Publications by authors named "Moulay Aalaoui-Jamali"

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Emerging drug discovery approaches for selective targeting of "precursor" metastatic breast cancer cells: highlights and perspectives.

Am J Transl Res 2011 8;3(5):434-44. Epub 2011 Sep 8.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research and Segal Cancer Center, Jewish General Hospital, Departments of Medicine, Oncology, and Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University Montreal, Qc H3T1E2, Canada.

Breast cancer is a prevalent disease and a major cause of morbidity and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. A significant number of patients at the time of primary diagnosis present metastatic disease, at least to locoregional lymph nodes, which results in somewhat unpredictable prognosis that often prompts adjuvant systemic therapies of various kinds. The time course of distant recurrence is also unpredictable with some patients sustaining a recurrence within months after diagnosis, even during adjuvant treatments, while others can experience recurrence years or decades after initial diagnosis. To date, clinically approved therapeutics yielded marginal benefits for patients with systemic metastatic breast disease, since despite high clinical responses to various therapies, the patients virtually always become resistant and tumor relapses. Molecular profiling studies established that breast cancer is highly heterogeneous and encompasses diverse histological and molecular subtypes with distinct biological and clinical implications in particular in relation to the incidence of progression to metastasis. The latter has been recognized to result from late genetic events during the multistep progression proposed by the dominant theory of carcinogenesis. However, there is evidence that the dissemination of primary cancer can also be initiated at a very early stage of cancer development, originating from rare cell variants, possibly cancer stem-like cells (CSC), with invasive potential. These precursor metastatic cancer cells with stem-like properties are defined by their ability to self-renew and to regenerate cell variants, which have high plasticity and intrinsic invasive properties required for dissemination and tropism toward specific organs. Equally relevant to the CSC hypothesis for metastasis formation is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which is critical for the acquisition of cancer cell invasive behavior and for selection/gain of CSC properties. These exciting concepts have led to the formulation of various approaches for targeting precursor metastatic cells, and these have taken on greater priority in therapeutic drug discovery research by both academia and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we focus on current efforts in medicinal chemistry to develop small molecules able to target precursor metastatic cells via interference with the CSC/EMT differentiation program, self-renewal, and survival. It is not meant to be comprehensive and the reader is referred to selected reviews that provide coverage of related basic aspects. Rather, emphasis is given to promising molecules with CSC/EMT signaling at the preclinical stage and in clinical trials that are paving the way to new generations of anti-metastasis drugs.
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November 2011