Publications by authors named "Muhammad Sohail Zafar"

59 Publications

Shear Bond Strength of Veneered Zirconia Repaired Using Various Methods and Adhesive Systems: A Comparative Study.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah, Al Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the shear bond strength of five different repair methods and adhesive systems for zirconia (Zr) cores layered with feldspathic porcelain. Seventy-five Zr specimens (10 × 10 × 4 mm) were prepared, sintered, layered with 2 × 10 × 10 mm of feldspathic porcelain, and fired. The ceramic was fractured, and the load recorded using a shear-bond test. Specimens were thermocycled and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 15/group) based on the repair methods. Composite repair blocks with similar dimensions to the layered ceramic (2 × 10 × 10 mm) were built according to each repair method. Shear bond strength testing of the specimens with composite built up was carried out using a universal testing machine (Instron5960, Massachusetts, USA). The shear bond strengths of the adhesive interface between repaired composite and the Zr were recorded for all the test groups. The fractured specimens' surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope (Jeol, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo, Japan) for evaluation of the type of failure and surface characteristics. Shear bond strength of the veneered ceramic bonded to the Zr for all the test groups was non-significant (ANOVA, = 0.062). Shear bond strength after the repair revealed significant differences (ANOVA, = 0.002). Group-C (13.79 ± 1.32) and Group-D (9.77 ± 4.77) showed the highest and lowest shear bond strength values, respectively. Paired Sample T-tests showed significantly lower values ( = 0.000) for the repaired (composite) Zr compared to the layered (ceramic) Zr. Multiple comparisons revealed differences (significant) between the shear bond strength of Group-D with Groups A ( = 0.010) and C ( = 0.003, Post Hoc Tukey test). The repair methods tested showed variations in their respective shear bond strengths. Complete ceramic/zirconia repair systems showed better bonding between the repaired composite and Zr core. The mean shear bond strength for the repaired fractured layered Zr showed acceptable outcomes in terms of clinical perspective, but was, however, unpredictable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13060910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998840PMC
March 2021

Characteristics of Periodontal Tissues in Prosthetic Treatment with Fixed Dental Prostheses.

Molecules 2021 Mar 2;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Stomatology, Yerevan State Medical University, Street Koryun 2, Yerevan 0025, Armenia.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various types of fixed prostheses on periodontal tissues and explore the association of gingival biotype and gum recession in relation to prosthesis types. The study participants (N = 95) were divided into three groups based on the type of dental prosthesis: Group-I: cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) ceramic prosthesis fabricated by the conventional method (n = 35); Group-II: consisted of patients with Co-Cr ceramic prostheses fabricated by a computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique (n = 30); and Group-III: zirconia-based prostheses fabricated by the CAD/CAM technique (n = 30). Following the use of prostheses, periodontal examinations were performed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Modified Approximal Plaque Index (MAPI). In addition, the gingival biotype was examined using a probe transparency method. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 20 (IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA), was used to analyze the results, and the significance level was set at = 0.05. It showed the MAPI results after the use of prosthetic rehabilitation for 12 months of periodontitis in 87.9% ± 15.4 of patients in Group-I, in 80.6% ± 17.97 in those in Group-II, and in 62.5% ± 21.4 in those in Group-III ( < 0.01). The CPI index results indicated a high prevalence of periodontal disease in all groups. The number of people with healthy periodontium constituted 17.1% of patients in Group-I, 24.2% in Group-II, and 37.1% in Group-III. Our study concluded that prosthetic treatment with periodontal diseases showed better outcomes while using dental prostheses fabricated by the CAD/CAM technique compared to the conventionally fabricated dental prostheses. The thin gingival biotype is more often associated with gingival recession than the thick biotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958327PMC
March 2021

Assessment of blended learning for teaching dental anatomy to dentistry students.

J Dent Educ 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Taibah University, Madina Munawwarra, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Blended learning (BL) combines conventional face to face (F2F) sessions with online educational resources. This method includes the advantages of online course delivery without the omission of conventional F2F interaction. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate students' satisfaction and educational outcomes in a BL course compared to traditionally administered dental anatomy course.

Methods: A prospective non-randomized study was conducted to compare the outcomes and perception of BL for teaching dental anatomy to dental students. First year dental anatomy students (n = 98) were included (48 in the conventional F2F learning and 50 in the BL group). Multiple choice questions were used to assess the achievement of learning outcomes and the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) to determine the educational environment during the course.

