Publications by authors named "Muhammad Abbas"

210 Publications

Appraisal of organic extracts and isolated compounds of Azadirachta indica for in-vitro antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Nov;33(6(Supplementary)):2779-2783

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

The current study emphasized on assessment of Antioxidant, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the crude methanolic and chloroform leaves extracts along with their isolated compounds derived from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemical analysis revealed the manifestation of ancillary metabolites like alkaloid, anthraqinones, catechins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins and steroids. Methanolic crude extract of Azadirachta indica leaves revealed comparable antioxidant activity as that of quercetin and propyl gallate. As far as enzyme inhibitory activity was concerned, a significant AChE enzymes inhibition was observed. These findings confirm the traditional use of Azadirachticha indica as medicinal plant in the treatment of mental ailments and anti-inflammatory illnesses. Chloroform crude extract and isolated compounds showed weak antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities.
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November 2020

Insight on the fractionations and structural characterizations of innovative antidiarrheal compounds screened from leaves of Psidium guajava of local origin in Pakistan.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Supplementary)):2323-2329

Imran Adrees College of Pharmacy, 3Km Daska Road, Sialkot, Pakistan.

Numerous ailments have been effectively treated with natural plants for long time all over the world. Plants provided a back bone for the exploration of novel medicinal compounds. Therefore, chief focus of our study was to isolate the biologically active compounds from the plant source and evaluate their antidiarrheal potentials, as diarrhea is still the most dominant disease in developing countries. The isolation and structure elucidation of two new compounds were identified from methanolic and chloroform extracts of Psidium guajava (guava) leaves. Extracts of plants were acquired by successive maceration from dried powder. Castor oil induced diarrheal-model was used to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity and therapeutic response was endorsed to the suppression of normal and wet stools in Spraug Dawley rats. Through the series of fractionations, compound-A was obtained from methanolic extract and named 3-(4-amino 1,3,8-tri-OH 5,6-di-CH 7-propyl 1,2,3,4,4a,5,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen 2-yl) propanoic3-(4-NH3 7-butyl 1,3,8-tri-OH 5,6-di-CH 1,2,3,4,4a,5,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen 2-yl)propanoic anhydride. Compound-B was entitled 5-(3-hydroxy-1,4-di-CH3-1,2,3,4,4a,5,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-2-yl)pent-3-enoic acid was acquired from the chloroform extract. The structure elucidations of both compounds were interpreted through spectroscopic data, including EI-MS, FTIR, HNMR and C-NMR. The significant antidiarrheal activities were determined with crude extracts and isolated compounds. In inference, present study revealed that substantial antidiarrheal feature of guava is confined to the identified compounds.
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September 2020

Hematopoietic effects of Azadirachta indica methanolic extract in cyclophosphamide mediated myelosuppressed albino rat.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Supplementary)):2269-2273

Imran Adrees College of Pharmacy, 3Km Daska Road, Sialkot, Pakistan.

Myelosuppression or bone marrow suppression is one of the most common side effects caused by anti-cancer drugs. Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics and viruses like B19 virus can also cause bone marrow suppression resulting in serious consequences like leukopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Currently, it is mainly treated by Filgrastim, use of which is not without side effects. Certain natural drugs can be a safer alternative to treat myelosuppression. Azadirachta indica, commonly known as Neem, is an important medicinal plant of subcontinent. Keeping in view the traditional uses of Neem, present study aims to investigate its potential role in reversing myelosuppression. Albino rats were used to determine hematopoietic activity of Neem leaves after inducing myelosuppression by cyclophosphamide given subcutaneously. Filgrastim was used as reference standard to compare the antimyelosuppressant activity of the drug. The drug was evaluated in three doses i.e. 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight, while blood samples were drawn on 0, 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day. The drug was found to be effective in reversing bone marrow suppression in all three doses based on the hematological parameters (mean WBC, RBC, platelets, Hb, Hct etc.) which improved significantly. The results suggest that the drug can be used as antimyelosuppressant after establishing its safety and identifying its active constituents with their mechanism of action.
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September 2020

Scapulothoracic Dyskinesis: A Concept Review.

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 600 Hennepin Avenue, Suite 310, Minneapolis, MN, 55403, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Scapulothoracic dyskinesis (SD) occurs when there is a noticeable disruption in typical position and motion of the scapula, which can result in debilitating pain. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of scapulothoracic dyskinesis by providing an evidence-based overview of clinical exams and treatment modalities available for orthopedic surgeons and provide insight into which treatment modalities require further investigation.

