances in machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques, and the potency of cloud computing in offering services efficiently and cost-effectively, Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) cloud platforms have become popular. In addition, there is increasing adoption of third-party cloud services for outsourcing training of DL models, which requires substantial costly computational resources (e.g., high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs)). Such widespread usage of cloud-hosted ML/DL services opens a wide range of attack surfaces for adversaries to exploit the ML/DL system to achieve malicious goals. In this article, we conduct a systematic evaluation of literature of cloud-hosted ML/DL models along both the important dimensions- and -related to their security. Our systematic review identified a total of 31 related articles out of which 19 focused on attack, six focused on defense, and six focused on both attack and defense. Our evaluation reveals that there is an increasing interest from the research community on the perspective of attacking and defending different attacks on Machine Learning as a Service platforms. In addition, we identify the limitations and pitfalls of the analyzed articles and highlight open research issues that require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fdata.2020.587139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931962PMC
November 2020

Dexmedetomidine Induced Polyuria in the Intensive Care Unit.

Case Rep Crit Care 2021 20;2021:8850116. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Division of Nephrology, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, 4201 St Antoine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Dexmedetomidine is an 2-adrenergic used as an adjunct therapy for sedation in the intensive care unit. While it is known to cause polyuria exclusively in perioperative conditions, not many cases are known in the intensive care unit, thus making the diagnosis challenging. We present the case of a 61-year-old male who had developed polyuria secondary to central diabetes insipidus after receiving dexmedetomidine intravenous infusion in the medical ICU. Increased awareness of this uncommon side effect of dexmedetomidine will help clinicians recognize and address it early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8850116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920733PMC
February 2021

Assessing Fitness-To-Drive among Older Drivers: A Comparative Analysis of Potential Alternatives to on-Road Driving Test.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 29;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Transportation Research Institute (IMOB), Hasselt University, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium.

To enable older drivers to maintain mobility without endangering public safety, it is necessary to develop more effective means of assessing their fitness-to-drive as alternatives to an on-road driving test. In this study, a functional ability test, simulated driving test, and on-road driving test were carried out for 136 older drivers. Influencing factors related to fitness-to-drive were selected based on the correlation between the outcome measure of each test and the pass/fail outcome of the on-road driving test. Four potential alternatives combining different tests were considered and three modeling techniques were compared when constructing the fitness-to-drive assessment model for the elderly. As a result, 92 participants completed all of the tests, of which 61 passed the on-road driving test and the remaining 31 failed. A total of seven influencing factors from all types of tests were selected. The best model was trained by the technique of gradient boosted machine using all of the seven factors, generating the highest accuracy of 92.8%, with sensitivity of 0.94 and specificity of 0.90. The proposed fitness-to-drive assessment method is considered an effective alternative to the on-road driving test, and the results offer a valuable reference for those unfit-to-drive older drivers to either adjust their driving behavior or cease driving.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730871PMC
November 2020

Speech Technology for Healthcare: Opportunities, Challenges, and State of the Art.

IEEE Rev Biomed Eng 2021 22;14:342-356. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Speech technology is not appropriately explored even though modern advances in speech technology-especially those driven by deep learning (DL) technology-offer unprecedented opportunities for transforming the healthcare industry. In this paper, we have focused on the enormous potential of speech technology for revolutionising the healthcare domain. More specifically, we review the state-of-the-art approaches in automatic speech recognition (ASR), speech synthesis or text to speech (TTS), and health detection and monitoring using speech signals. We also present a comprehensive overview of various challenges hindering the growth of speech-based services in healthcare. To make speech-based healthcare solutions more prevalent, we discuss open issues and suggest some possible research directions aimed at fully leveraging the advantages of other technologies for making speech-based healthcare solutions more effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RBME.2020.3006860DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation Of Modified Alvarado, Ripasa And Lintula Scoring System As Diagnostic Tools For Acute Appendicitis.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2020 Jan- Mar;32(1):46-50

Department of Gastroenterology, Gujranwala Medical College, Gujranwala, Pakistan.

Background: Commonest surgical emergency presenting to emergency departments with abdominal pain is acute appendicitis. Thus, to enable quick and accurate diagnosis of the condition various scoring systems have been developed. Among these, Alvarado and its modified version (Modified Alvarado) are the commonest. Whereas Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) score showed promising results in Asian population. Similarly, Lintula score, which was initially developed for paediatric population, has now been validated for elderly too. This study is aimed to compare these in our regional population.

