Publications by authors named "Muhammad Nadeem"

373 Publications

Facile synthesis, spectroscopic evaluation and antimicrobial screening of metal endowed triazole compounds.

Biometals 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

The scientific interest in developing new complexes as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm related infections is constantly rising. The present work describes the chemical synthesis, structural and biological scrutiny of a triazole Schiff base ligand and its corresponding complexes. Triazole Schiff base, (2-methoxy-4-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylimino)methyl]phenol) was synthesized from the condensation reaction of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde in an equimolar ratio. The triazole ligand (HL) was characterized by physical (solubility, color, melting point), spectroscopic [UV-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) and mass spectra (MS)] and micro analysis to evaluate their elemental composition. The bidentate ligand was complexed with transition metal [VO(IV), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] in 1:2 molar ratio. The complexes were characterized by physical (color, solubility, decomposition temperature, conductance and magnetic moment), FT-IR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis. Thermal stability and fluorescence properties of the compounds were also determined. Density functional theory based theoretical calculations were accomplished to gain more insight into spectroscopic properties. The frontier molecular orbital analysis revealed that the ligand was less reactive with reduced electron donating capability and more kinetic stability than complexes. The as-synthesized compounds were scrutinized for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity against selected strains. Cobalt complex exhibited highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and nickel complex has shown highest antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. All the compounds also showed good antioxidant activity. The theoretical results reflect consistency with the experimental findings signifying that such compounds could be the promising chemical scaffolds in the near future against microbial infectious.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-021-00345-6DOI Listing
September 2021

How Authoritarian Leadership Affects Employee's Helping Behavior? The Mediating Role of Rumination and Moderating Role of Psychological Ownership.

Front Psychol 2021 6;12:667348. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui, China.

Interpersonal helping behaviors, i.e., voluntarily assisting colleagues for their workplace related problems, have received immense amount of scholarly attention due to their significant impacts on organizational effectiveness. Among several other factors, authoritarian leadership style could influence helping behavior within organizations. Furthermore, this relationship could be mediated by workplace stressor such as rumination, known as a critical psychological health component leading to depressive symptoms, hopelessness and pessimism. In the meantime, less research attention has devoted to probe the crucial role of psychological ownership, which can buffer the adverse effects of authoritarian leadership upon rumination. Building on conservation of resources theory, this study investigates the adverse impacts of authoritarian leadership on employees' helping behaviors through mediating role of rumination, and also examines the moderating effect of psychological ownership between the relationship of authoritarian leadership and rumination. The data were collected from 264 employees in education and banking sectors and the results show: (i) authoritarian leadership has adverse impacts on helping behavior, (ii) rumination mediates the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' helping behaviors, and (iii) psychological ownership moderates the positive relationship between authoritarian leadership and rumination. This study concludes that authoritarian leadership has adverse impacts upon helping behavior, which needs to be controlled/minimized. The findings are of great significance for managers, employees, and organizations in terms of policy implications. The limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.667348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450323PMC
September 2021

Donor quality assessment and size match in lung transplantation.

Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Sep 15:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Temple University Hospital, 3401 N Broad Street, 3rd floor, Parkinson Pavilion, Philadelphia, PA 19140 USA.

Careful donor quality assessment and size match can impact long-term survival in lung transplantation. With this article, we review the conceptual and practical aspects of the preoperative donor lung quality assessment and size matching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12055-021-01251-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441039PMC
September 2021

Frequency stable dielectric constant with reduced dielectric loss of one-dimensional ZnO-ZnS heterostructures.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

The synthesis of one-dimensional heterostructures having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss has remained a great challenge. Until now, the dielectric performance of ZnO-ZnS heterostructures was scarcely investigated. In this work, large-scale ZnO-ZnS heterostructures were synthesized by employing the chemical vapor deposition method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirms the formation of heterostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that S atoms fill up the oxygen vacancy (V) in ZnO, leading to the suppression of charge carrier's movement from ZnO to ZnS; instead there is charge transfer from ZnS to ZnO. Conductivity mismatch between adjacent ZnO and ZnS materials leads to the accumulation of free charges at the interface of the heterostructure and can be considered as a capacitor-like structure. The electrical behaviors of the potential phases of ZnO, ZnS and the ZnO-ZnS heterostructure are well interpreted by a best fitted equivalent circuit model. Each heterostructure acts as a polarization node with a specific flip-flop frequency and all such nodes form continuous transmission of polarization, which jointly increase the dielectric energy-storage performance. The orientational polarization of the polarons and Zn-V dipoles present at the heterostructure interface contributes to the frequency stable dielectric constant at ≥10 Hz. Our findings provide a systematic approach to tailor the electronic transport and dielectric properties at the interface of the heterostructure. We suggest that this approach can be extended for improving the energy harvesting, transformation and storage capabilities of the nanostructures for the development of high-performance energy-storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr03136hDOI Listing
September 2021

Deciphering the genetic diversity and population structure of Turkish bread wheat germplasm using iPBS-retrotransposons markers.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Sivas University of Science and Technology, Sivas, Turkey.

