Publications by authors named "Monica Macal"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of phase 1 bemarituzumab data to support phase 2 gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma FIGHT trial.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 11 23;86(5):595-606. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc., 111 Oyster Point Blvd, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Purpose: To report population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of the phase 1 study (FPA144-001, NCT02318329) and to select a clinical dose and schedule that will achieve an empirical target trough concentration (C) for an anti-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b antibody, bemarituzumab.

Methods: Nonlinear mixed-effect modeling was used to analyse PK data. In vitro binding affinity and receptor occupancy of bemarituzumab were determined. Simulation was conducted to estimate dose and schedule to achieve an empirical target C in a phase 2 trial (FIGHT, NCT03694522) for patients receiving first-line treatment combined with modified 5-fluourouracil, oxaliplatin and leucovorin (mFOLFOX6) for gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

Results: Bemarituzumab PK is best described by a two-compartment model with parallel linear and nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination from the central compartment. Albumin, gender, and body weight were identified as the covariates on the linear clearance and/or volume of distribution in the central compartment, and no dose adjustment was warranted. An empirical target of bemarituzumab C of ≥ 60 µg/mL was projected to achieve > 95% receptor occupancy based on in vitro data. Fifteen mg/kg every 2 weeks, with a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg on Cycle 1 Day 8, was projected to achieve the target C on Day 15 in 98% of patients with 96% maintaining the target at steady state, which was confirmed in the FIGHT trial.

Conclusion: A projected dose and schedule to achieve the target C was validated in phase 1 of the FIGHT trial which supported selection of the phase 2 dose and schedule for bemarituzumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04139-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561547PMC
November 2020

Self-Renewal and Toll-like Receptor Signaling Sustain Exhausted Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells during Chronic Viral Infection.

Immunity 2018 04;48(4):730-744.e5

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Although characterization of T cell exhaustion has unlocked powerful immunotherapies, the mechanisms sustaining adaptations of short-lived innate cells to chronic inflammatory settings remain unknown. During murine chronic viral infection, we found that concerted events in bone marrow and spleen mediated by type I interferon (IFN-I) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) maintained a pool of functionally exhausted plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In the bone marrow, IFN-I compromised the number and the developmental capacity of pDC progenitors, which generated dysfunctional pDCs. Concurrently, exhausted pDCs in the periphery were maintained by self-renewal via IFN-I- and TLR7-induced proliferation of CD4 subsets. On the other hand, pDC functional loss was mediated by TLR7, leading to compromised IFN-I production and resistance to secondary infection. These findings unveil the mechanisms sustaining a self-perpetuating pool of functionally exhausted pDCs and provide a framework for deciphering long-term exhaustion of other short-lived innate cells during chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937984PMC
April 2018

Interleukin-27R Signaling Mediates Early Viral Containment and Impacts Innate and Adaptive Immunity after Chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection.

J Virol 2018 06 29;92(12). Epub 2018 May 29.

Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA

Chronic viral infections represent a major challenge to the host immune response, and a unique network of immunological elements, including cytokines, are required for their containment. By using a model persistent infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) we investigated the role of one such cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), in the control of chronic infection. We found that IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) signaling promoted control of LCMV Cl13 as early as days 1 and 5 after infection and that transcripts were rapidly elevated in multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells. In particular, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), the most potent type 1 interferon (IFN-I)-producing cells, significantly increased in a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-dependent fashion. Notably, mice deficient in an IL-27-specific receptor, WSX-1, exhibited a pleiotropy of innate and adaptive immune alterations after chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, including compromised NK cell cytotoxicity and antibody responses. While, the majority of these immune alterations appeared to be cell extrinsic, cell-intrinsic IL-27R was necessary to maintain early pDC numbers, which, alongside lower IFN-I transcription in CD11b DCs and myeloid cells, may explain the compromised IFN-I elevation that we observed early after LCMV Cl13 infection in IL-27R-deficient mice. Together, these data highlight the critical role of IL-27 in enabling optimal antiviral immunity early and late after infection with a systemic persistent virus and suggest that a previously unrecognized positive-feedback loop mediated by IL-27 in pDCs might be involved in this process. Persistently replicating pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, represent major health problems worldwide. These infections impose a long-term challenge on the host immune system, which must be heavily and continuously regulated to keep pathogen replication in check without causing fatal immunopathology. Using a persistently replicating rodent pathogen, LCMV, in its natural host, we identified the cellular sources and effects of one important regulatory pathway, interleukin-27 receptor WSX-1 signaling, that is required for both very early and late restriction of chronic (but not acute) infection. We found that WSX-1 was necessary to promote innate immunity and the development of aberrant adaptive immune responses. This not only highlights the role of IL-27 receptor signaling in regulating distinct host responses that are known to be necessary to control chronic infections, but also positions IL-27 as a potential therapeutic target for their modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02196-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974502PMC
June 2018

Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth.

Neoplasia 2016 05;18(5):294-306

VA San Diego Healthcare System, Medical and Research Sections, La Jolla, CA 92161; Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037; Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093. Electronic address:

In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs) in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1) in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21)-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt) were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4-deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2016.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4887599PMC
May 2016

Innate and Adaptive Immune Regulation During Chronic Viral Infections.

Annu Rev Virol 2015 Nov 2;2(1):573-97. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Section of Inflammation, Repair and Development, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

Chronic viral infections represent a unique challenge to the infected host. Persistently replicating viruses outcompete or subvert the initial antiviral response, allowing the establishment of chronic infections that result in continuous stimulation of both the innate and adaptive immune compartments. This causes a profound reprogramming of the host immune system, including attenuation and persistent low levels of type I interferons, progressive loss (or exhaustion) of CD8(+) T cell functions, and specialization of CD4(+) T cells to produce interleukin-21 and promote antibody-mediated immunity and immune regulation. Epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and metabolic changes underlie this adaptation or recalibration of immune cells to the emerging new environment in order to strike an often imperfect balance between the host and the infectious pathogen. In this review we discuss the common immunological hallmarks observed across a range of different persistently replicating viruses and host species, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the biological and clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-100114-055226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4785831PMC
November 2015

CD28 Deficiency Enhances Type I IFN Production by Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

J Immunol 2016 Feb 15;196(4):1900-9. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093; and

Type I IFNs (IFN-I) are key innate mediators that create a profound antiviral state and orchestrate the activation of almost all immune cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most powerful IFN-I-producing cells and play important roles during viral infections, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. By comparing gene expression profiles of murine pDCs and conventional DCs, we found that CD28, a prototypic T cell stimulatory receptor, was highly expressed in pDCs. Strikingly, CD28 acted as a negative regulator of pDC IFN-I production upon TLR stimulation but did not affect pDC survival or maturation. Importantly, cell-intrinsic CD28 expression restrained pDC (and systemic) IFN-I production during in vivo RNA and DNA viral infections, limiting antiviral responses and enhancing viral growth early after exposure. Finally, CD28 also downregulated IFN-I response upon skin injury. Our study identified a new pDC regulatory mechanism by which the same CD28 molecule that promotes stimulation in most cells that express it is co-opted to negatively regulate pDC IFN-I production and limit innate responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1501658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744517PMC
February 2016

Constitutive but not inducible attenuation of transforming growth factor β signaling increases natural killer cell responses without directly affecting dendritic cells early after persistent viral infection.