Methods: Project included consecutive 125 clinically suspected acute appendicitis patients. All were scored using Modified Alvarado, RIPASA and Lintula systems. Final diagnosis was based on histopathologic evaluation of excised specimen. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy were computed for all these systems by using SPSS statistical software and ROC curves were plotted.

Results: With cut-off of 7, Modified Alvarado was 62% specific, 83% sensitive and 65% accurate. While PPV and NPV were 94% and 33%, respectively. Whereas RIPASA yielded better results, i.e., sensitivity of 98.4%, specificity of 87%, PPV of 97%, NPV of 77% and diagnostic accuracy of 92%. Whereas Lintula showed sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 87%, PPV of 96%, NPV of 40 and accuracy of 73%.

Conclusions: RIPASA demonstrated higher sensitivity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy than Modified Alvarado and Lintula scores. Hence this study approves use of RIPASA score in the region. However further research on the subject is required to back this inference.
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November 2020

Ipilimumab-Induced Hypophysitis.

Am J Ther 2019 Dec 11;28(6):e761-e763. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Detroit Medical Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000001124DOI Listing
December 2019

A Survey on Recent Trends and Open Issues in Energy Efficiency of 5G.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Jul 15;19(14). Epub 2019 Jul 15.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.

The rapidly increasing interest from various verticals for the upcoming 5th generation (5G) networks expect the network to support higher data rates and have an improved quality of service. This demand has been met so far by employing sophisticated transmission techniques including massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), millimeter wave (mmWave) bands as well as bringing the computational power closer to the users via advanced baseband processing units at the base stations. Future evolution of the networks has also been assumed to open many new business horizons for the operators and the need of not only a resource efficient but also an energy efficient ecosystem has greatly been felt. The deployment of small cells has been envisioned as a promising answer for handling the massive heterogeneous traffic, but the adverse economic and environmental impacts cannot be neglected. Given that 10% of the world's energy consumption is due to the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industry, energy-efficiency has thus become one of the key performance indicators (KPI). Various avenues of optimization, game theory and machine learning have been investigated for enhancing power allocation for downlink and uplink channels, as well as other energy consumption/saving approaches. This paper surveys the recent works that address energy efficiency of the radio access as well as the core of wireless networks, and outlines related challenges and open issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19143126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679251PMC
July 2019

Advances In Research On Genome Editing Crispr-Cas9 Technology.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Jan-Mar;31(1):108-122

Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: The current era of genome engineering has been revolutionized by the evolution of a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) into a radical technology that is making an expeditious progress in its mechanism, function and applicability..

Methods: A systematic literature review study was carried out with the help of all available information and online resources..

Results: In this review, we intend to elucidate different aspects of CRISPR in the light of current advancements. Utilizing a nonspecific Cas9 nuclease and a sequence specific programmable CRISPR RNA (crRNA), this system cleaves the target DNA with high precision. With a vast potential for profound implications, CRISPR has emerged as a mainstream method for plausible genomic manipulations in a range of organisms owing to its simplicity, accuracy and speed. A modified form of CRISPR system, known as CRISPR/Cpf1 that employs a smaller and simpler endonuclease (Cpf1) than Cas9, can be used to overcome certain limitations of CRISPR/Cas9 system. Despite clear-cut innovative biological applications, this technology is challenged by off-target effects and associated risks, thus safe and controlled implementation is needed to enable this emerging technique assist both biological research and translational applications.

Conclusions: CRISPR/Cas9 systems will undoubtedly revolutionize the study and treatment of both immunologic and allergic diseases. Concerned authorities should formulate and authorize such laws and regulations that permit the safe and ethical use of this emerging technology for basic research and clinical purposes.
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May 2019

Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Cases of Myocardial Infarction, Reported in Abbottabad, Haripur and Mansehra Districts.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2019 01;29(1):93

Department of Pediatrics, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2019.01.93DOI Listing
January 2019

Correction: Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(3):e0195420. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168207.].
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195420PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5875881PMC
March 2018

Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(1):e0168207. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

HPCC Service Center, Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168207PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225018PMC
August 2017
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