Background: Research activities aiming to investigate the genetic diversity are very crucial because they provide information for the breeding and germplasm conservation activities. Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops globally by feeding more than a third of the human population around the world.

Methods And Results: During present investigation, a total of 74 Turkish bread wheat accessions (54 landraces and 20 cultivars) were used as plant material and iPBS-retrotransposons marker system was used for the molecular characterization. 13 polymorphic primers used for molecular characterization resulted a total of 152 bands. Range of calculated diversity indices like polymorphism information content (0.11-0.702), effective numbers of alleles (1.026-1.526), Shannon's information index (0.101-0.247) and gene diversity (0.098-0.443) confirmed higher genetic variations in studied germplasm. Bread wheat landraces reflected higher genetic variations compared to commercial cultivars. Analysis of molecular variance resulted that higher (98%) genetic variations are present within populations. The model-based structure algorithm separated 74 bread wheat accessions in to two populations. Diversity indices based on structure evaluated population's revealed population B as a more diverse population. The principal coordinate analysis and neighbor-joining analysis separated 74 bread wheat accessions according to their collection points. Genetic distance for 74 Turkish bread wheat accessions explored Bingol and Asure accessions as genetically diverse that can be used as parents for breeding activities.

Conclusions: The extensive diversity of bread wheat in Turkish germplasm might be used as genetic resource for the exhaustive wheat breeding program. For instance, accessions Bingol and Asure were found genetically diverse and can be used as parents for future breeding activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06670-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Helminth protection against type-1 diabetes: an insight into immunomodulatory effect of helminth-induced infection.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 25;48(9):6581-6588. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Helminths are the old dirty friends of humans from decades and may live undetected by the immune system for years in the tissues. They have evolved as good experts at subverting the immune system. Despite of their pathogenicity, they provide protection to their host against certain inflammatory diseases such as diabetes by modulating the immune mechanisms. These parasites are extra-cellular and induce Th2 response which triggers the adaptive immune cells as well as innate immune cells to work synergistically allowing Tregs to work in a toll-like receptor-dependent manure. T-helper cells type-2 also secrete certain anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and TGF-β which also provide protection against type-1 diabetes. Several helminths such as T. crassiceps, S. venezuelensis, filarial worms, Schistosoma spp. and T. spiralis have been reported to prevent diabetes in mouse models as well as in some clinical trials. Immunomodulatory talent of helminths is receiving greater attention to prevent diabetes. Herein, an attempt has been made to review and highlight the possible immuno-modulatory mechanisms by which helminths provide protection against diabetes. Moreover, this review also emphasizes on the use of helminth-derived molecules or synthetic derivatives of helminth-antigens in clinical trials to overcome rapidly growing autoimmune disorders including diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06663-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Surveillance of molecular markers of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA), Pakistan.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 30;63:e59. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The University of Haripur, Department of Microbiology, Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

This molecular epidemiological study was designed to determine the antimalarial drug resistance pattern, and the genetic diversity of malaria isolates collected from a war-altered Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA), in Pakistan. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai and Kurram agencies of FATA region between May 2017 and May 2018, and they underwent DNA extraction and amplification. The investigation of gene polymorphisms in drug resistance genes (dhfr, dhps, crt, and mdr1) of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax was carried out by pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, respectively. Out of 679 PCR-confirmed malaria samples, 523 (77%) were P. vivax, 121 (18%) P. falciparum, and 35 (5%) had mixed-species infections. All P. falciparum isolates had pfdhfr double mutants (C59R+S108N), while pfdhfr/pfdhps triple mutants (C59R+S108N+A437G) were detected in 11.5% of the samples. About 97.4% of P. falciparum isolates contained pfcrt K76T mutation, while pfmdr1 N86Y and Y184F mutations were present in 18.2% and 10.2% of the samples. P. vivax pvdhfr S58R mutation was present in 24.9% of isolates and the S117N mutation in 36.2%, while no mutation in the pvdhps gene was found. Pvmdr1 F1076L mutation was found in nearly all samples, as it was observed in 98.9% of isolates. No significant anti-folate and chloroquine resistance was observed in P. vivax; however, mutations associated with antifolate-resistance were found, and the chloroquine-resistant gene has been observed in 100% of P. falciparum isolates. Chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance were found to be high in P. falciparum and low in P. vivax. Chloroquine could still be used for P. vivax infection but need to be tested in vivo, whereas a replacement of the artemisinin combination therapy for P. falciparum appears to be justified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946202163059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323834PMC
August 2021

Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal chromium in a contaminated pastureland area in the Central Punjab, Pakistan: soils vs plants vs ruminants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.

