Publications by authors named "Mohammed Obadi"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Highland barley starch (Qingke): Structures, properties, modifications, and applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 2;185:725-738. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China. Electronic address:

Highland barley (HB) is mainly composed of starch, which may account for up to 65% of the dry weight to the kernel. HB possesses unique physical and chemical properties and has good industrial application potential. It has also been identified as a minor grain crop with excellent nutritional and health functions. Highland barley starch (HBS) features a number of structural and functional properties that render it a useful material for numerous food and non-food applications. This review summarizes the current status of research on the extraction processes, chemical composition, molecular fine structures, granular morphology, physicochemical properties, digestibility, chemical and physical modifications, and potential uses of HBS. The findings provide a comprehensive reference for further research on HBS and its applications in various food and non-food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.204DOI Listing
July 2021

Highland barley: Chemical composition, bioactive compounds, health effects, and applications.

Food Res Int 2021 02 8;140:110065. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China. Electronic address:

Highland barley (Hordeum vulgare, Poaceae) contains wide-ranging nutrients, such as bioactive carbohydrates and polyphenols, minerals, vitamins, phenolic, flavonoids, and β-glucan. The unique composition of highland barley contributes to its various health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antibacteria, antiobesity, antifatigue antiaging hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidemia. Compared with various barley cultivars, highland barley contains higher amounts of bioactive components including β-glucan, thereby displaying greater efficiency in inhibiting/treating different disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, and cancers. This review describes the present knowledge on the chemical composition of highland barley and their biofunctions as researched by both in vitro and in vivo models. The food-industry uses of highland barley are gaining research interest because of its large β-glucan content. Indeed, the health-food applications of highland barley are increasing. Highland barley can further be developed as a sustainable crop to enhance human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110065DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of single-mode microwave heating and dextran conjugation on the structure and functionality of ovalbumin-dextran conjugates.

Food Res Int 2020 11 2;137:109468. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China. Electronic address:

The proteins modified with carbohydrates through the glycation reaction are capable of changing and improving the functional properties of proteins. In this study, dextran was conjugated to ovalbumin (OVA) by traditional wet heating (WH) or single-mode microwave heating (MH) to improve the functional properties of OVA. Compared with traditional WH, MH for 15-60 min significantly increased the grafting degree (GD). The emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of the OVA-dextran conjugates improved under both traditional WH or MH (p < 0.05), especially under MH at 90 ℃ for 20 min. Correlation analysis showed that the emulsifying activity was positively correlated with surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.05), and emulsion stability was significantly positively correlated with surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.01) and positively correlated with the β-sheet contents (p < 0.05). Moreover, traditional WH and single-mode MH treatment could decrease tan δ, especially MH at 90 °C for 20 min. High GD and long MH treatment (≥25 min) resulted in a significant decrease in ⍺-helix and an increase in β-turn and γ-random coil. The secondary structure of OVA became loose, which was disadvantageous to the thermal stability of the OVA-dextran conjugates. In conclusion, compared with traditional WH, dextran conjugation with OVA via single-mode MH was an effective and safe way to improve the utilization value of OVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109468DOI Listing
November 2020

Structural basis of wheat starch determines the adhesiveness of cooked noodles by affecting the fine structure of leached starch.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 29;341(Pt 1):128222. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province 212013, China. Electronic address:

The relationship between the fine structure of original starch, leached starch during cooking, and the adhesiveness of noodles prepared by adding starches separated from different wheat cultivars was analyzed. The adhesiveness of noodles was primarily determined by the chain-length distributions of amylopectin rather than amylose. The adhesiveness of cooked noodles was positively correlated with the amount of short amylopectin chains with the degree of polymerization (DP) of 6-12, but negatively correlated with the amount of long chains with 25 < DP ≤ 36. The decrease of the proportion of short amylopectin chains and amylose chains and the increase of the amount of very long amylopectin chains with 37 < DP ≤ 100 in leachate led to decreased adhesiveness of cooked noodles. The reduction of the short-chain content in leached amylopectin caused by the increased proportion of long chains in original amylopectin is proposed to weaken the adhesiveness of cooked noodles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128222DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of glycation reaction of ovalbumin with dextran: Glycation sites identification by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 22;341(Pt 1):128066. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China. Electronic address:

An important relationship exists between the changes in glycation sites and structure of proteins. A combination of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the glycation information from ovalbumin (OVA) after dextran (Dex) conjugation under water heating (WH) or microwave heating (MH) conditions. After Dex conjugation, 12O-linked glycation sites were identified in the OVA-Dex-MH conjugates, whereas 6O-linked, 2N-linked glycation sites were detected in the OVA-Dex-WH conjugates. These findings indicate that the amino acids at different positions in OVA molecular structure have different glycation reactivity under MH or WH induction systems. In addition, β-sheet and β-turn structures showed high glycation reactivity. The increased surface hydrophobicity of OVA-Dex conjugates was possibly attributed to the glycation sites that were mainly found in hydrophilic amino acids. Our study provides useful information for the glycation mechanism research of OVA and Dex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128066DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of ultrasonic vacuum drying on the drying kinetics, dynamic moisture distribution, and microstructure of honey drying process.