Recent Findings: SD is highly prevalent in athletes, particularly those participating in overhead activities (e.g., baseball, tennis, and swimming) and can coexist with several shoulder pathologies. A holistic approach in the diagnosis of SD has been supported in the literature; however, it is important to recognize that diagnosis is currently limited to the absence of a quantitative SD clinical assessment. The main goal of the treatment of SD is to regain proper scapular positioning and dynamics. The standard of care for the management of SD is conservative interventions aimed at optimizing scapular kinematics. Surgical intervention is only considered in the presence of concomitant pathology requiring surgery. Due to the complexity of coordinated movement of the shoulder girdle, recent literature has begun to move away from the use of traditional orthopedic tests, in favor of a more system-based approach for the diagnosis of SD. We present a concise review of clinical exams and treatment modalities available for orthopedic surgeons in the management of SD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12178-021-09705-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Protective Effect of Maxim. Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastritis in Rats.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Maxim (Korean pear) has been used for hundreds of years as a traditional herbal medicine for asthma, cough, and atopic dermatitis in Korea and China. Although it was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiatopic properties, its gastroprotective effects have not been investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of Maxim extract (PUE) against ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. The bioactive compound profile of PUE was determined by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The gastroprotection of PUE at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) prior to ethanol ingestion was evaluated using an in vivo gastritis rat model. Several endpoints were evaluated, including gastric mucosal lesions, cellular degeneration, intracellular damage, and immunohistochemical localization of leucocyte common antigen. The gastric mucosal injury and ulcer score were determined by evaluating the inflamed gastric mucosa and by histological examination. To identify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by PUE, antisecretory action and plasma prostaglandin E (PGE), gastric mucosal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and histamine levels were measured. PUE exhibited significant antioxidant effects with IC values of 56.18 and 22.49 µg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'- azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) inhibition (%), respectively. In addition, GC/MS and HPLC analyses revealed several bioactive compounds of PUE. Pretreatment with PUE significantly ( < 0.05) decreased the ulcer index by preventing gastric mucosal lesions, erosion, and cellular degeneration. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PUE markedly attenuated leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancement of PGE levels and attenuation of cAMP levels along with the inhibition of histamine release following PUE pretreatment was associated with the cytoprotective and healing effects of PUE. In contrast, the downregulation of the H/K ATPase pathway as well as muscarinic receptor (MR) and histamine receptor (HR) inhibition was also involved in the gastroprotective effects of PUE; however, the expression of cholecystokinin-2 receptors (CCKR) was unchanged. Finally, no signs of toxicity were observed following PUE treatment. Based on our results, we conclude that PUE represents an effective therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastritis and warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002011PMC
March 2021

Antifouling and Flux Enhancement of Reverse Osmosis Membrane by Grafting Poly (3-Sulfopropyl Methacrylate) Brushes.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

A commercial thin film composite (TFC) polyamide (PA) reverse osmosis membrane was grafted with 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium (SPMK) to produce PA-g-SPMK by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The grafting of PA was done at varied concentrations of SPMK, and its effect on the surface composition and morphology was studied by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), optical profilometry, and contact angle analysis. The grafting of hydrophilic ionically charged PSPMK polymer brushes having acrylate and sulfonate groups resulted in enhanced hydrophilicity rendering a reduction of contact angle from 58° of pristine membrane sample labeled as MH0 to 10° for a modified membrane sample labeled as MH3. Due to the increased hydrophilicity, the flux rate rises from 57.1 L m h to 71.2 L m h, and 99% resistance against microbial adhesion ( and ) was obtained for MH3 after modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11030213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003146PMC
March 2021

Public Understanding and Voluntary Responsibility to Mitigate COVID-19 Pandemic: Role of Local Community Organizations in Information Sharing and Health Literacy.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Mar 17:10105395211002656. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Faculty of Business and Law, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

To combat the COVID-19 public health crisis, civil society needs to complement government efforts. National governments have applied different mitigating strategies like the implementation of strict closures. In response to pandemic situations, normally governments tell people what to do with minimal community input. This study argues that local community organizations have an important role in practical information sharing and health literacy in a pandemic situation. Although pandemics like COVID-19 do not create physical destruction to disrupt the information stream, there is a concern that poor health literacy and information gaps can significantly contribute to the rapid spread of uncertainty, fear, and anxiety. This paper emphasizes the potential role of community workers in the dissemination of transparent and honest communication at the grassroots level. This information sharing is critical because more informed communities are more receptive to the implementation of the prescribed preventive measures. National governments need to make sure that the requisite enabling and reinforcing structures are in place to fully leverage the behaviour changing and voluntary control efforts of community organizations. Governments should develop sufficient infrastructures to provide substantial training and support resources to community workers. Volunteers who perform community-facing roles need to be provided adequate personal protective equipment. National governments and civil society need to work collaboratively for the realization of not only the short-term COVID-related policy goals but also the long-term health-related sustainable development goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10105395211002656DOI Listing
March 2021

Multimodal Nonopioid Pain Protocol Provides Equivalent Pain Versus Opioid Control Following Meniscus Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

Arthroscopy 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of a nonopioid pain regimen in controlling postoperative pain as compared with a traditional opioid pain control following primary meniscectomy or meniscal repair.

Methods: Ninety-nine patients undergoing primary meniscectomy or meniscal repair were assessed for participation. A prospective randomized control trial was performed in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement. The 2 arms of the study included a multimodal nonopioid analgesic protocol and a standard opioid regimen with a primary outcome of postoperative pain level (visual analog scale) for the first 10 days postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported outcomes, complications, and patient satisfaction. Randomization was achieved using a random-number generator. Patients were not blinded. Data collection was done by a blinded observer.