Grazing animals act as a bioindicator to study the heavy metal status in the pasture lands because excessive amount of toxic metals in the animal diet either disturb their normal activity or deposit the contaminants into their tissues. The aim of this study was to appraise the chromium status in soil and pasture crops with respect to the nutritional requirement of grazing animals. Three different sites were selected to collect soil, forages, and animal samples from District Jhang. All the samples were processed through atomic absorption spectrophotometer to analyze the chromium concentration in them. Chromium concentration was varied as 0.703-4.20 mg/kg in soil, 0.45-2.85 mg/kg in forages, and 0.588-2.37 mg/kg in all collected animal samples. Both the soil and forage samples displayed the maximum chromium concentration in the Capparis decidua, whereas animal samples revealed maximum concentration in animal blood. Results of pollution load index (0.078 to 0.463 mg/kg) exhibited that all the sample values are less than unity while enrichment factor (1.57-8.25mg/kg) showed that significant level of chromium is enriched in these sites. The maximum value of daily intake (0.0007-0.0055mg/kg/day) and health risk index (0.0004-0.00370055mg/kg/day) was observed in the buffalo that feed on the Capparis decidua. Bio-concentration factor (0.398-2.09mg/kg) value was the maximum in the Medicago sativa. It is concluded that all the animal samples showed chromium concentration beyond their standards. Thus, proper measures should be taken to reduce the metal contamination in these areas that ultimately lessen the availability of toxic metals to grazing animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15904-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Incessant threat of COVID-19 variants: Highlighting need for a mix of FDA-approved artificial intelligence tools and community pharmacy services.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Seamless integration of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, especially FDA-approved AI tools, in community pharmacies can build increasingly effective and easy care pathways, thereby minimizing burden on healthcare system, and ensuring compliance to preventive measure through limiting hospital visits. In this regard, the WHO needs to enlist and provide guidance on most promising AI tools that can be implemented in community pharmacy settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.07.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294695PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of potential ecological risk and prediction of zinc accumulation and its transfer in soil plants and ruminants: public health implications.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.

Present work evaluated the zinc (Zn) concentration in soil, forage, blood plasma, hair, and feces samples of cows, buffaloes, and sheep taken from Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan. The concentration of Zn was found in the ranged of 21.82-35.09mg/kg, 32.59-42.17mg/kg, 0.927-2.48mg/l, 1.03-2.84mg/kg, and 0.923-1.98mg/kg in soil, forage, blood plasma, hair, and feces samples, respectively. The Zn concentration in soil, forage, blood, hair, and feces was safer compared to standard limits. Statistical analysis described that values for BCF, PLI, EF, DIM, and HRI ranged 1.03-1.57mg/kg, 0.486-0.782mg/kg, 0.457-0.696mg/kg, 0.048-0.08mg/kg, and 0.160-0.272mg/kg, respectively. It can be concluded from the present work that Zn concentration was safe in soil, forages, and animal samples. BCF was noticed as greater than 1 while PLI, EF, DIM, and HRI were found less than 1, so regular heavy metal analysis was required to appraise the contamination level in environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15821-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Exploring the genetic diversity and population structure of scarlet eggplant germplasm from Rwanda through iPBS-retrotransposon markers.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 12;48(9):6323-6333. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum gr. gilo) is a part of African indigenous vegetables and acknowledged as a source of variations in the breeding of Brinjal. Since its genetic diversity is still largely unexplored, therefore genetic diversity and population structure of this plant were investigated in this study.

Methods And Results: Scarlet eggplant germplasm made of fifty-two accessions originated from two districts of Rwanda was assessed by employing the iPBS-retrotransposon markers system. Twelve most polymorphic primers were employed for molecular characterization and they yielded 329 total bands whereupon 85.03% were polymorphic. The recorded mean polymorphism information content was 0.363 and other diversity indices such as; mean the effective number of alleles, mean Shannon's information index and gene diversity with the following values; 1.298, 0.300 and 0.187 respectively. A superior level of diversity was noticed among accessions from Musanze district. The model-based structure, neighbor-joining, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) gathered scarlet germplasm in a divergence manner to their collection district. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) displayed that the utmost variations (81%) in scarlet eggplant germplasm are resulting in differences within populations.