Food Sci Technol Int 2021 Jul 6;27(5):426-440. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China.

The aim of this study was to study the strengthening effect of ultrasonic vacuum technique on the drying kinetics, moisture distribution, and microstructure of honey using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that ultrasonic vacuum drying technique could substantially shorten the drying time from 600 to 60 min, compared with vacuum drying. The sonochemical effects of ultrasonic vacuum drying were enhanced with the increased ultrasonic power and were more obvious in the initial stage of drying. This finding is consistent with the effective water diffusion coefficient results. The non-linear fitting analysis of experimental data on seven kinds of thin-layer drying mathematical models showed that logarithmic model is more suitable for describing the law of moisture change in honey during ultrasonic vacuum drying than the other models because of its higher regression coefficient value (≥0.99) and smaller reduced chi-square and root mean square error values (≤0.01). In addition, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that the increase in ultrasonic power accelerated the migration of bound water to immobilized water in honey samples. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the porous structure formed by increasing the ultrasonic power is also conducive to the rapid migration and drying of moisture. In conclusion, ultrasonic vacuum drying technique is an effective and safe way for drying viscous materials compared with vacuum drying technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013220962628DOI Listing
July 2021

Sandwich-type sheeting improved the processing and eating qualities of potato noodles.

J Texture Stud 2021 02 16;52(1):81-90. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

A technology called sandwich-type sheeting was used to produce noodles with potato flakes. The technical parameters of sheeting were first optimized. Then the processing and eating qualities of potato noodles made with sandwich-type sheeting and conventional sheeting were compared. Results showed that the optimal moisture of inner-layer dough and outer-layer dough was 41 and 37%, respectively. The suitable ratio of the thickness of inner layer to that of outer layer was 3:1. The tensile strength of the sandwich-type dough sheet was 1.285 times higher than that of conventional dough sheet. The cooking loss of the sandwich-type noodles was 37.0% lower than that of conventional noodles, and the adhesiveness decreased by 51.0%. In the sandwich-type noodles, the compact gluten network structure of outer wheat layer prevented the leaching of soluble substances in the inner layer added with potato flakes, improving the cooking and eating qualities of potato noodles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12561DOI Listing
February 2021

Sonochemical effects on the structure and antioxidant activity of egg white protein-tea polyphenol conjugates.

Food Funct 2020 Aug 30;11(8):7084-7094. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013, China.

The antioxidant properties of proteins could be enhanced by forming covalent conjugates with polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of egg white protein (EWP) was improved by conjugating with tea polyphenols (TP) using traditional and ultrasound-assisted alkaline/free radical methods. In addition, the influences of TP conjugation on the antioxidant activities and structural and digestive properties of EWP were comprehensively studied. Compared with the traditional methods, the sonochemistry (40 kHz) approaches significantly increased the efficiency of TP grafting to the EWP (P < 0.05) from 24 h to 1 h. Amino acid analysis showed that in the ultrasound-assisted alkaline method, TP was successfully conjugated to the EWP through proline, glutamic acid, cysteine, and tryptophan residues, whereas proline, cysteine, and tryptophan were involved in the free radical method. However, the number of cross-linking sites was increased significantly after ultrasound-assisted treatments. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the EWP were significantly improved after covalent conjugation with TP using traditional and ultrasound-assisted alkaline/free radical methods, particularly the ultrasound-assisted approaches. Furthermore, circular dichroism revealed that the ultrasound-assisted approaches had the greatest impact with regard to decreasing the α-helix content and increasing the random coil content, which loosened the protein structure, thereby improving its reactivity and digestibility. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted alkaline/free radical methods were efficient and safe means for the production of EWP-TP conjugates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01636eDOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of ultrasonic, microwave, and combined ultrasonic-microwave pretreatments on the enzymatic hydrolysis process and protein hydrolysate properties obtained from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