Results: Eleven patients did not meet the inclusion criteria, and 27 declined participation. A total of 61 patients were analyzed with 30 randomized to the opioid regimen and 31 randomized to the nonopioid regimen. Patients receiving the nonopioid regimen demonstrated noninferior visual analog scale scores compared with patients who received opioid pain medication (P > .05). No significant differences were found in preoperative (opioid: 58.9 ± 7.0; nonopioid: 58.2 ± 5.5, P = .724) or postoperative (opioid: 59.8 ± 6.5; nonopioid: 54.9 ± 7.1, P = .064) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement and Information System Pain Interference Short Form scores. No difference was found in recorded side effects between both groups at any given time point: constipation, nausea, diarrhea, upset stomach, and drowsiness (P > .05).

Conclusions: This study found that a multimodal nonopioid pain protocol provided equivalent pain control and patient outcomes following primary meniscus surgery while having an equivalent side effect profile. All patients reported satisfaction with their pain management without requiring emergency opioid analgesia.

Level Of Evidence: Level I, prospective randomized controlled trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.02.043DOI Listing
March 2021

Signet Ring Cell Features are Associated with Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Treatment and Dismal Survival in Patients with High-Grade Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Surgery, Rabin Medical Center - Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: While the prognosis of patients with locoregional esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has improved in the neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) era, high-grade histology (G3) is still associated with a limited treatment response. We sought to investigate oncologic outcomes in patients after esophagectomy for G3 EAC and to identify predictors of poor survival among these patients.

Methods: Patients with EAC who underwent resection with curative intent in 2011-2018 were divided by histologic grade (G3, G1/2) and compared for overall survival (OS). Cox regression was performed to analyze the response to NAT and the predictive role of signet ring cell (SRC) features.

Results: The cohort included 163 patients, 94 (57.7%) with G3 histology. NAT was administered to 69 (73.4%) patients. Following resection, OS in the G3 EAC group was 30 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9-36.1). On univariate analysis, G3 disease (p = 0.050) and SRC features (p = 0.019) predicted low OS. Median survival in the G3 EAC group was worse in patients with SRC histology (18 months, 95% CI 8.6-27.4) than those without (30 months, 95% CI 23.8-36.1; p = 0.041). No patients with SRC histology were alive at 5 years of follow-up. Among all patients administered NAT, 88.2% of those with SRC showed minimal or no pathologic response and only 27.8% were downstaged.

Conclusions: High-grade histology was found in most patients with EAC and predicted poor survival and treatment response. SRC features in patients with G3 disease were associated with lower OS. The benefit of NAT for G3 EAC in patients with SRC histology appears limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09644-1DOI Listing
March 2021

MicroRNA-mRNA Networks in Pregnancy Complications: A Comprehensive Downstream Analysis of Potential Biomarkers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 25;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Institute of Genome Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

Pregnancy complications are a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in humans. The majority of pregnancy complications initiate due to abnormal placental development and function. During the last decade, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating placental and fetal development has become evident. Dysregulation of miRNAs in the placenta not only affects placental development and function, but these miRNAs can also be exported to both maternal and fetal compartments and affect maternal physiology and fetal growth and development. Due to their differential expression in the placenta and maternal circulation during pregnancy complications, miRNAs can be used as diagnostic biomarkers. However, the differential expression of a miRNA in the placenta may not always be reflected in maternal circulation, which makes it difficult to find a reliable biomarker for placental dysfunction. In this review, we provide an overview of differentially expressed miRNAs in the placenta and/or maternal circulation during preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which can potentially serve as biomarkers for prediction or diagnosis of pregnancy complications. Using different bioinformatics tools, we also identified potential target genes of miRNAs associated with PE and IUGR, and the role of miRNA-mRNA networks in the regulation of important signaling pathways and biological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956714PMC
February 2021

Reactive Extrusion of Maleic-Anhydride-Grafted Polypropylene by Torque Rheometer and Its Application as Compatibilizer.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Univ Lyon, University Claude Bernard Lyon-1, CNRS, LAGEPP-UMR 5007, F-69622 Lyon, France.

This study is based upon the functionalization of polypropylene (PP) by radical polymerization to optimize its properties by influencing its molecular weight. Grafting of PP was done at different concentrations of maleic anhydride (MAH) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The effect on viscosity during and after the reaction was studied by torque rheometer and melt flow index. Results showed that a higher concentration of BPO led to excessive side-chain reactions. At a high percentage of grafting, lower molecular weight product was produced, which was analyzed by viscosity change during and after the reaction. Percentage crystallinity increased by grafting due to the shorter chains, which consequently led to an improvement in the chain's packing. Prepared Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAH-g-PP) enhanced interactions in PP-PET blends caused a partially homogeneous blend with less voids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915049PMC
February 2021

Facing the Threat of COVID-19 in Pakistan: A Nation's Dilemma.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Jan 29;24:90-95. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Surgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan; State Key Lab of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing PR, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: In this article, we assess the resources, strategies, laboratory testing, awareness campaigns, and different treatment plans initiated by the government of Pakistan.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and official websites of Government of Pakistan and international organizations to identify empirical literature published in English from 2019 to June 2020.