Conclusions: The extensive diversity of scarlet eggplant in Rwanda might be used to form the base and genetic resource of an exhaustive breeding program of this economically important African indigenous vegetable. For instance, accessions MZE53 and GKE11 might be proposed as parent candidates due to their high relative genetic distance (0.6781).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06626-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Bioaccumulation and transfer of zinc in soil plant and animal system: a health risk assessment for the grazing animals.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Heavy metals pollution has thorough worldwide apprehensions due to the instantaneous growth of industries. Farming regions are irrigated mainly with wastewater which contains both municipal and industrial emancipations. Keeping in view the above scenario, a study was designed in which three sites irrigated with ground, canal, and municipal wastewater in the District Jhang were selected to determine the zinc accumulation and its transfer in the soil, plant, and animal food chain. Zinc concentration was ranged as 18.85-35.59mg/kg in the soil, 26.42-42.67 mg/kg in the forage, and 0.982-2.85mg/kg in the animal samples. Investigated zinc concentration in soil and forages was found to be within the recommended WHO/FAO limits, but blood samples exceed the standards of NRC (2007). The maximum level of pollution load index (0.427-0.805mg/kg) and enrichment factor (0.373-0.894 mg/kg) for zinc was noticed upon wastewater irrigation. Daily intake (0.039 to 0.082 mg/kg/day) and health risk index (0.130 to 0.275 mg/kg/day) of zinc metal was higher in the buffaloes that feed on wastewater-irrigated forages. Bio-concentration factor (0.840 to 2.01mg/kg) for soil-forage was >1 which represents that these plants accumulated the zinc concentration into their tissues and raised health issues in grazing animals on consumption of wastewater-contaminated forages. As animal-derived products are part of human food, then zinc toxicity prevailed in livestock tissues ultimately affects the human food chain. Overall, findings of this study concluded that animal herds should be monitored periodically to devise preventive measures regarding the toxic level of heavy metals availability to livestock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15808-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic dissection of days to flowering via genome-wide association studies in Turkish common bean germplasm.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Jul 2;27(7):1609-1622. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Sivas University of Science and Technology, 58140 Sivas, Turkey.

Common bean is a nutrient-dense legume crop serving as a source of food for millions of people. Characterization of unexplored common bean germplasm to unlock the phenotypic and genetic variations is still needed to explore the breeding potential of this crop. The current study aimed to dissect the genetic basis having association for days to flowering (DF). A total of 188 common bean accessions collected from 19 provinces of Turkey were used as plant material under five environments and two locations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that genotypes and genotype by environment interaction have significant effects on DF. A total of 10 most stable accessions were evaluated from stability analysis. Overall maximum (75) and minimum (54) DF were observed for Hakkari-51 and Mus-46 accessions, respectively. The implemented constellation plot divided studied germplasm according to their DF and growth habit. A total of 7900 DArTseq markers were used for association analysis. Mixed linear model using the Q + K Model resulted a total of 18 DArTseq markers from five environments. DArT-8668385 marker identified in Bolu during 2016 was also associated with DF in Sivas during 2017. Combined data of five years resulted a total of four markers (DArT-22346534, DArT-3369768, DArT-3374613, and DArT-3370801) having significant association (  <  ) for DF. DArT-22346534 present on Pv 08 accounted a maximum of 9.89% variation to the studied trait. A total of four putative candidate genes were predicted from sequences reflecting homology to identified four DArTseq markers. We envisage that exploitation of identified DArTseq markers will hopefully beneficial for the development of new common bean varieties having better adaptation ability to changing climatic conditions.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-021-01029-8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-01029-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295450PMC
July 2021

Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Potential of Buffalo Milk Processed Cheddar Cheese.

Foods 2021 Jul 19;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan.

The purpose of this study was to develop an in-vitro digestion protocol to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the peptides found in processed cheddar cheese using digestion enzymes. We first studied antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activities of processed cheddar cheese with the addition of spices e.g., cumin, clove, and black pepper made from buffalo milk and ripened for 9 months. Then we conducted an in vitro digestion of processed cheddar cheese by gastric and duodenal enzymes. Freeze-dried water (WSE) and ethanol-soluble fractions (ESE) of processed cheddar cheese were also monitored for their ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activities. In our preliminary experiments, different levels of spices (cumin, clove, and black pepper) were tested into a cheese matrix and only one level 0.2 g/100 g (0.2%) based on cheese weight was considered good after sensory evaluation. Findings of the present study revealed that ACE-inhibitory potential was the highest in processed cheese made from buffalo milk with the addition of 0.2% cumin, clove, and black pepper. A significant increase in ACE-inhibition (%) of processed cheddar cheese, as well as its WSE and ESE, was obtained. Lower IC values were found after duodenal phase digestion compared to oral phase digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307587PMC
July 2021

Genistein: An Integrative Overview of Its Mode of Action, Pharmacological Properties, and Health Benefits.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:3268136. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