Results: There was no significant difference in the pre-test scores of both groups; however the mean post-test score for the BL group (31.5 ± 4.5) was significantly higher than the F2F group (27.2 ± 4.9). The post-test scores were comparable across both genders in the BL group while females secured significantly higher scores than males in the F2F group. The DREEM scores were also significantly higher in the BL group (147.3 ± 15.5) than the F2F group (134.5 ± 15.1) (p < 0.002). A similar pattern was observed in DREEM subscales.

Conclusions: The BL course is associated with improved students' satisfaction and learner achievement compared to a conventionally administered dental anatomy course. In addition, BL enhanced students' accessibility, self-assessment, and higher level of engagement compared to F2F delivery of the course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12606DOI Listing
April 2021

Critical features of periodontal flaps with regard to blood clot stability: A review.

J Oral Biosci 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Community Dentistry, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences for Girls, Karachi, 74200, Pakistan; Department of Preventive Dentistry (Dental Public Health), College of Dentistry, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Wound healing is a multifactorial procedure involving different cell types and biological mediators. The principles of wound healing are also applicable to periodontal tissues. The formation and stability of blood clots play a vital role in successful healing of wounds in periodontal tissues. The aim of the present review was to highlight the vital factors of periodontal flaps associated with blood clot stability.

Highlight: The data on periodontal regeneration and wound healing have evolved greatly in light of several factors, including space for blood clots and blood clot stabilization. In periodontal osseous defects, the stability of blood clots seems critical to wound healing. If mechanical forces can be managed by wound stabilization, the gingival flap-tooth root interface may show connective tissue repair. However, compromised adhesion is susceptible to mechanical forces and can cause wound breakage and epithelialization.

Conclusion: The presence of a thick blood clot may hinder the plasmatic circulation between the recipient bed and graft during the initial stage of healing, which is critical in cases of mucogingival surgery. Root conditioning can also determine the healing consequence by enhancing blood clot adhesion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2021.02.007DOI Listing
March 2021

Regenerative Potential of Enamel Matrix Protein Derivative and Acellular Dermal Matrix for Gingival Recession: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Proteomes 2021 Feb 25;9(1). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah, Al Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of using a combination of enamel matrix protein derivative and acellular dermal matrix in comparison to acellular dermal matrix alone for treating gingival recessions.

Methods: The Cochrane Library (Wiley), PubMed by Medline (NLM), Medline (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid) databases were searched for entries up to April 2020. Only clinical trials were included. Primary outcomes were root coverage (%), changes in keratinized tissue width and recession (mm). Meta-analysis was conducted for root coverage, changes in keratinized tissue width, recession, clinical attachment level and probing depth.

Results: Four studies were selected for the analysis. In primary outcomes, root coverage, change in keratinized tissue width and recession analysis showed a mean difference of 4.99% ( 0.11), 0.20 mm ( 0.14) and 0.13 mm ( 0.23) respectively between the two groups. Secondary outcomes analysis also exhibited a statistically insignificant difference between the test and control group with mean difference of 0.11 mm ( 0.32) in clinical attachment level gain and -0.03 mm ( 0.29) in probing depth reduction analysis.

Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, enamel matrix protein derivative combined with acellular dermal matrix used for treating gingival recession defects resulted in no beneficial effect clinically than acellular dermal matrix only.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/proteomes9010011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005981PMC
February 2021

Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK): An emerging biomaterial for oral implants and dental prostheses.

J Adv Res 2021 Feb 18;28:87-95. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.

Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) is a new evolving polymeric material. The present article comprehensively reviewed an overview of various applications of PEKK in prosthodontics and oral implantology, highlighting its prospects for clinical applications. PEKK biomaterials is an elastic material with good shock absorbance and fracture resistance and present ultra-high performance among all thermoplastic composites for excellent mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and high thermal stability. Available articles on PEKK for dental applications were reviewed from January 1957 to August 2020) using MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect resources. PEKK presents suitable physical, mechanical, and chemical properties for applications in prosthodontics and oral implantology. PEKK has good potential for a wide range of dental applications, including tooth restorations, crowns, bridge, endoposts, denture framework, implant-supported fixed prosthesis, and dental implants. PEKK dental implants have shown lesser stress shielding compared to titanium for dental implant applications. Further modifications and improving material properties can result in broader applications in the field of dentistry. Long term evaluations are needed as PEKK is recently applied in dentistry, and there are limited studies published on PEKK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770505PMC
February 2021

Impact of Endodontic Instrumentation on Surface Roughness of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Files.