J Virol 2015 Mar 14;89(6):3343-55. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA

Unlabelled: Rapid innate responses to viral encounters are crucial to shaping the outcome of infection, from viral clearance to persistence. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a potent immune suppressor that is upregulated early upon viral infection and maintained during chronic infections in both mice and humans. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in regulating individual cell types in vivo is still unclear. Using infections with two different persistent viruses, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV; Cl13), in their natural rodent host, we observed that TGF-β signaling on dendritic cells (DCs) did not dampen DC maturation or cytokine production in the early stages of chronic infection with either virus in vivo. In contrast, TGF-β signaling prior to (but not during) chronic viral infection directly restricted the natural killer (NK) cell number and effector function. This restriction likely compromised both the early control of and host survival upon MCMV infection but not the long-term control of LCMV infection. These data highlight the context and timing of TGF-β signaling on different innate cells that contribute to the early host response, which ultimately influences the outcome of chronic viral infection in vivo.

Importance: In vivo host responses to pathogens are complex processes involving the cooperation of many different immune cells migrating to specific tissues over time, but these events cannot be replicated in vitro. Viruses causing chronic infections are able to subvert this immune response and represent a human health burden. Here we used two well-characterized viruses that are able to persist in their natural mouse host to dissect the role of the suppressive molecule TGF-β in dampening host responses to infection in vivo. This report presents information that allows an increased understanding of long-studied TGF-β signaling by examining its direct effect on different immune cells that are activated very early after in vivo viral infection and may aid with the development of new antiviral therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03076-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337531PMC
March 2015

Enhanced innate antiviral gene expression, IFN-α, and cytolytic responses are predictive of mucosal immune recovery during simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

J Immunol 2014 Apr 7;192(7):3308-18. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

The mucosa that lines the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is an important portal of entry for pathogens and provides the first line of innate immune defense against infections. Although an abundance of memory CD4(+) T cells at mucosal sites render them highly susceptible to HIV infection, the gut and not the lung experiences severe and sustained CD4(+) T cell depletion and tissue disruption. We hypothesized that distinct immune responses in the lung and gut during the primary and chronic stages of viral infection contribute to these differences. Using the SIV model of AIDS, we performed a comparative analysis of the molecular and cellular characteristics of host responses in the gut and lung. Our findings showed that both mucosal compartments harbor similar percentages of memory CD4(+) T cells and displayed comparable cytokine (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) responses to mitogenic stimulations prior to infection. However, despite similar viral replication and CD4(+) T cell depletion during primary SIV infection, CD4(+) T cell restoration kinetics in the lung and gut diverged during acute viral infection. The CD4(+) T cells rebounded or were preserved in the lung mucosa during chronic viral infection, which correlated with heightened induction of type I IFN signaling molecules and innate viral restriction factors. In contrast, the lack of CD4(+) T cell restoration in the gut was associated with dampened immune responses and diminished expression of viral restriction factors. Thus, unique immune mechanisms contribute to the differential response and protection of pulmonary versus GI mucosa and can be leveraged to enhance mucosal recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1302415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246033PMC
April 2014

Lymphatic specific disruption in the fine structure of heparan sulfate inhibits dendritic cell traffic and functional T cell responses in the lymph node.

J Immunol 2014 Mar 3;192(5):2133-42. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

Marine Drug Research Institute, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005, China;

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent APCs essential for initiating adaptive immunity. Following pathogen exposure, trafficking of DCs to lymph nodes (LNs) through afferent lymphatic vessels constitutes a crucial step in the execution of their functions. The mechanisms regulating this process are poorly understood, although the involvement of certain chemokines in this process has recently been reported. In this study, we demonstrate that genetically altering the fine structure (N-sulfation) of heparan sulfate (HS) specifically in mouse lymphatic endothelium significantly reduces DC trafficking to regional LNs in vivo. Moreover, this alteration had the unique functional consequence of reducing CD8(+) T cell proliferative responses in draining LNs in an ovalbumin immunization model. Mechanistic studies suggested that lymphatic endothelial HS regulates multiple steps during DC trafficking, including optimal presentation of chemokines on the surface of DCs, thus acting as a co-receptor that may function "in trans" to mediate chemokine receptor binding. This study not only identifies novel glycan-mediated mechanisms that regulate lymphatic DC trafficking, but it also validates the fine structure of lymphatic vascular-specific HS as a novel molecular target for strategies aiming to modulate DC behavior and/or alter pathologic T cell responses in lymph nodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1301286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3960083PMC
March 2014

Dysregulation of anti-inflammatory annexin A1 expression in progressive Crohns Disease.