Genistein is an isoflavone first isolated from the brooming plant Dyer's L. and is widely distributed in the Fabaceae family. As an isoflavone, mammalian genistein exerts estrogen-like functions. Several biological effects of genistein have been reported in preclinical studies, such as the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities, the effects of angiogenesis and estrogen, and the pharmacological activities on diabetes and lipid metabolism. The purpose of this review is to provide up-to-date evidence of preclinical pharmacological activities with mechanisms of action, bioavailability, and clinical evidence of genistein. The literature was researched using the most important keyword "genistein" from the PubMed, Science, and Google Scholar databases, and the taxonomy was validated using The Plant List. Data were also collected from specialized books and other online resources. The main positive effects of genistein refer to the protection against cardiovascular diseases and to the decrease of the incidence of some types of cancer, especially breast cancer. Although the mechanism of protection against cancer involves several aspects of genistein metabolism, the researchers attribute this effect to the similarity between the structure of soy genistein and that of estrogen. This structural similarity allows genistein to displace estrogen from cellular receptors, thus blocking their hormonal activity. The pharmacological activities resulting from the experimental studies of this review support the traditional uses of genistein, but in the future, further investigations are needed on the efficacy, safety, and use of nanotechnologies to increase bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3268136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315847PMC
July 2021

Comparative Study of Valency-Based Topological Indices for Tetrahedral Sheets of Clay Minerals.

Curr Org Synth 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

Intercapillary research in mathematics and other pure sciences areas has always helped humanity quantify natural phenomena. This article also contributes to which valency-based topological indices are implemented on tetrahedral sheets of clay minerals. These indices have been used for a long time and are considered the most powerful tools to quantify chemical graphs. The atoms in the chemical compound and the bonds between the atoms are depicted as the graph's vertices and edges, respectively. The valency (or degree) of a vertex in a graph is the number of edges incident to that vertex. In this article, various degree-based indices and their modifications are determined to check each types' significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570179418666210709094729DOI Listing
July 2021

ZIF-12/Fe-Cu LDH Composite as a High Performance Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation.

Front Chem 2021 24;9:686968. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Catalysis and Nanomaterials Lab 27, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are being used as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). However, low current densities limit their practical applications. Herein, we report a facile and economic synthesis of an iron-copper based LDH integrated with a cobalt-based metal-organic framework (ZIF-12) to form LDH-ZIF-12 composite (1) through a co-precipitation method. The as-synthesized composite requires a low overpotential of 337 mV to achieve a catalytic current density of 10 mA cm with a Tafel slope of 89 mV dec. Tafel analysis further demonstrates that exhibits a slope of 89 mV dec which is much lower than the slope of 284 mV dec for LDH and 172 mV dec for ZIF-12. The slope value of is also lower than previously reported electrocatalysts, including Ni-Co LDH (113 mV dec) and Zn-Co LDH nanosheets (101 mV dec), under similar conditions. Controlled potential electrolysis and stability test experiments show the potential application of as a heterogeneous electrocatalyst for water oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.686968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264502PMC
June 2021

Leaves; UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Based Metabolite Profiling and Molecular Docking Insights to Explore Bioactives Role Towards Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Food Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The present work was aimed at investigating hydroethanolic leaf extracts of for their antioxidant and pancreatic lipase (PL) enzyme inhibitory properties. The most active extract was selected to profile the phytoconstituents by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technique. Among the tested extracts, the 80% hydroethanolic extract exhibited the maximum levels of total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) with a contribution of 201.3 ± 2.6 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract (GAE/g extract), and 116.3 ± 2.4 mg of rutin equivalent per gram of extract (RE/g extract), respectively. The same extract also showed promising 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and PL inhibitory activity with an IC (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 30.5 ± 2.8 µg/mL and 17.31 ± 1.18 μg/mL, respectively. The phytochemical profiling of 80% hydroethanolic extract confirmed the presence of 23 metabolites of immense medicinal significance. Docking studies were conducted to investigate the potential interactions of compounds identified in the study. The docking study-based binding energy data and the interaction scheme both revealed the possible role of the identified compounds towards PL inhibitor. Moreover, energies of frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), ionization potentials (IP), electron affinities (EA) and molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) were also explored. The findings of the current work suggest that is a promising natural source of antioxidant and antiobesity agents, which may be exploited to add pharmacological functionalities to food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10071334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309037PMC
June 2021

A Systematic Review of Biosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Anti-Cancer-Strategy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 5;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

Cancer is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. Cancer develops because of mutation in genes that regulate normal cell cycle and cell division, thereby resulting in uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells. Various drugs have been used to treat cancer thus far; however, conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have lower bioavailability, rapid renal clearance, unequal delivery, and severe side effects. In the recent years, nanotechnology has flourished rapidly and has a multitude of applications in the biomedical field. Bio-mediated nanoparticles (NPs) are cost effective, safe, and biocompatible and have got substantial attention from researchers around the globe. Due to their safe profile and fewer side effects, these nanoscale materials offer a promising cure for cancer. Currently, various metallic NPs have been designed to cure or diagnose cancer; among these, silver (Ag), gold (Au), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are the leading anti-cancer NPs. The anticancer potential of these NPs is attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular compartments that eventually leads to activation of autophagic, apoptotic and necrotic death pathways. In this review, we summarized the recent advancements in the biosynthesis of Ag, Au, Zn and Cu NPs with emphasis on their mechanism of action. Moreover, nanotoxicity, as well as the future prospects and opportunities of nano-therapeutics, are also highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201057PMC
June 2021

Microencapsulation: a pragmatic approach towards delivery of probiotics in gut.