Results: It was not until the end of December 2019 that the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was discovered in Hubei province, China, with Wuhan the epicenter of it, sending the nation into an 11-week lockdown. It was the first of its kind and never seen before; hence, based on its novelty, the Chinese authorities named it novel coronavirus (2019-nCOV). Until January 23, 2020, there were only 17 cases in Wuhan, which surged to around 60,000 on February 16, 2020, with 2000 deaths. The World Health Organization declared it a global pandemic on January 30, 2020. Pakistan reported its first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in February in Karachi. At the time, we did not realize the threat we were facing, and with even fewer resources at our disposal, it would turn out to be a major disaster in the coming days in Pakistan.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 crisis will likely have both short-term and long-term consequences for the general population, healthcare workers, and patients alike. But we need to get ahead of ourselves and come out on top for only not our survival, but also the survival of our population and healthcare system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vhri.2020.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846464PMC
January 2021

The Use of Biologics for Hip Preservation.

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2021 Apr 23;14(2):145-154. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W. Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Purpose Of Review: A wide array of nonoperative modalities to treat hip pain are aimed at restoring and maintaining the structural and physiologic characteristics of the joint. The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of biologics in hip pathology by providing an evidence-based overview of treatment modalities available for orthopedic surgeons.

Recent Findings: The use of biologics as a primary treatment or adjunct to traditional management has shown encouraging results for the treatment of hip pain. Studies have demonstrated safety with minimal complications when using platelet rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, or stem cells to treat hip pain caused by osteoarthritis, femoroacetabular impingement syndrome, tendinopathy, or osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Several studies have been able to demonstrate meaningful clinical results that can improve treatment standards for hip pain; however, more work must be performed to better delineate the appropriate protocols, indications, and limitations of each modality. Recent advances have inspired renewed interest in biologics for patients with hip pain. We present a concise review of platelet rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, stem cells, and matrix metalloprotease inhibitors and their applicability to hip preservation surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12178-021-09695-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990987PMC
April 2021

Engineered Phage Endolysin Eliminates Biofilm without Damaging Beneficial Bacteria in Bacterial Vaginosis Ex Vivo.

Pathogens 2021 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

PhagoMed Biopharma GmbH, Vienna Biocenter, 1110 Wien, Austria.

Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by an imbalance of the vaginal microbiome and a characteristic biofilm formed on the vaginal epithelium, which is initiated and dominated by bacteria, and is frequently refractory to antibiotic treatment. We investigated endolysins of the type 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase encoded on prophages as an alternative treatment. When recombinantly expressed, these proteins demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against four different species. By domain shuffling, we generated several engineered endolysins with 10-fold higher bactericidal activity than any wild-type enzyme. When tested against a panel of 20 strains, the most active endolysin, called PM-477, showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.13-8 µg/mL. PM-477 had no effect on beneficial lactobacilli or other species of vaginal bacteria. Furthermore, the efficacy of PM-477 was tested by fluorescence hybridization on vaginal samples of fifteen patients with either first time or recurring bacterial vaginosis. In thirteen cases, PM-477 killed the bacteria and physically dissolved the biofilms without affecting the remaining vaginal microbiome. The high selectivity and effectiveness in eliminating , both in cultures of isolated strains as well as in clinically derived samples of natural polymicrobial biofilms, makes PM-477 a promising alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, especially in patients with frequent recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830407PMC
January 2021

Career Longevity and Performance After Shoulder Instability in National Football League Athletes.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 8;37(5):1437-1445. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. (K.R.O.).

Purpose: To investigate the career longevity, game utilization, and performance of National Football League (NFL) athletes after glenohumeral instability events treated operatively versus nonoperatively.

Methods: Using public resources, we identified NFL players who sustained a shoulder instability event from September 2000 to February 2019. Players with prior shoulder instability, without NFL experience before injury, or who did not return to play (RTP) after injury were excluded. Demographic information, utilization (games and seasons), and season approximate value (SAV) statistics were recorded 1 year prior to injury and 3 years after RTP. Statistical analysis compared utilization and the SAV after RTP for athletes managed operatively versus nonoperatively.

Results: We identified 97 NFL players who sustained their first instability event while playing in the NFL, 91 of whom returned to play (93.8%). Quarterbacks were significantly more likely to undergo immediate surgical management compared with players in other positions (P = .023). The final analysis included 58 players managed operatively and 33 managed nonoperatively by the end of the index season. Players treated operatively played in significantly more seasons after RTP during their remaining careers (4.1 ± 2.7 seasons vs 2.8 ± 2.5 seasons, P = .015). There were no differences in games played or started, offensive or defensive snap count percentage, or performance (SAV) before and after injury when compared between cohorts (P > .05). After surgical stabilization, time to RTP (36.62 ± 10.32 weeks vs 5.43 ± 12.33 weeks, P < .05) and time interval before recurrent instability (105.7 ± 100.1 weeks vs 24.7 ± 40.6 weeks, P < .001) were significantly longer than with nonoperative treatment. Additionally, the operative cohort experienced less recurrent instability (27% vs 50%, P = .035).

Conclusions: Athletes who RTP in the NFL after a shoulder instability injury do so with a similar workload and performance irrespective of surgical or nonsurgical management. Whereas nonoperative treatment is associated with faster RTP, operative management is associated with fewer recurrent instability events, greater time between recurrent instability events, and greater career longevity.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective case-control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.12.225DOI Listing
May 2021

Meta-analysis of biological mesh reconstruction versus primary perineal closure after abdominoperineal excision of rectal cancer.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Mar 3;36(3):477-492. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

Background: Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) of rectal cancer has been proposed to achieve better oncological outcomes. The resultant wide perineal wound, however, presents a challenge for primary closure and subsequent wound healing. This meta-analysis compared the outcomes of primary perineal closure with those of biological mesh reconstruction.