PLoS One 2013 10;8(10):e76969. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America ; Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Genetics and Biochemistry, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves the interplay of environmental and genetic factors with the host immune system. Mechanisms contributing to immune dysregulation in IBD are not fully defined. Development of novel therapeutic strategies is focused on controlling aberrant immune response in IBD. Current IBD therapy utilizes a combination of immunomodulators and biologics to suppress pro-inflammatory effectors of IBD. However, the role of immunomodulatory factors such as annexin A1 (ANXA1) is not well understood. The goal of this study was to examine the association between ANXA1 and IBD, and the effects of anti-TNF-α, Infliximab (IFX), therapy on ANXA1 expression.

Methods: ANXA1 and TNF-α transcript levels in PBMC were measured by RT PCR. Clinical follow up included the administration of serial ibdQs. ANXA1 expression in the gut mucosa was measured by IHC. Plasma ANXA1 levels were measured by ELISA.

Results: We found that the reduction in ANXA1 protein levels in plasma coincided with a decrease in the ANXA1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood of IBD patients. ANXA1 expression is upregulated during IFX therapy in patients with a successful intervention but not in clinical non-responders. The IFX therapy also modified the cellular immune activation in the peripheral blood of IBD patients. Decreased expression of ANXA1 was detected in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients with incomplete resolution of inflammation during continuous therapy, which correlated with increased levels of TNF-α transcripts. Gut mucosal epithelial barrier disruption was evident by increased plasma bacterial 16S levels.

Conclusion: Loss of ANXA1 expression may support inflammation during IBD and can serve as a biomarker of disease progression. Changes in ANXA1 levels may be predictive of therapeutic efficacy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0076969PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3794972PMC
June 2014

Chronic HIV infection enhances the responsiveness of antigen presenting cells to commensal Lactobacillus.

PLoS One 2013 30;8(8):e72789. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Chronic immune activation despite long-term therapy poses an obstacle to immune recovery in HIV infection. The role of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in chronic immune activation during HIV infection remains to be fully determined. APCs, the frontline of immune defense against pathogens, are capable of distinguishing between pathogens and non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. We hypothesized that HIV infection induces dysfunction in APC immune recognition and response to some commensal bacteria and that this may promote chronic immune activation. Therefore we examined APC inflammatory cytokine responses to commensal lactobacilli. We found that APCs from HIV-infected patients produced an enhanced inflammatory response to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as compared to APCs from healthy, HIV-negative controls. Increased APC expression of TLR2 and CD36, signaling through p38-MAPK, and decreased expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in HIV infection was associated with this heightened immune response. Our findings suggest that chronic HIV infection enhances the responsiveness of APCs to commensal lactobacilli, a mechanism that may partly contribute to chronic immune activation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072789PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758347PMC
April 2014

Sex differences matter in the gut: effect on mucosal immune activation and inflammation.

Biol Sex Differ 2013 May 7;4(1):10. Epub 2013 May 7.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of CA Davis Health System, 5605A GBSF, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Background: Women and men have diverse responses to many infectious diseases. These differences are amplified following menopause. However, despite extensive information regarding the effects of sex hormones on immune cells, our knowledge is limited regarding the effects of sex and gender on the function of the mucosal immune system. Sex differences also manifest in the prevalence of gut associated inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and Celiac disease. It is thus hypothesized that a baseline sex-associated difference in immune activation may predispose women to inflammation-associated disease.