J Microencapsul 2021 Sep 19;38(6):437-458. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

Probiotics confer numerous health benefits and functional foods prepared with these microbes own largest markets. However, their viability during transit from gastrointestinal tract is a concerning issue. Microencapsulation of probiotics is a novel technique of major interest to increase their survivability in GIT and food matrices by providing a physical barrier to protect them under harsh conditions. This article contributes the knowledge regarding microencapsulation by discussing probiotic foods, different methods and approaches of microencapsulation, coating materials, their release mechanisms at the target site, and interaction with probiotics, efficiency of encapsulated probiotics, their viability assessment methods, applications in food industry, and their future perspective. In our opinion, encapsulation has significantly got importance in the field of innovative probiotic enriched functional foods development to preserve their viability and long-term survival rate until product expiration date and their passage through gastro-intestinal tract. Previous review work has targeted some aspects of microencapsulation, this article highlights different methods of probiotics encapsulation and coating materials in relation with food matrices as well as challenges faced during applications: Gut microbiota; Lactic acid bacteria; Micro-encapsulation; Stability enhancement; Cell's release, Health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652048.2021.1949062DOI Listing
September 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors in COVID-19 Population.

High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2021 Jul 28;28(4):405-416. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Detroit Medical Center, DMC Heart Hospital, 311 Mack Ave, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Introduction: The safety of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) among COVID-19 patients has been controversial since the onset of the pandemic.

Methods: Digital databases were queried to study the safety of RAASi in COVID-19. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. The secondary outcome was seropositivity improvement/viral clearance, clinical manifestation progression, and progression to intensive care units. A random-effect model was used to compute an unadjusted odds ratio (OR).

Results: A total of 49 observational studies were included in the analysis consisting of 83,269 COVID-19 patients (RAASi n = 34,691; non-RAASi n = 48,578). The mean age of the sample was 64, and 56% were males. We found that RAASi was associated with similar mortality outcomes as compared to non-RAASi groups (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.99-1.15; p > 0.05). RAASi was associated with seropositivity improvement including negative RT-PCR or antibodies, (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99; p < 0.05). There was no association between RAASi versus control with progression to ICU admission (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.79-1.23; p > 0.05) or higher odds of worsening of clinical manifestations (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.97-1.11; p > 0.05). Metaregression analysis did not change our outcomes for effect modifiers including age, sex, comorbidities, RAASi type, or study type on outcomes.

Conclusions: COVID-19 is not a contraindication to hold or discontinue RAASi as they are not associated with higher mortality or worsening symptoms. Continuation of RAASi might be associated with favorable outcomes in COVID-19, including seropositivity/viral clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40292-021-00462-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237039PMC
July 2021

An in vitro antiviral activity of iodine complexes against SARS-CoV-2.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Sep 16;203(7):4743-4749. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic in China in late 2019, scientists are striving hard to explore non-toxic, viable anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds or medicines. We determined In vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of oral formulations (syrup and capsule)of an Iodine-complex (Renessans). First, cell cytotoxicity of Renessans on the Vero cells was determined using MTT assay. Afterwards, the antiviral activity of Renessans was determined using viral inhibition assays and TCID. For this, nontoxic concentrations of the Renessans were used. The results showed that Renessans is nontoxic to the cells up to 50 µg/mL. At 1.5 µg/mL concentration, SARS-CoV-2 production was significantly reduced to 10 TCID and 10 TCID for the syrup and capsule, respectively, as compare to virus infected control cells 10 TCID and we found the dose dependent inhibition of virus replication in the presence of Renessans. Renessans inhibited SARS-CoV-2 with an EC50 value of 0.425 µg/mL and 0.505 µg/mL for syrup and capsule, respectively. Furthermore, there was no virus detected at concentration of 50 µg/mL of Renessans. This study indicates that Renessans, containing iodine, have potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 which needs to be further investigated in human clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02430-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208607PMC
September 2021

Vitamin D attenuates COVID-19 complications via modulation of proinflammatory cytokines, antiviral proteins, and autophagy.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Jul 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