Eur J Dent 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives:  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the surface roughness (SR) of various nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary endodontic instruments (ProTaper Next [PTN], WaveOne Gold [WOG], and ProTaper Gold [PTG]) before and after root canal instrumentation.

Materials And Methods:  For each type (PTN, WOG, and PTG), the endodontic instrumentation was performed using extracted mandibular molar teeth's curved mesial root canals (curvature: 20-40 degrees) after determining the working length. Each NiTi file was cleaned, and sterilized following preparation of four root canals and characterized for surface properties before and after endodontic instrumentation using a contact-mode three-dimensional surface profiler. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for SR parameters including average surface roughness value (Sa), root mean square roughness (Sq), and peak to valley height (Sz).

Results:  Preinstrumentation assessment revealed a significant difference for all the three SR variables < 0.05) for the cutting blade and the flute area. WOG instruments showed the highest SR values ( = 0.000). The postinstrumentation assessment revealed significant differences in SR values in the blade and the flute between the three groups ( < 0.05), with WOG and PTG exhibiting the highest values in the blade and flute sections, respectively.

Conclusions:  The SR parameters of intact PTN, WOG, and PTG NiTi files vary and that was increased following the endodontic instrumentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718469DOI Listing
October 2020

Prosthodontic Applications of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA): An Update.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Oct 8;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah, Al Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

A wide range of polymers are commonly used for various applications in prosthodontics. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used for prosthetic dental applications, including the fabrication of artificial teeth, denture bases, dentures, obturators, orthodontic retainers, temporary or provisional crowns, and for the repair of dental prostheses. Additional dental applications of PMMA include occlusal splints, printed or milled casts, dies for treatment planning, and the embedding of tooth specimens for research purposes. The unique properties of PMMA, such as its low density, aesthetics, cost-effectiveness, ease of manipulation, and tailorable physical and mechanical properties, make it a suitable and popular biomaterial for these dental applications. To further improve the properties (thermal properties, water sorption, solubility, impact strength, flexural strength) of PMMA, several chemical modifications and mechanical reinforcement techniques using various types of fibers, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have been reported recently. The present article comprehensively reviews various aspects and properties of PMMA biomaterials, mainly for prosthodontic applications. In addition, recent updates and modifications to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of PMMA are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12102299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599472PMC
October 2020

Controlled-release behavior of ciprofloxacin from a biocompatible polymeric system based on sodium alginate/poly(ethylene glycol) mono methyl ether.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 29;165(Pt A):1047-1054. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Centre for Genetics and Inherited Diseases (CGID), Taibah University, Madinah AlMunawwarah 42318, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

In this study, a facile drug release system was developed through a solution casting technique using a combination of sodium alginate (SA), poly(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether (mPEG) and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPX). The structure of the membranes was characterized using ATR-FTIR, AFM and the static contact angle (SCA) was determined to find surface nature of membranes. ATR-FTIR confirmed the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between SA/mPEG in bio-polymeric membranes. AFM micrographs exhibited the extent of roughness which decreased as the contents of mPEG in the membranes were increased up to 40% (w/w). The SCA values ranged between 24° to 84° (at 0 s) and 14° to 80° (at 60 s) and showed an increase in hydrophilicity due to the incorporation of mPEG. In vitro drug release profile of CPX loaded on a membrane comprising of SA/mPEG (80/20) was evaluated in SGF (pH 1.2) and PBS (pH 7.4) solutions till 3 h. At pH 1.2, the maximum amount of CPX (~80%) was released in 70-120 min while ~75% drug was released in 90-120 min at pH 7.4. The present study demonstrated a facile and cost-effective approach to prepare SA/mPEG membranes that may be potentially employed as a drug delivery system in various biomedical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.196DOI Listing
December 2020