Methods: The Medline and Embase search was performed for the publications comparing primary perineal closure to biological mesh reconstruction. Early perineal wound complications (seroma, infection, dehiscence) and late perineal wound complications (perineal hernia, chronic pain, and chronic sinus) were analyzed as primary endpoints. Intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and hospital stay were compared as secondary endpoints.

Results: There was no significant difference in the overall early wound complications after primary closure or biological mesh reconstruction (odds ratio (OR) of 0.575 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.241 to 1.373 and a P value of 0.213). The incidence of perineal hernia after 1 year was significantly high after primary closure of the perineal wounds (OR of 0.400 with 95% CI of 0.240 to 0.665 and a P value of 0.001). No significant differences were observed among other early and late perineal wound complications. The operation time and hospital stay were shorter after primary perineal closure (p 0.001).

Conclusion: A lower incidence of perineal hernia and comparable early perineal wound complications after biological mesh reconstruction show a relative superiority over primary closure. More randomized studies are required before a routine biological mesh reconstruction can be recommended for closure of perineal wounds after ELAPE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-020-03827-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Hydrogen sulfide mitigates cadmium induced toxicity in Brassica rapa by modulating physiochemical attributes, osmolyte metabolism and antioxidative machinery.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 29;263:127999. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is helpful for maintaining plant growth under abiotic stresses. The current study elucidated the physiological and biochemical strategies by which sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of HS, alleviated cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Brassica rapa. B. rapa plants growing under 50 mgkg Cd stress showed reduced leaf relative water contents (LRWC), photosynthetic pigments, total soluble proteins, minerals uptake, antioxidants and growth. Furthermore, enhanced accumulation of Cd contents caused augmentation in levels of electrolyte leakage (EL) and methylglyoxal (MG). Nevertheless, improved physiochemical parameters in B. rapa seedlings obtained from seeds primed with 1.5 mM NaHS resulted better phenotype, growth and biomass production in Cd stressed plants. Protective stimulus of HS regulated minerals and Cd homeostasis besides increased activity of antioxidants which decreased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), EL, malondialdehyde (MDA) and MG in Cd regimes. Furthermore, HS treated seedlings exhibited reduction in Cd content and revealed an active participation in the indole acetic acid (IAA) mediated pathway during stress. The findings of current study propose that HS improved stress tolerance and mitigated Cd stress in B. rapa by modulating growth biomarkers and antioxidative system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127999DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Achilles Tendon Rupture on Player Performance and Longevity in National Basketball Association Players.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Nov 30;8(11):2325967120966041. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: National Basketball Association (NBA) players who return to sport (RTS) after Achilles tendon rupture have been reported to have poor outcomes.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Achilles tendon ruptures on player performance and career longevity in NBA athletes.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: NBA players who sustained Achilles tendon ruptures between 1970 and 2019 were identified using publicly available resources and were matched 1:1 to a healthy control group by age, position, height, and body mass index. Demographic characteristics, player utilization (games and minutes), and performance efficiency rating (PER) were documented for all athletes. The season of Achilles tendon rupture was set as the index year, and statistical analysis compared postindex versus preindex data both acutely and in the long term. Percentages relative to preoperative values were calculated to compare the injured and control groups in a standardized fashion.

Results: Of 47 players, 34 (72.3%) with Achilles tendon ruptures returned to play at the NBA level after surgical intervention. A total of 7 players were excluded from the study. No differences were found in demographic characteristics or PER (2 years before injury) between the remaining 27 players and matched controls. The injured players had significantly shorter careers compared with control players (3.1 ± 2.3 vs 5.8 ± 3.5 seasons, respectively; < .05). Injured players demonstrated significant declines in games per season (GPS), minutes per game (MPG), and PER at 1 year and 3 years after RTS compared with preindex baseline ( < .05). Injured players, compared with control players, had reduced relative percentages of games started (GS) (50% vs 125%, respectively), MPG (83% vs 103%), and PER (80% vs 96%) at 1 year after return ( < .05), but reductions at extended 3-year follow-up were seen only in GPS (71% vs 91%) and GS (39% vs 99%) ( < .05).

Conclusion: Our study found that 72.3% of NBA players returned to play after Achilles tendon repair, but they had shorter careers compared with uninjured controls. Players returning from Achilles tendon repairs had decreased game utilization and performance at all time points relative to their individual preindex baseline. However, for the injured players when compared with controls, game utilization but not performance was found to be decreased at 3-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120966041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708715PMC
November 2020

Effect of Workload After ACL Reconstruction on Rerupture Rates in NBA Players.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Nov 20;8(11):2325967120964467. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and potentially career-altering injury sustained by players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Strategies have been employed by the league to prevent reinjury of players after ACL reconstruction (ACLR), including minute restrictions and rest games; however, it remains unknown whether workload metrics after ACLR influence the risk for reinjury and revision surgery.

Purpose: To evaluate whether workload changes after return to play (RTP) from primary ACLR influences the risk of rerupture in NBA players.

Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: We identified NBA players from 1975 to 2018 who underwent primary ACLR as well as those who required revision ACLR. Primary outcomes included workload measures such as games played, games started, and minutes per game. Secondary outcomes included in-game performance statistics. Statistical analysis was used to compare relative workload and performance 3 years before and 3 years after undergoing primary ACLR. Workload was also compared between the control group of NBA players who underwent primary ACLR and those who required revision ACLR.

Results: A total of 68 players who underwent primary ACLR were included, 8 of whom subsequently required revision ACLR. In their first season upon RTP, control players (primary ACLR) demonstrated a significant reduction in all workload metrics relative to the season before injury ( < .001), while the revision group demonstrated an unchanged to increased workload. In a comparison between the primary and revision groups during the first season after RTP, the primary group demonstrated significantly fewer games started (mean ± SD, 22.2 ± 3.0 vs 35.8 ± 8.3; = .039) and minutes per game (20.5 ± 1.1 vs 27.0 ± 3.1; = .048) than revision players. The primary ACLR group demonstrated reduced cumulative workload trends for the first 3 years after RTP relative to 3 years before injury, which was not demonstrated in the revision ACLR group, albeit statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: Our study found that after ACLR, a reduction in workload parameters relative to preinjury baseline was associated with players who did not sustain rerupture. Further study is required to determine if workload measures following RTP from primary ACLR should be individualized relative to preinjury baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120964467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682245PMC
November 2020

Broadband Time-Resolved Absorption and Dispersion Spectroscopy of Methane and Ethane in a Plasma Using a Mid-Infrared Dual-Comb Spectrometer.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 29;20(23). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Trace Gas Research Group, Department of Molecular and Laser Physics, Institute of Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Conventional mechanical Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) can simultaneously measure absorption and dispersion spectra of gas-phase samples. However, they usually need very long measurement times to achieve time-resolved spectra with a good spectral and temporal resolution. Here, we present a mid-infrared dual-comb-based FTS in an asymmetric configuration, providing broadband absorption and dispersion spectra with a spectral resolution of 5 GHz (0.18 nm at a wavelength of 3333 nm), a temporal resolution of 20 μs, a total wavelength coverage over 300 cm and a total measurement time of ~70 s. We used the dual-comb spectrometer to monitor the reaction dynamics of methane and ethane in an electrical plasma discharge. We observed ethane/methane formation as a recombination reaction of hydrocarbon radicals in the discharge in various static and dynamic conditions. The results demonstrate a new analytical approach for measuring fast molecular absorption and dispersion changes and monitoring the fast dynamics of chemical reactions over a broad wavelength range, which can be interesting for chemical kinetic research, particularly for the combustion and plasma analysis community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20236831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730292PMC
November 2020

c-KIT-ERK1/2 signaling activated ELK1 and upregulated carcinoembryonic antigen expression to promote colorectal cancer progression.

Cancer Sci 2021 Feb 19;112(2):655-667. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is highly expressed in embryo and colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been widely used as a marker for CRC. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that elevated CEA levels promote CRC progression. However, the mechanism of the increased CEA expression in patients with primary and recurrent CRC is still an open question. In this study, we showed that c-KIT, ELK1, and CEA were hyperexpressed in patients with CRC, especially patients with recurrent disease. From bioinformatics analysis, we picked ELK1 as a candidate transcription factor (TF) for CEA; the binding site of ELK1 within the CEA promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and dual luciferase reporter assays. Overexpression of ELK1 increased CEA expression in vitro, while knockdown of ELK1 decreased CEA. Upregulated ELK1 promoted the adhesion, migration, and invasion of CRC cells, however knockdown of CEA blocked the activities of ELK1-overexpressed CRC cells. Furthermore, we explored the role of c-KIT-ERK1/2 signaling in activation of ELK1. Blocking c-KIT signaling using Imatinib or ISCK03 reduced p-ELK1 expression and consequently decreased CEA levels in CRC cells, as did blocking the ERK1/2 pathway by U0126. Compared with wild type littermates, the c-kit loss-of-functional Wads mice showed lowered c-KIT, ELK1, and CEA expression. In conclusion, our study revealed that ELK1, which was activated by c-KIT-ERK1/2 signaling, was a key TF for CEA expression. Blocking ELK1 or its upstream signaling could be an alternative way to decelerate CRC progression. Besides being a biomarker for CRC, CEA could be used for guiding targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894012PMC
February 2021

Functions of Bombyx mori cathepsin L-like in innate immune response and anti-microbial autophagy.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 13;116:103927. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

College of Life Sciences, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Cathepsins belongs to the cysteine protease family, which are activated by an acidic environment. They play essential biological roles in the innate immunity and development of animals. Here, we identified a 62 kDa cathepsin L-like protease from the silkworm Bombyx mori. It contained putative conserved domains, including an I29 inhibitor domain and a peptidase C1A domain. The expression analysis revealed that cathepsin L-like was highly produced in the fat body, and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20 E) induced its expression. After challenge with three different types of heat-killed pathogens (Escherichia coli, Beauveria bassiana, and Bacillus cereus), the mRNA levels of cathepsin L-like significantly increased and displayed variable expression patterns in the immune tissues, suggesting its potential role in the innate immune response. The suppression of cathepsin L-like altered the expression of immune-related genes associated with the Toll and IMD pathway. Besides, autophagy-related genes such as Atg6, Atg8, VAMP2, Vps4, and syntaxin expression were also altered, indicating that cathepsin L-like regulates innate immunity and autophagy. Fluorescence microscopic analysis exhibited that cathepsin L-like was localized in the cytoplasm, and it was activated and dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus following the induction of anti-microbial autophagy. Altogether, our data suggest that cathepsin L-like may regulate the innate immune response and anti-microbial autophagy in the silkworm, B. mori.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103927DOI Listing
March 2021

Interaction of liming and long-term fertilization increased crop yield and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) through mediating exchangeable cations in acidic soil under wheat-maize cropping system.