: Global emergence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has clearly shown variable severity, mortality, and frequency between and within populations worldwide. These striking differences have made many biological variables attractive for future investigations. One of these variables, vitamin D, has been implicated in COVID-19 with rapidly growing scientific evidence.: The review intended to systematically explore the sources, and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in COVID-19. Search engines and data sources including Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, Scopus, and Web of Science were used for data collection. The search terms used were Vitamin D, COVID-19, immune system, and antiviral mechanism. Overall, 232 sources of information were collected and 188 were included in this review.: Interaction of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) triggers the cellular events to modulate the immune system by regulation of many genes. Vitamin D operates as a double-edged sword against COVID-19. First, in macrophages, it promotes the production of antimicrobial and antiviral proteins like β-defensin 2 and cathelicidin, and these proteins inhibit the replication of viral particles and promote the clearance of virus from the cells by autophagy. Second, it suppresses cytokine storm and inflammatory processes in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2021.1941871DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of pasture allowance of manganese for ruminants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.

The aim of this study was to access the Mn contamination in soil, forages, and animals. Heavy metal pollution is a matter of prime significance in natural environment. Through food chain, toxicity of heavy metals and their bioaccumulation potential are transferred into humans. Higher concentrations of metallic compounds are toxic to living organisms but these are essential to maintain body metabolism. Intake of food crops polluted with heavy metals is chief food chain channel for human exposure. Animals are exposed to heavy metal stress by the intake of richly contaminated food crops; those are chief part of food chain. Samples of soil, plant, animal blood, hair, and feces were collected to find contamination through wet digestion process in lab and metal analysis. Different forages were collected to study Mn content that was our major concern in this study. The present findings also emphasized on the assessment of bio-concentration factor (BCF). Other significant indices of mobility and pollution of metal were also calculated, i.e. pollution load index (PLI), daily intake of metal (DIM), health risk index (HRI), and enrichment factor (EF). The experimentation result showed different concentrations of metal in different seasons. The Mn concentration in forages was 20.01-28.29 mg/kg and in soil was 5.27-8.90 mg/kg. Soil samples showed higher level of (PLI) Pollution load index. Bio-concentration of MN was 2.59-4.21 mg/kg. It can be concluded that regular monitoring of the metal is essential to evaluate the contamination status. Mn contents were in the safe limits in soil and plants; however, its toxic level was observed in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14666-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Corn-Soybean Intercropping Improved the Nutritional Quality of Forage Cultivated on Podzols in Boreal Climate.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Science and the Environment, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL A2H 5G4, Canada.

Intercropping systems could be a potential source of nutrient-rich forage production in cool climates on podzolic soils common in boreal ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of corn-soybean intercropping (IC) on the nutritional quality of forage. Two silage corn varieties were cultivated as monocropping (MC) or were intercropped with three forage soybean varieties using a randomized complete block design. IC significantly increased the crude protein (22%) and decreased the acid detergent (14%) and neutral detergent (6%) fibers. Forage net energy, total digestible nutrients, ash, dry matter intake, digestible dry matter and relative feed value were also significantly increased ( ≤ 0.05) in the IC treatments compared to corn MC. The macro and micro nutrients were higher in IC than corn MC. Intercropping increased the omega 3 fatty acid (FA) contents (67%) compared to corn MC. IC also increased the active microbial community in the plant root zone, which may contribute to the improvement in forage nutritional quality because the active soil microbial community composition showed significant correlations with soluble sugars, soluble proteins and potassium contents of the forage. These results demonstrate that corn-soybean IC could be a suitable cropping system to increase the nutritional quality of forage cultivated on podzols in boreal climates. The resultant forage has the potential to be a source of high-value animal feed for livestock production in cool climate regions of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10051015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161002PMC
May 2021

Progress on the national action plan of Pakistan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR): a narrative review and the implications.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Jul 26:1-23. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, George Town Malaysia.

: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to public health. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a global action plan to tackle AMR in the World Health Assembly. Pakistan's national action plan (NAP) for AMR was released in May 2017 by the Ministry of National Health Services. Based on the NAP, strategies have been initiated on a national and provincial scale in Pakistan.: This narrative review of the five components of the Pakistan NAP has been undertaken to discuss some of the challenges in implementation of the NAP for AMR in Pakistan including different opinions and views of key stakeholders, combined with suggestions on potential ways to reduce the burden of the AMR.: Going forward, healthcare authorities should focus on screening and monitoring of all the objectives of the NAP by establishing proper policies as well as promoting antimicrobial stewardship interventions and Infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. Overall, the comprehensive strengthening of the healthcare system is required to adequately implement the NAP, tackle continued inappropriate antimicrobial use and high AMR rates in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2021.1935238DOI Listing
July 2021

GmMs1 encodes a kinesin-like protein essential for male fertility in soybean (Glycine max L.).