Salivary IgA as a Useful Biomarker for Dental Caries in Down's Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Eur J Dent 2020 Oct 24;14(4):665-671. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to critically analyze and summarize studies reporting association of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels as a biomarker for dental caries in Down syndrome (DS) patients. Using the keywords salivary [All Fields] AND IgA [All Fields] AND ("down syndrome" [MeSH Terms] OR ("down"[All Fields] AND "syndrome" [All Fields]) OR "down syndrome" [All Fields]), an electronic search was conducted via PubMed and Scopus databases by two authors, H. H. and Z. K. independently. Retrieved studies were screened against the predefined exclusion and inclusion criteria. To estimate the risk of bias, quality assessment of included studies was carried using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for observational studies. Primary search resulted in 10 articles from PubMed and 13 articles from Scopus. Ten studies fulfilled the defined selection criteria and evaluated the salivary IgA (sIgA) level in DS patients with dental caries. Five articles were further analyzed in a quantitative synthesis presented in the meta-analysis. Due to a modified lifestyle and compromised oral hygiene in DS patients, understandably, it is still postulated in the literature that the presence of sIgA can have a protective effect on the occurrence of dental caries as compared with healthy counterparts. As indicated by the present meta-analysis, no conclusions can be drawn as to definitively label sIgA as a biomarker for dental caries. Further, well-designed longitudinal clinical studies and translational research are therefore required before the benchmarking of sIgA as a useful biomarker for dental caries in DS patients with preferable molecular insights.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1716443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536095PMC
October 2020

Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Practitioners Related to Disinfection during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Jul 25;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al-Madina Al-Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

The world is currently facing a pandemic crisis due to a novel coronavirus. For this purpose, acquiring updated knowledge regarding prevention and disinfection during the current pandemic is necessary for every dental practitioner. In our study, we aimed to evaluate globally the level of knowledge and the attitude of dental practitioners related to disinfection. A total of 385 participants out of 401 participants from 23 different countries across the world were included in the final analysis after the exclusion of incomplete responses. The majority of the dentists who responded were females (53.8%) and were practicing at private health institutes (36.4%). The mean knowledge score of the participants was estimated to be 4.19 ± 1.88 out of 12, reflecting insufficient knowledge, and the mean attitude score of the participants was estimated to be 12.24 ± 3.23 out of 15, which shows a positive attitude toward disinfection practices during coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, the current study indicated a lack of knowledge in fundamental aspects of disinfection protocols with a significant and positive attitude from dental health professionals toward disinfection regarding the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551794PMC
July 2020

Periostin: Immunomodulatory Effects on Oral Diseases.

Eur J Dent 2020 Jul 20;14(3):462-466. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Centre for Genetics and Inherited Diseases, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Madinah Al-Munawarah, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Periostin is a microcellular adapter protein. It plays a wide range of essential roles during the development and in immunomodulation. Periostin is a prominent contributor during the process of angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and cardiac repair. It is expressed in periodontal ligaments, tendons, skin, adipose tissues, muscle, and bone. This is a protein-based biomolecule that has the diagnostic and monitoring capability and can potentially be used as a biomarker to detect physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of the present review was to explore the periostin morphology and associated structural features. Additionally, periostin's immunomodulatory effects and associated biomarkers in context of oral diseases have been discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1714037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440953PMC
July 2020

Biomimetic Aspects of Restorative Dentistry Biomaterials.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2020 Jul 15;5(3). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Science of Dental Materials, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi 74200, Pakistan.

Biomimetic has emerged as a multi-disciplinary science in several biomedical subjects in recent decades, including biomaterials and dentistry. In restorative dentistry, biomimetic approaches have been applied for a range of applications, such as restoring tooth defects using bioinspired peptides to achieve remineralization, bioactive and biomimetic biomaterials, and tissue engineering for regeneration. Advancements in the modern adhesive restorative materials, understanding of biomaterial-tissue interaction at the nano and microscale further enhanced the restorative materials' properties (such as color, morphology, and strength) to mimic natural teeth. In addition, the tissue-engineering approaches resulted in regeneration of lost or damaged dental tissues mimicking their natural counterpart. The aim of the present article is to review various biomimetic approaches used to replace lost or damaged dental tissues using restorative biomaterials and tissue-engineering techniques. In addition, tooth structure, and various biomimetic properties of dental restorative materials and tissue-engineering scaffold materials, are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557867PMC
July 2020

An Evidence-Based Update on the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Periodontal Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 28;21(11). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al-Madina Al-Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

Several investigators have reported about the intricate molecular mechanism underlying periodontal diseases (PD). Nevertheless, the role of specific genes, cells, or cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still unclear. Although periodontitis is one of the most prevalent oral diseases globally, there are no pre-diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets available for such inflammatory lesions. A pivotal role is played by pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in modulating pathophysiological and physiological processes in repairing damaged tissues. In addition, effects on osteoimmunology is ever evolving due to the ongoing research in understanding the molecular mechanism lying beneath periodontal diseases. The aim of the current review is to deliver an evidence-based update on the molecular mechanism of periodontitis with a particular focus on recent developments. Reports regarding the molecular mechanism of these diseases have revealed unforeseen results indicative of the fact that significant advances have been made to the periodontal medicine over the past decade. There is integrated hypothesis-driven research going on. Although a wide picture of association of periodontal diseases with immune response has been further clarified with present ongoing research, small parts of the puzzle remain a mystery and require further investigations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312805PMC
May 2020