Sci Rep 2020 11 13;10(1):19828. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.

Low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) is one of the main problems of acidic soil that limit the crop growth. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the response of crop yield and PUE to the long-term application of fertilizers and quicklime (CaO) in the acidic soil under wheat-maize rotation system. Treatments included, CK (no fertilization), NP (inorganic nitrogen and P fertilization), NPK (inorganic N, P and potassium fertilization), NPKS (NPK + straw return), NPCa (NP + lime), NPKCa (NPK + lime) and NPKSCa (NPKS + lime). Results showed that, fertilizer without lime treatments, significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased soil pH and crop yield, compared to the fertilizer with lime treatments during the period of 2012-2018. Average among years, compared to the CK treatment, wheat grain yield increased by 138%, 213%, 198%, 547%, 688% and 626%, respectively and maize yield increased by 687%, 1887%, 1651%, 2605%, 5047% and 5077%, respectively, under the NP, NPK, NPKS, NPCa, NPKCa and NPKSCa treatments. Lime application significantly increased soil exchangeable base cations (Ca and Mg) and decreased Al cation. Compared to the NP treatment, phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) increased by 220%, 212%, 409%, 807% and 795%, respectively, under the NPK, NPKS, NPCa, NPKCa and NPKSCa treatments. Soil pH showed significant negative relationship with exchangeable Al and soil total N. While, soil pH showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive relationship with exchangeable Ca, PUE and annual crop yield. PUE was highly negatively correlated with soil exchangeable Al. In addition, soil exchangeable Ca, pH, exchangeable Al and available N were the most influencing factors of crop yield. Therefore, we concluded that lime application is an effective strategy to mitigate soil acidification and to increase PUE through increasing exchangeable base cations and reducing the acidic cations for high crop yield in acidic soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76892-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666156PMC
November 2020

Scavenger receptor B8 improves survivability by mediating innate immunity in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 5;116:103917. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Southwest University, China; Cancer Center, Medical Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China; Chongqing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Silk Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, 400716, Chongqing, China; Southwest University Engineering Research Center for Cancer Biomedical and Translational Medicine, 400715, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Scavenger receptor class B (SR-B) is an extracellular transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a vital role in innate immunity. Although SR-Bs have been widely studied in vertebrates, their functions remained to elucidate in insects. Here, we identified and characterized a scavenger receptor class B member from the silkworm, Bombyx mori (designated as BmSCRB8). BmSCRB8 is broadly expressed in various immune tissues/organs, including fat body, gut, and hemocyte. Its expression is dramatically enhanced after challenge with different types of bacteria or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The recombinant BmSCRB8 protein can detect different types of bacteria by directly binding to PAMPs and significantly improve the bacterial clearance in vivo. After knockdown of BmSCRB8, the pathogenic bacterial clearance was strongly impaired, and several AMP genes were down-regulated following E. coli challenge. Moreover, pathogenic bacteria's treatment following the depletion of BmSCRB8 remarkably decreased silkworm larvae's survival rate. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BmSCRB8 acts as a pattern recognition protein and plays an essential role in silkworm innate immunity by enhancing bacterial clearance and contributing to the production of AMPs in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103917DOI Listing
March 2021

Drinking-water nitrate and cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2020 Nov 3:1-17. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Nitrate is an inorganic compound that occurs naturally in all surface and groundwater, although higher concentrations tend to occur only where fertilizers are used on the land. The regulatory limit for nitrate in public drinking water supplies was set to protect against infant methemoglobinemia, but other health effects were not considered. Risk of specific cancers and congenital disabilities may be increased when the nitrate is ingested, and nitrate is reduced to nitrite, which can react with amines and amides by nitrosation to form N-nitroso compounds which are known animal carcinogens. This study aims to evaluate the association between nitrate ingested through drinking water and the risk of developing cancers in humans.

Methods: We performed a systematic review following PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. A literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases, Web of Science and Google Scholars in the time-frame from their inception to January 2020, for potentially eligible publications. STATA version 12.0 was used to conduct meta-regression and a two-stage meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 48 articles with 13 different cancer sites were used for analysis. The meta-regression analysis showed stomach cancer had an association with the median dosage of nitrate from drinking water (t = 3.98, p = 0.0001, and adjusted R-squared = 50.61%), other types of cancers didn't show any association. The first stage of meta-analysis showed there was an association only between the risk of brain cancer & glioma (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.24) and colon cancer (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.17) and nitrate consumption in the analysis comparing the highest ORs versus the lowest. The 2 stage showed there was an association only between the risk colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.23) and nitrate consumption in the analysis comparing all combined higher ORs versus the lowest.