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Jun;63(6):1054-1064

The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI)/Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resource and Germplasm Enhancement (MOA), Institute of Crop Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

The application of heterosis is a promising approach for greatly increasing yield in soybean (Glycine max L.). Nuclear male sterility is essential for hybrid seed production and the utilization of heterosis. Here we report the cloning of the gene underlying the soybean male-sterile mutant ms-1, which has been widely used for recurrent selection in soybean breeding programs. We initially delimited the ms1 locus to a 16.15 kb region on chromosome 13, based on SLAF_BSA sequencing followed by genotyping of an F population segregating for the locus. Compared with the same region in fertile plants, the mutant region lacks a sequence of approximately 38.7 kb containing five protein-coding genes, including an ortholog of the kinesin-like protein gene NACK2, named GmMs1. The GmMs1 knockout plants generated via CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing displayed a complete male-sterile phenotype. Metabolic profiling showed that fertile anthers accumulated starch and sucrose normally, whereas sterile anthers had higher anthocyanin levels and lower flavonoid levels and lower antioxidant enzyme activities. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms governing male sterility and demonstrate that GmMs1 could be used to create male-sterile lines through targeted mutagenesis. These findings pave the way for designing seed production technology and an intelligent male-sterile line system to utilize heterosis in soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13110DOI Listing
June 2021

Additional cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukaemia; an experience from Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):633-635

Department of Haematology, National Institute of Blood Diseases & BMT, Karachi.

Objective: To evaluate the presence and characteristics of additional karyotype abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukaemia cases.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Cytogenetics and Molecular Pathology, National Institute of Blood Diseases and Bone Marrow Transplant, Karachi, from May 2010 to September 2016 and comprised diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia patients regardless of age and gender. Baseline cytogenetic evaluation was done on overnight, 24-hrs un-stimulated and 72-hrs stimulated bone marrow cultures, and karyotypes were defined according to the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature2013. Data was analysed using SPSS 23.

Results: There were 222 cases with a median age of 38 years (range: 12-84 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1. Chronic myeloid leukaemia was detected in 18(8.1%) patients having additional cytogenetic abnormalities. Among the patients found positive, cytogenetic type was minor in 10(55.55%), major 3(16.66%), complex 3(16.66%), and variant 2(11.11%).

Conclusion: Additional cytogenetic abnormalities were found in 8% of the sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.794DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effectiveness of Students' Performance in Preclinical Fixed Prosthodontics Course in Predicting Subsequent Clinical Performance.

J Prosthodont 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Restorative and Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh.

Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between students' achieved grades in a preclinical fixed prosthodontics course and their performance in the same discipline's clinical courses.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted in 2019 on 76 students who passed all preclinical and clinical fixed prosthodontics courses. Their final examination grades in preclinical and clinical prosthodontics courses were compiled and made anonymous. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics and correlation coefficient were used to assess the relation between preclinical and clinical grades.

Results: A statistically significant positive correlation existed between the students' preclinical and combined clinical final examination grades (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). In relation to sex, females showed a significantly higher correlation (r = 0.56, p = 0.001) compared to males (r = 0.25, p = 0.1). In addition, students' clinical grade prediction from their preclinical performance was 20.5%.

Conclusion: These findings emphasize the importance of preclinical courses and suggest that maximizing preclinical years' efforts can reflect positively on students' competence in their future clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.13363DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of Microscopic Detection of Malaria with Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in War-Torn Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

Introduction: Diagnostic accuracy of malaria is critical for early treatment, control, and elimination of malaria, especially in war-affected malaria-endemic areas. Microscopic detection of Plasmodium species has been the gold standard in remote malaria-endemic regions. However, the diagnostic accuracy is still questioned, especially in discriminating mixed and submicroscopic parasitic levels. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination against nested PCR analysis in war-torn malaria-endemic Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan.

Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from symptomatic patients for microscopic examination and nested PCR analysis from January 2016-December 2016 from five Agencies (Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai and Kurram Agency) and four Frontier Regions (Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan Frontier Region) of FATA. Malaria-positive isolates were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes) for speciation.

Results: Among enrolled participants, 762 were found positive for malaria parasite on microscopic examination of the blood film. Plasmodium vivax was found in 623, Plasmodium falciparum in 132 and 7 were diagnosed with mixed infection (P. vivax and P. falciparum coinfection). Nested PCR detected Plasmodium infection in 679 samples (523 P. vivax, 121 P. falciparum, and 35 mixed infections). Compared with microscopy, the sensitivity of nested PCR was 98.94%, and specificity was 98.27%, while the sensitivity and specificity of slide microscopy 89.34% and 87.99% respectively.

Conclusion: The conventional microscopy method has low sensitivity to detect the mixed infection as compared to nested PCR. High sensitivity and specificity observed in nested PCR make this molecular tool a useful technique for monitoring, controlling, and eliminating malaria-endemic regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00374-8DOI Listing
April 2021
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