Fear and Practice Modifications among Dentists to Combat Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 19;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

An outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China has influenced every aspect of life. Healthcare professionals, especially dentists, are exposed to a higher risk of getting infected due to close contact with infected patients. The current study was conducted to assess anxiety and fear of getting infected among dentists while working during the current novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) outbreak. In addition, dentists' knowledge about various practice modifications to combat COVID-19 has been evaluated. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey from 10th to 17th March 2020. The well-constructed questionnaire was designed and registered at online website (Kwiksurveys) and validated. A total of 669 participants from 30 different countries across the world responded. After scrutiny, completed questionnaires (n = 650) were included in the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25. Chi-Square and Spearman correlation tests were applied to control confounders and assess the relation of dentists' response with respect to gender and educational level. More than two-thirds of the general dental practitioners (78%) from 30 countries questioned were anxious and scared by the devastating effects of COVID-19. A large number of dentists (90%) were aware of recent changes in the treatment protocols. However, execution of amended treatment protocol was recorded as 61%. The majority of the dentists (76%) were working in the hospital setting out of which 74% were from private, and 20% were from government setups. Individually we received a large number of responses from Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, but collectively more than 50% of the responses were from other parts of the world. Despite having a high standard of knowledge and practice, dental practitioners around the globe are in a state of anxiety and fear while working in their respective fields due to the COVID-19 pandemic impact on humanity. A number of dental practices have either modified their services according to the recommended guidelines to emergency treatment only or closed down practices for an uncertain period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216192PMC
April 2020

Salivary gland tissue engineering to attain clinical benefits: a special report.

Regen Med 2020 03 7;15(3):1455-1461. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

The salivary glands produce saliva, which helps in mediating the oral colonization of microbes, the repair of mucosa, the remineralization of teeth, lubrication and gustation. However, certain medications, therapeutic radiation and certain autoimmune diseases can cause a reduction in the salivary flow. The aim of this report was to review and highlight the indications and techniques of salivary gland engineering to counter hyposalivation. This report concludes that in the literature, numerous strategies have been suggested and discussed pertaining to the engineering of salivary gland, however, challenges remain in terms of its production and accurate function. Dedicated efforts are required from researchers all over the world to obtain the maximum benefits from salivary gland engineering techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/rme-2019-0079DOI Listing
March 2020

Functionally graded biomimetic biomaterials in dentistry: an evidence-based update.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 06 31;31(9):1144-1162. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Clinical Dentistry, Restorative Division, Faculty of Dentistry, International Medical University Kuala Lumpur, Bukit Jalil, Malaysia Bukit Jalil, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur.

Design and development of novel therapeutic strategies to regenerate lost tissue structure and function is a serious clinical hurdle for researchers. Traditionally, much of the research is dedicated in optimising properties of scaffolds. Current synthetic biomaterials remain rudimentary in comparison to their natural counterparts. The ability to incorporate biologically inspired elements into the design of synthetic materials has advanced with time. Recent reports suggest that functionally graded material mimicking the natural tissue morphology can have a more exaggerated response on the targeted tissue. The aim of this review is to deliver an overview of the functionally graded concept with respect to applications in clinical dentistry. A comprehensive understanding of spatiotemporal arrangement in fields of restorative, prosthodontics, periodontics, orthodontics and oral surgery is presented. Different processing techniques have been adapted to achieve such gradients ranging from additive manufacturing (three dimensional printing/rapid prototyping) to conventional techniques of freeze gelation, freeze drying, electrospinning and particulate leaching. The scope of employing additive manufacturing technique as a reliable and predictable tool for the design and accurate reproduction of biomimetic templates is vast by any measure. Further research in the materials used and refinement of the synthesis techniques will continue to expand the frontiers of functionally graded membrane based biomaterials application in the clinical domain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1744289DOI Listing
June 2020

A Smart Drug Delivery System Based on Biodegradable Chitosan/Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) Blend Films.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Feb 4;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Centre for Genetics and Inherited Diseases (CGID), Taibah University, Madinah Al Munawwarah 42318, Saudi Arabia.