Methods: Peripheral blood samples and small intestinal biopsies were obtained from 34 healthy men and women. Immunophenotypic analysis of isolated lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Oligonucleotide analysis was used to study the transcriptional profile in the gut mucosal microenvironment while real-time PCR analysis was utilized to identify differential gene expression in isolated CD4+ T cells. Transcriptional analysis was confirmed by protein expression levels for genes of interest using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Data was analyzed using the GraphPad software package.

Results: Women had higher levels of immune activation and inflammation-associated gene expression in gut mucosal samples. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells had a significantly higher level of immune activation-associated phenotype in peripheral blood as well as in gut associated lymphoid tissue along with higher levels of proliferating T cells. CD4+ T cells that showed upregulation of IL1β as well as the TH17 pathway-associated genes contributed a large part of the inflammatory profile.

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated an upregulation in gene expression related to immune function in the gut microenvironment of women compared to men, in the absence of disease or pathology. Upon closer investigation, CD4+ T cell activation levels were higher in the LPLs in women than in men. Sex differences in the mucosal immune system may predispose women to inflammation-associated diseases that are exacerbated following menopause. Our study highlights the need for more detailed analysis of the effects of sex differences in immune responses at mucosal effector sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2042-6410-4-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3652739PMC
May 2013

Control of RelB during dendritic cell activation integrates canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways.

Nat Immunol 2012 Dec 21;13(12):1162-70. Epub 2012 Oct 21.

Signaling Systems Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and San Diego Center for Systems Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

The NF-κB protein RelB controls dendritic cell (DC) maturation and may be targeted therapeutically to manipulate T cell responses in disease. Here we report that RelB promoted DC activation not as the expected RelB-p52 effector of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, but as a RelB-p50 dimer regulated by canonical IκBs, IκBα and IκBɛ. IκB control of RelB minimized spontaneous maturation but enabled rapid pathogen-responsive maturation. Computational modeling of the NF-κB signaling module identified control points of this unexpected cell type-specific regulation. Fibroblasts that we engineered accordingly showed DC-like RelB control. Canonical pathway control of RelB regulated pathogen-responsive gene expression programs. This work illustrates the potential utility of systems analyses in guiding the development of combination therapeutics for modulating DC-dependent T cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.2446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634611PMC
December 2012

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection.

Cell Host Microbe 2012 Jun;11(6):617-30

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

The antiviral response is largely mediated by dendritic cells (DCs), including conventional (c) DCs that function as antigen-presenting cells, and plasmacytoid (p) DCs that produce type I interferons, making them an attractive target for viruses. We find that the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) and Lassa virus bind pDCs to a greater extent than cDCs. Consistently, LCMV Cl13 targets pDCs early after in vivo infection of its natural murine host and establishes a productive and robust replication cycle. pDCs coproduce type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines, with the former being induced in both infected and uninfected pDCs, demonstrating a dissociation from intrinsic virus replication. TLR7 globally mediates pDC responses, limits pDC viral load, and promotes rapid innate and adaptive immune cell activation. These early events likely help dictate the outcome of infections with arenaviruses and other DC-replicating viruses and shed light on potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2012.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3377983PMC
June 2012

Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function.

Anal Chem 2010 May;82(9):3736-44

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Characterization of leukocytes is an integral part of blood analysis and blood-based diagnostics. In the present paper, we combine lensless holographic imaging with antibody microarrays for rapid and multiparametric analysis of leukocytes from human blood. Monoclonal antibodies (Abs) specific for leukocyte surface antigens (CD4 and CD8) and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2) were printed in an array so as to juxtapose cell capture and cytokine detection antibody (Ab) spots. Integration of Ab microarrays into a microfluidic flow chamber (4 muL volume) followed by incubation with human blood resulted in capture of CD4 and CD8 T-cells on specific Ab spots. On-chip mitogenic activation of these cells induced release of cytokine molecules that were subsequently captured on neighboring anticytokine Ab spots. The binding of IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma molecules on their respective Ab spots was detected using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anticytokine Abs and a visible color reagent. Lensfree holographic imaging was then used to rapidly ( approximately 4 s) enumerate CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes captured on Ab spots and to quantify the cytokine signal emanating from IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma spots on the same chip. To demonstrate the utility of our approach for infectious disease monitoring, blood samples of healthy volunteers and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were analyzed to determine the CD4/CD8 ratio, an important HIV/AIDS diagnostic marker. The ratio obtained by lensfree on-chip imaging of CD4 and CD8 T-cells captured on Ab spots was in close agreement with conventional microscopy-based cell counting. The present paper, describing tandem use of Ab microarrays and lensfree holographic imaging, paves the way for future development of miniature cytometry devices for multiparametric blood analysis at the point of care or in a resource-limited setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac100142aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864520PMC
May 2010

