Publications by authors named "Muhammad A Habib"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcome of Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: A Single-Center Experience.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 08;42(6):e423-e427

The Indus Hospital.

Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring core binding factor (CBF)-associated translocations are considered as a favorable cytogenetic subgroup. The 2 major subtypes of CBF-AML include t(8;21) and inversion of chromosome 16, accounting for ∼25% of patients. Because of expensive and toxic treatment, which may require hospitalization during the entire course of induction chemotherapy, most of the centers in Pakistan neither workup for this low-risk entity nor offer curative treatment. Therefore, we adopted an approach of screening AML cases for the presence of CBF with the rationale of offering curative treatment to this subgroup. Data of 244 cases were reviewed, and translocations were found in 72 (34%) patients among them, 59 (82%) had t(8;21) and 13 (18%) showed inversion of chromosome 16. The event-free survival with and without abandonment was 36% and 40%, respectively. Among 44 patients who completed treatment, 26 (59%) are leukemia-free, while 18 (41%) relapsed. None of the relapsed patients received salvage chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Treatment-related mortality and abandonment was found in 24% and 10% of patients, respectively. The frequency of CBF-AML is higher in our study; however, poor outcome demands holistic measures in supportive care to improve the survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001853DOI Listing
August 2020

Factors associated with low birthweight in term pregnancies: a matched case-control study from rural Pakistan.

East Mediterr Health J 2018 Jan;23(11):754-763

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Neonatology, Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Low birthweight (LBW) remains a significant public health problem in Pakistan and further understanding of factors associated with LBW is required. We conducted a hospital-based matched case control study to identify risk factors associated with LBW in a rural district of Pakistan. We found that illiteracy (AOR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.59 - 4.38), nulliparity (AOR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.26-2.44), having a previous miscarriage/abortion (AOR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06-2.35), having < 2 antenatal care (ANC) visits during last pregnancy (AOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.34-2.88), seeking ANC in third trimester (AOR: 3.62; 95% CI : 2.14-5.03), non-use of iron folic acid during last pregnancy (AOR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.75-3.17), having hypertension during last pregnancy (AOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-2.20), being anemic (AOR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.65-5.24) and having postpartum weight of <45 kg (AOR: 3.30; 95% CI : 1.97-4.52) were significantly associated with an increased odds of having a LBW baby. Our study identifies modifiable risk factors requiring immediate commitment from the health authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/2017.23.11.754DOI Listing
January 2018

Immunogenicity and safety of the Vi-CRM197 conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever in adults, children, and infants in south and southeast Asia: results from two randomised, observer-blind, age de-escalation, phase 2 trials.

Lancet Infect Dis 2014 Feb 28;14(2):119-29. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health, Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Typhoid vaccination is a public health priority in developing countries where young children are greatly affected by typhoid fever. Because present vaccines are not recommended for children younger than 2 years, the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM197) for infant immunisation. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Vi-CRM197 in participants of various ages in endemic countries in south and southeast Asia.

Methods: We did two randomised, observer-blind, age de-escalation, phase 2 trials at two sites in Pakistan and India (study A), and at one site in the Philippines (study B), between March 2, 2011, and Aug 9, 2012. Adults aged 18-45 years, children aged 24-59 months, older infants aged 9-12 months, and infants aged 6-8 weeks were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation list (block size of four) to receive either 5 μg Vi-CRM197 or 25 μg Vi-polysaccharide vaccine (or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than 2 years). Both infant populations received Vi-CRM197 concomitantly with vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), according to WHO schedule. With the exception of designated study site personnel responsible for vaccine preparation, study investigators, those assessing outcomes, and data analysts were masked to treatment allocation. We specified no a-priori null hypothesis for the immunogenicity or safety objectives and all analyses were descriptive. Analyses were by modified intention-to-treat. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01229176 and NCT01437267.

Findings: 320 participants were enrolled and vaccinated in the two trials: 200 in study A (all age groups) and 120 in study B (children and infants only), of whom 317 (99%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. One dose of Vi-CRM197 significantly increased concentrations of anti-Vi antibody in adults (from 113 U/mL [95% CI 67-190] to 208 U/mL [117-369]), children (201 U/mL [138-294] to 368 U/mL [234-580]), and older infants (179 U/mL [129-250] to 249 U/mL [130-477]). However, in children and older infants, a second dose of conjugate vaccine had no incremental effect on antibody titres and, at all ages, concentrations of antibodies increased substantially 6 months after vaccination (from 55 U/mL [33-94] to 63 U/mL [35-114] in adults, from 23 U/mL [15-34] to 51 U/mL [34-76] in children, and from 21 U/mL [14-31] to 22 U/mL [14-33] in older infants). Immune response in infants aged 6-8 weeks was lower than that in older participants and, 6 months after third vaccination, antibody concentrations were significantly higher than pre-vaccination concentrations in Filipino (21 U/mL [16-28] vs 2.88 U/mL [1.95-4.25]), but not Pakistani (3.76 U/mL [2.77-5.08] vs 2.77 U/mL [2.1-3.66]), infants. Vi-CRM197 was safe and well tolerated and did not induce any significant interference with EPI vaccines. No deaths or vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported throughout the studies.

Interpretation: Vi-CRM197 is safe and immunogenic in endemic populations of all ages. Given at 9 months of age, concomitantly with measles vaccine, Vi-CRM197 shows a promise for potential inclusion in EPI schedules of countries endemic for typhoid. An apparent absence of booster response and a reduction in antibody titres 6 months after immunisation should be further investigated, but data show that an immunogenic typhoid vaccine can be safely delivered to infants during EPI visits recommended by WHO.

Funding: Sclavo Vaccines Association and Regione Toscana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70241-XDOI Listing
February 2014

Improved accessibility of emergency obstetrics and newborn care (EmONC) services for maternal and newborn health: a community based project.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013 Jun 24;13:136. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Division of Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Every year an estimated three million neonates die globally and two hundred thousand of these deaths occur in Pakistan. Majority of these neonates die in rural areas of underdeveloped countries from preventable causes (infections, complications related to low birth weight and prematurity). Similarly about three hundred thousand mother died in 2010 and Pakistan is among ten countries where sixty percent burden of these deaths is concentrated. Maternal and neonatal mortality remain to be unacceptably high in Pakistan especially in rural areas where more than half of births occur.

Method/design: This community based cluster randomized controlled trial will evaluate the impact of an Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) package in the intervention arm compared to standard of care in control arm. Perinatal and neonatal mortality are primary outcome measure for this trial. The trial will be implemented in 20 clusters (Union councils) of District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. The EmONC package consists of provision of maternal and neonatal health pack (clean delivery kit, emollient, chlorhexidine) for safe motherhood and newborn wellbeing and training of community level and facility based health care providers with emphasis on referral of complicated cases to nearest public health facilities and community mobilization.

Discussion: Even though there is substantial evidence in support of effectiveness of various health interventions for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. Reduction in perinatal and neonatal mortality remains a big challenge in resource constrained and diverse countries like Pakistan and achieving MDG 4 and 5 appears to be a distant reality. A comprehensive package of community based low cost interventions along the continuum of care tailored according to the socio cultural environment coupled with existing health force capacity building may result in improving the maternal and neonatal outcomes. The findings of this proposed community based trial will provide sufficient evidence on feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to the policy makers for replicating and scaling up the interventions within the health system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-13-136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3718721PMC
June 2013