The amalgamation of natural polysaccharides with synthetic polymers often produces fruitful results in the area of drug delivery due to their biodegradable and biocompatible nature. In this study, a series of blend films composed of chitosan (CS)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in different compositions were prepared as smart drug delivery matrices. The properties of these polymeric films were then explored. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis confirmed an intermolecular hydrogen bonding between CS and PAH. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed improvements in surface morphology as the percentage of PAH in the blend films increased up to 60% (w/w). Water contact angle (WCA) ranged between 97° to 115°, exhibiting the hydrophobic nature of the films. Two films were selected, CTH-1 (90% CS and 10% PAH) and CTH-2 (80% CS and 20% PAH), to test for in vitro cumulative drug release (%) at 37 ± 0.5 °C as a function of time. It was revealed that for simulated gastric fluid (SGF) with pH 1.2, the cumulative drug release (CDR) for CTH-1 and CTH-2 was around 88% and 85% in 50 min, respectively. Both films converted into gel-like material after 30 min. On the other hand, in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution, the maximum CDR for CTH-1 and CTH-2 was 93% in 90 min and 98% in 120 min, respectively. After 120 min, these films became fragments. Sustained drug release was observed in PBS, as compared to SGF, because of the poor stability of the films in the latter. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of blend films in sustained-release drug delivery systems for hydrophilic or unstable drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12020131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076397PMC
February 2020

Aspects of Clinical Malpractice in Endodontics.

Eur J Dent 2019 Jul 3;13(3):450-458. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

The clinical dentistry and endodontic procedures involve very technique-sensitive procedures, therefore exposing the operator to risks of causes not only damage to patients but also leads to malpractice. Among various disciplines of dentistry, endodontics-related cases witness the most frequently filed malpractice claims. This is due to the fact that the endodontic treatment procedures involve operative and surgical procedures, using a variety of medicaments and techniques. The endodontic procedural errors can be preoperative errors (such as incorrect diagnosis and misinterpretation), intraoperative errors including root canal and pulp chamber perforations, ledge formation leading to apical transportation or zipping, hypochlorite accidents, and fracture of instruments. More critically, failure to use rubber dam may result in inhalation or ingestion of endodontic instruments. Under such circumstances, the endodontist may have to face legal consequences. Due to the increased healthcare load and patients' awareness, it is important to know the legal ramifications of adverse effects, failed restorations, or other complications, to avoid any legal ramifications of endodontic procedures and associated techniques. Therefore, precautions must be taken to prevent any postsurgical complications, patient complaints, and/or failures. For this purpose, the operator must consider ethical principles and adhere strictly to the standards of healthcare while performing the diagnosis and treatment. A referral toward a specialist or consultant endodontist is always an appreciable option and should be considered in the best interest of the patient. The aim of the article is to highlight various aspects of malpractice in clinical endodontics, and associated materials and challenges. In addition, commonly occurring operating errors during endodontic treatment, possible consequences, precautions, and management have been discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1700767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6890511PMC
July 2019

Bioactive Glass Applications in Dentistry.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Nov 27;20(23). Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah, Al Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

At present, researchers in the field of biomaterials are focusing on the oral hard and soft tissue engineering with bioactive ingredients by activating body immune cells or different proteins of the body. By doing this natural ground substance, tissue component and long-lasting tissues grow. One of the current biomaterials is known as bioactive glass (BAG). The bioactive properties make BAG applicable to several clinical applications involving the regeneration of hard tissues in medicine and dentistry. In dentistry, its uses include dental restorative materials, mineralizing agents, as a coating material for dental implants, pulp capping, root canal treatment, and air-abrasion, and in medicine it has its applications from orthopedics to soft-tissue restoration. This review aims to provide an overview of promising and current uses of bioactive glasses in dentistry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928922PMC
November 2019

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Medical and Dental Applications: A Comprehensive Review.

Eur J Dent 2019 Feb 6;13(1):124-128. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most significant analytical techniques that has been developed in the past few decades. A broad range of biological and nonbiological applications ranging from an individual cell to organs and tissues has been investigated through NMR. Various aspects of this technique are still under research, and many functions of the NMR are still pending a better understanding and acknowledgment. Therefore, this review is aimed at providing a general overview of the main principles, types of this technique, and the advantages and disadvantages of NMR spectroscopy. In addition, an insight into the current uses of NMR in the field of medicine and dentistry and ongoing developments of NMR spectroscopy for future applications has been discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1688654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635960PMC
February 2019

Outbreak Of Chikungunya Virus In Karachi, Pakistan.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2018 Jul-Sep;30(3):486-489

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Islamabad Medical & Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan.