A microdevice for multiplexed detection of T-cell-secreted cytokines.

Lab Chip 2008 Dec 30;8(12):2197-205. Epub 2008 Sep 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, 451 East Health Sciences St. #2619, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Cytokines are produced by immune cells in response to viral or bacterial pathogens and therefore have significant diagnostic value. The goal of the present study was to develop a miniature device for detection of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma cytokines secreted by a small population of CD4 and CD8 T-cells. Microarrays of T-cell- and cytokine-specific Ab spots were printed onto poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel-coated glass slides and enclosed inside a microfluidic device, creating a miniature ( approximately 3 microL) immunoreaction chamber. Introduction of the red blood cell (RBC) depleted whole human blood into the microfluidic device followed by washing at a pre-defined shear stress resulted in isolation of pure CD4 and CD8 T-cells on their respective Ab spots. Importantly, the cells became localized next to anti-IL-2 and -IFN-gamma Ab spots. Mitogenic activation of the captured T-cells was followed by immunofluorescent staining (all steps carried out inside a microfluidic device), revealing concentration gradients of surface-bound cytokine molecules. A microarray scanner was then used to quantify the concentration of IFN-gamma and IL-2 near CD4 and CD8 T-cells. This study represents one of the first demonstrations of a microdevice for capturing desired T-cell subsets from a small blood volume and determining, on-chip, cytokine profiles of the isolated cells. Such a microdevice is envisioned as an immunology tool for multi-parametric analysis of T-cell function with direct applications in diagnosis/monitoring of HIV and other infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b810244aDOI Listing
December 2008

A miniature cytometry platform for capture and characterization of T-lymphocytes from human blood.

Anal Chim Acta 2008 Feb 28;608(2):186-96. Epub 2007 Dec 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis 95616, CA, USA.

Given the clinical and diagnostic importance of blood analysis, there is considerable interest in developing novel miniature devices for rapid characterization of blood constituents. The present paper describes development of a miniature cytometry platform aimed at analysis of T-lymphocytes from peripheral human blood. Microarrays of T-cell-specific antibodies (Abs), including anti-CD3, -CD4, -CD8 and mouse IgG (negative control) were robotically printed onto glass slides coated with a non-fouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel. The glass substrates containing Ab arrays were incubated with 100 microL of red blood cell (RBC)-depleted whole human blood for 15 min and then exposed to a controlled shear of approximately 2 dyncm(-2) for additional 10 min. This process led to the removal of non-specific leukocytes and "development" of patterns of T-cells captured on the Ab spots. The immunofluorescent staining of the surface-bound cells revealed the presence of purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells (purity >94%) on their respective Ab spots. Importantly, the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells captured on the Ab spots correlated closely (R(2) -0.9) with flow cytometry analysis of T-cell subsets in blood. Overall, this cytometry platform allowed to rapidly (under 30 min) capture pure T-cell subsets from minimally processed human blood. Significantly, our device provided quantitative information about subset abundance solely based on the location of cells within the microarray. This cytometry platform is envisioned as a miniature immunology tool for determination of T-cell phenotype and will have immediate applications in HIV diagnostics and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.12.021DOI Listing
February 2008