Conclusion: This study showed that there is an association between the intake of nitrate from drinking water and a type of cancer in humans. The effective way of controlling nitrate concentrations in drinking water is the prevention of contamination (water pollution). Further research work on this topic is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19338244.2020.1842313DOI Listing
November 2020

Ethanolic Extract with Potential Anti-Allergic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 29;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic and chronic inflammatory skin disease. The present study investigates the anti-allergic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of (COFE) for possible applications in the treatment of AD. COFE inhibits the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells sensitized with the dinitrophenyl-immunoglobulin E (IgE-DNP) antibody after stimulation with dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) in a concentration-dependent manner (IC = 0.178 mg/mL). Antioxidant activity determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity, result in EC values of 1.82, 10.76, and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the extract significantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and the mRNA expression of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) through attenuation of NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells. COFE significantly inhibits TNF-α-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells without cytotoxic effects ( < 0.05). Furthermore, 2-furancarboxaldehyde and loganin are identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, respectively, as the major compounds. Molecular docking analysis shows that loganin, cornuside, and naringenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside could potentially disrupt the binding of IgE to human high-affinity IgE receptors (FceRI). Our results suggest that COFE might possess potential inhibitory effects on allergic responses, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692184PMC
October 2020

Motilibacter deserti sp. nov. and Motilibacter aurantiacus sp. nov., two novel actinobacteria isolated from soil of Cholistan Desert and emended description of the genus Motilibacter.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2020 Nov 7;43(6):126150. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Microbial Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Two novel actinobacterial strains, designated as E257 and K478, were isolated from hyper-arid soil samples collected in Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that strains E257 and K478 were assigned to the genus Motilibacter, being their closest relative M. rhizosphaerae RS-16 with 97.3% and 96.7% similarities, respectively. The sequence similarity between strain E257 and K478 was 98.9%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenomic analysis based on multiple genes of conserved core proteins exhibited that these two strains belonged to the genus Motilibacter and formed a robust cluster separated from the two type species of the genus Motilibacter. Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), Average Amino acid Identity (AAI), digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values and Percentage of Conserved Proteins (POCP) calculated from the complete genome sequences indicated strains E257 and K478 were assigned into genus Motilibacter but clearly separated from each other and from the other species of the genus Motilibacter with values below the thresholds for species delineation. The two isolates were found to have chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties consistent with their classification in the genus Motilibacter and also confirmed the differentiation from their closest species. The obtained results demonstrated that strains E257 and K478 represent two novel species of the genus Motilibacter, for which the names Motilibacter desertisp. nov. (type strain E257 = JCM 33651 = CGMCC 1.17159) and Motilibacter aurantiacus sp. nov. (type strain K478 =JCM 33652 =CGMCC 1.17229) are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2020.126150DOI Listing
November 2020

A meta-analysis of the role of diverting ileostomy after rectal cancer surgery.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Mar 16;36(3):445-455. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

Purpose: Anastomotic leak is a feared complication of rectal cancer surgery. A diverting stoma is believed to act as a safety mechanism against this undesirable outcome. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the role of loop ileostomy in the prevention of this complication.

Methods: The Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery in the presence or absence of diverting ileostomy. The need for reoperation and postoperative complications were also analysed. The length of hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss and operating time were analysed as secondary endpoints.

Results: A significantly higher number of anastomotic leaks was detected in patients with no diverting ileostomies than in those with diversion (odds ratio (OR) 0.292 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.177-0.481), and more patients required reoperations in this group (OR 0.219 and 95% CI 0.114-0.422). The rate of complications other than anastomotic leak was significantly higher in patients with diverting ileostomies than in those without (OR 3.337 and 95% CI of 1.570-7.093). The operating time was longer in the ileostomy group than in the no ileostomy group (P 0.001), but no significant differences in the intraoperative blood loss or postoperative hospital stay length were observed between the two groups(P 0.199 and 0.191 respectively).

Conclusion: A lower leak rate in the presence of diverting ileostomy is supported by relatively weak evidence. While mitigating the consequences of leakage, diverting ileostomies lead to numerous other complications. High-quality RCTs are needed before routine ileostomy diversions can be recommended after rectal cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-020-03771-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Strategic use of patent opposition safeguard to improve equitable access to innovative health technologies: A case study of CAR T-cell therapy Kymriah.

Glob Public Health 2020 Oct 8:1-11. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia.

Kymriah is an innovative cancer therapy which works by removing disease fighting T-cells from patients, genetically modifying or reprogramming the immune cells to attack cancer, and re-infusing them back into the patients. It treats childhood blood and bone marrow cancer. The cost of this new hope-giving gene therapy is CHF 450,000 per treatment. This exorbitantly high price set by Novartis, in exercise of its exclusive rights resulting from patent protection, undermines the real-world impact of this revolutionary therapy. On December 16, 2019, Novartis relinquished its European patent on Kymriah as a result of a successful patent opposition lodged by 'Public Eye' and 'Médicins du Monde'. This case study of Kymriah highlights the potential role of civil society in improving equitable and affordable access to innovative health technologies by using the procedural safeguard of patent opposition. This study finds that patent opposition is an important policy option to alleviate some of the financial burdens of health systems, especially in the wake of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1825769DOI Listing
October 2020