In this report, aim is to highlight the recent outbreak of Chikungunya virus in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Chikungunya virus is transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Firstly, described as an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952 and later spread in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Pacific and Indian Oceans. In late 2016, the virus has been reported to cause severe morbidity and fatality among patients reporting to the local government hospital in Malir region of Karachi. Patients came to emergency ward with complaints of fever, skin rashes, fatigue and joint pain. To improve the existing knowledge and current epidemic in this area we reported the causes, sign & symptoms, precautions and treatment measures for the control from this virus spreading in mass gatherings. In addition, self-awareness, preventive measures implementation by public health officials in response to reports of Chikungunya virus will help to evaluate the outbreak settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2019

Bullying experiences of dental interns working at four dental institutions of a developing country: A cross-sectional study.

Work 2018 ;61(1):91-100

Department of Dental Materials Science, Sindh Institute of Oral health Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Bullying is an aggressive and violent behavior marked by repetitive harassment of a weaker victim, which may also occur in the workplace including healthcare settings. Although extensively studied in the west, bullying of workers in the healthcare setting is largely underexplored in the South Asian context.

Objective: The aim of our study was to explore the phenomena of workplace bullying among dental interns in selected dental institutes of Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental interns working at four dental institutions in Karachi, Pakistan. The Negative acts questionnaire (NAQ-R), a standardized, validated tool was administered to identify bullying experiences among dental interns over the past six months; in addition, demographic information of participants as well as details about their exposure to bullying was collected. A multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify the correlates of bullying in this population. The study was performed and reported according to the STROBE guidelines. Data was analyzed using STATA 12.0 and SPSS 19.0.

Results: A total of 125 participants were included in our analysis. Bullying prevalence among dental interns based on the operational definition by Mikkelsen stood at 36.8%, while self-labelled bullying was observed in 55 %. Males and participants from private institutions were more likely to self-label themselves as victims. 67% of respondents reported having witnessed bullying. Clinical faculty was identified as the most common perpetrator (23%) followed by colleagues 20% and the dental support staff 17%. Report of bullying among victims was low (14.5%) the most common reason being that "complaining is of no use" (28.8%) and "being afraid of the consequences" (22%).

Conclusions: The results of the study indicate a high prevalence of bullying in the participating dental institutions. Our results indicate a clear need to implement antiviolence regulations, anti-bullying educational programs and advocate further research on interventions to minimize bullying, enhance learning and professional engagement of interns in dental institutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-182784DOI Listing
January 2019

Different pontic design for porcelain fused to metal fixed dental prosthesis: Contemporary guidelines and practice by general dental practitioners.

Eur J Dent 2018 Jul-Sep;12(3):375-379

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Madinah, Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The current study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of pontic design selection by the general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the light of contemporary guidelines.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the GDPs of Karachi. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from 100 GDPs. The questionnaire included general/demographic information (practitioner's education, experience, and place of practice) and an average number of fixed prosthesis constructed by the GDP. The questionnaire was further categorized to evaluate the knowledge/practice of pontic design selection and latest recommendations.

Results: For the maxillary anterior segment, the ridge lap pontic was the most common (32%) followed by the modified ridge lap (28%). In the maxillary posterior segment, the ridge lap pontic was the most common (37%) followed by sanitary design (34%). For the mandibular anterior segment, the modified ridge lap (50%) was the most common followed by ridge lap pontic (17%). In case of the mandibular posterior segment, the sanitary design (34%) was the most common followed by ridge lap pontic (30%).

Conclusions: The pontic design selection for the fixed prosthesis is a neglected domain. The contemporary guidelines are not followed with full spirit by the GDPs leading to wide variations in the pontic design selection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ejd.ejd_232_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089067PMC
August 2018

Efficacy of metformin in the management of periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Saudi Pharm J 2018 Jul 16;26(5):634-642. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation of the periodontium and leads to loss of teeth if untreated. Although a number of surgical and pharmacological options are available for the management of periodontitis, it still affects a large proportion of population. Recently, metformin (MF), an oral hypoglycemic, has been used to treat periodontitis. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of MF in the treatment of periodontitis. An electronic search was carried out using the keywords 'metformin', 'periodontal' and 'periodontitis' via the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published from 1949 to 2016. The addressed focused question was: 'Is metformin effective in reducing bone loss in periodontitis? Critical review and meta-analysis were conducted of the results obtained in the selected studies. Following the removal of the duplicate results, the primary search resulted in 17 articles and seven articles were excluded based on title and abstract. Hence, 10 articles were read completely for eligibility. After exclusion of four irrelevant studies, six articles were included. The topical application of MF resulted in improved histological, clinical and radiographic outcomes. Additionally, results from the meta-analysis indicated that application of metformin improved the clinical and radiographic outcomes of scaling and root-planing, but at the same time heterogeneity was evident among the results. However, because of a lack of histological and bacterial studies, in addition to short follow-up periods and risk of bias, the long-term efficacy of MF in the treatment of bony defects is not yet ascertained. Further studies are needed to envisage the long-term efficacy of MF in the management of periodontitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2018.02.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035318PMC
July 2018

Comparative abrasive wear resistance and surface analysis of dental resin-based materials.

Eur J Dent 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):57-66

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the surface properties (microhardness and wear resistance) of various composites and compomer materials. In addition, the methodologies used for assessing wear resistance were compared.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted using restorative material (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350, QuiXfil, SureFil SDR, and Dyract XP) to assess wear resistance. A custom-made toothbrush simulator was employed for wear testing. Before and after wear resistance, structural, surface, and physical properties were assessed using various techniques.

Results: Structural changes and mass loss were observed after treatment, whereas no significant difference in terms of microhardness was observed. The correlation between atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometer and between wear resistance and filler volume was highly significant. The correlation between wear resistance and microhardness were insignificant.

Conclusions: The AFM presented higher precision compared to optical profilometers at a nanoscale level, but both methods can be used in tandem for a more detailed and precise roughness analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ejd.ejd_380_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5883477PMC
April 2018

Human Gingival Crevicular Fluids (GCF) Proteomics: An Overview.

Dent J (Basel) 2017 Feb 22;5(1). Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Al-Taibah University, Medina Munawwarah 41311, Saudi Arabia.

Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease changes in the human body. Gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs) are a very specific oral cavity fluid that represents periodontal health. Due to their non-invasive sampling, they have attracted proteome research and are used as diagnostic fluids for periodontal diseases and drug analysis. The aim of this review is to explore the proteomic science of gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs), their physiology, and their role in disease detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj5010012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806989PMC
February 2017

Significance and Diagnostic Role of Antimicrobial Cathelicidins (LL-37) Peptides in Oral Health.

Biomolecules 2017 12 5;7(4). Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Oral Pathology, Institute of Dentistry, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 71000, Pakistan.

Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in pro-inflammatory effects. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted to ultimately conclude that these unique peptides play an essential role in innate immunity. Peptides are released in the precursor form (defensins), which after cleavage results in cathelicidins formation. Living in the era where the major focus is on non-invasive and nanotechnology, this ultimately leads to further advancements in the field of salivaomics. Based on current spotlight innovations, we have highlighted the biochemistry, mode of action, and the importance of cathelicidins in the oral cavity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom7040080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5745462PMC
December 2017

Outcomes of Dental Implant Therapy in Patients With Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2017 Dec 15;17(4):317-323. Epub 2017 May 15.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Patients with Down syndrome (DS) require an earlier and more frequent tooth replacement than rest of the population. The objective of this systematic review is to critically analyze and summarize studies to ascertain the outcomes and survival of dental implants placed in jaws of DS patients.

Methods: Using the key words "dental implants," "Down syndrome," and "prosthodontics," an electronic search was conducted via PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, Embase, and Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases by 2 authors, S.N. and Z.K., independently. Retrieved studies were screened against the predefined exclusion and inclusion criteria. To estimate the risk of bias, quality assessment of included studies was carried using the 'Case Reports (CARE) guidelines'.

Results: Primary search resulted in 156 studies. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and reporting a total of 81 dental implants placed in 36 DS patients. The type of implant loading ranged from immediate to a delay of 1 year after placement of the implant. Implant diameter ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 mm, and height ranged from 8.5 to 18 mm. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years. Of 81 implants placed, 21 implants (26%) were reported as failed.

Conclusions: Patients with DS have a higher risk of implant failure. However, the reason for the failure is not very well understood. Although case reports and case series suggest that implant survival is diminished in DS patients, large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine the exact mechanism associated with risks of implant failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2017.05.003DOI Listing
December 2017

Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Aug;20(8):841-848

Department of Oral Biology, Sindh Institute of Oral Health Sciences Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5651468PMC
August 2017