J Food Biochem 2020 08 19;44(8):e13292. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Degree of hydrolysis (DH), yield, amino acid profile, protein solubility, and antioxidant activity of Chinese sturgeon protein hydrolysates, as influenced by thermal pretreatment, ultrasonic (US), microwave (MW), and combined US-microwave pretreatments were investigated. Initially, the samples were subjected to thermal pretreatments in order to measure their effect on DH, which increased at 55°C. The DH recorded 7.63, 5.55, and 6.02% for US, MW, and combined US-MW pretreatment (US + MW), respectively, at the optimal time (8 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis (EN) of pretreated samples increased the DH to 19.41, 14.18, and 16.91% for US + EN, MW + EN, and US + MW + EN, respectively. The US + EN treatment was most effective for obtaining higher DH and yield, which were 19.41% and 18.62%, respectively. The use of US + EN also resulted in an increase in the percentage of molecular weights (≤1,000 Da), amino acid content and protein solubility, which reached 89.24, 80.08, and 98.58%, respectively. While, US + MW + EN pretreatment has achieved the highest antioxidant activities by IC of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-Azinobis (3-ehtylbenzothiazoli- 6-sulfnic acid), which were 3.01 and 1.85 mg/ml, respectively, in addition to the reducing power assay, which was 0.528 at a protein concentration of 5 mg/ml. Therefore, US and combined US-MW techniques can play a promising role in the production of protein hydrolysates and the improvement of their antioxidant properties. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Nowadays, interest in Chinese sturgeon production has increased as a promising source of protein and antioxidant peptides. The optimal thermal pretreatment can be used to enhance the degree of hydrolysis. The results indicated that the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment enhanced the degree of hydrolysis, which could be useful in the preparation of protein hydrolysate with higher yields. The use of combined US-MW significantly improved the antioxidant properties of the protein hydrolysate. The combined US-MW technique is a novel method for obtaining valuable peptides and protein hydrolysates that can be applied as antioxidant constituents in the food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13292DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of the processing quality of noodle dough containing a high Tartary buckwheat flour content through texture analysis.

J Texture Stud 2020 08 29;51(4):688-697. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

A texture analysis method for evaluating the processing quality of noodle dough with a high Tartary buckwheat flour (BF) content was established. And then the improvement of wheat flour (WF), wheat gluten (WG), and pre-gelatinized Tartary buckwheat flour (PBF) for the processing quality of buckwheat noodle dough was compared quantitatively, and the mechanism was explored through the observation of gluten network in dough sheets. Texture results showed that the coefficients of variation of tensile strength and adhesiveness of dough sheets among 16 groups were 17.76% and 40.72%, respectively, and the intragroup variation coefficients were only 4.17% and 7.07%, respectively. The tensile strength of dough sheets was significantly positively correlated with gluten index of WF and WG. In addition, with the increase of WG and PBF addition, the tensile strength and adhesiveness of dough sheets showed a linearly increase trend. Furthermore, the gluten network in the dough sheets containing WF or WG with high gluten index distributed more evenly and compactly than that with low gluten index. The dough sheet with 9% PBF showed more uniform gluten network, compared with that without added PBF. Overall, texture analysis of dough sheet can be used to evaluate the processing quality of noodle dough containing 70% BF, and the WF and WG with high gluten index had better improvement than PBF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12539DOI Listing
August 2020

Softness, elasticity, and smoothness characteristics of cooked udon noodles based on texture analysis.

J Texture Stud 2020 06 15;51(3):444-452. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Objective evaluation methods for the elasticity, smoothness, and softness of cooked udon noodles were established on the basis of texture analysis. Noodles with different diameters and amylose contents were prepared to verify the reliability of the proposed evaluation methods. Results revealed that the elasticity of udon noodles could be examined by using the method that involved rinsing cooked noodles with 10°C cold water for 30 s and stretching a single strand of cooked noodle at 3 mm/s with an A/KIE probe until broken. The stiffness of the sample at 3.5 mm could be determined to indicate the elasticity caused by the size of dried udon noodles. The softness and smoothness of cooked udon noodles could be examined when cooled and drained for 30 s by using an heavy duty platform/pasta firmness/stickiness rig probe. The elasticity of cooked udon noodles increased as their diameter increased, and their smoothness and softness significantly increased as the amylose content decreased (p < .05). Texture analysis could be used to quickly and accurately indicate the elasticity, softness, and smoothness of cooked udon noodles. The texture characteristics of udon noodles were related to their formulation, processing, and size. Establishing an adaptability evaluation method for the quality of udon noodles is a prerequisite for optimizing processing technologies and developing new products. Thus far, limited research has focused on objective methods for evaluating the texture of cooked udon noodles. This work developed valuable instrumental methods for examining the elasticity, softness, and smoothness of cooked udon noodles and provided noodle manufacturers a tool for selecting udon noodle formulations and processing technology based on texture analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12503DOI Listing
June 2020

The impact of starch degradation induced by pre-gelatinization treatment on the quality of noodles.

Food Chem 2020 Jan 27;302:125267. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China. Electronic address:

A study was to determine the correlation between the fine structure and the physicochemical properties of pre-gelatinized corn starch (PGCS) and the quality of noodles with added PGCS. Drum-dried corn starch (DDCS) and extrusion-cooked corn starch (ECCS) were used. The results revealed that the cold-water viscosity of ECCS and DDCS was about 10 and 100 times greater, respectively, than that of native corn starch (NCS), and the gel strength of DDCS was 1.67 times greater than that of ECCS. The average hydrodynamic radius of whole molecular (R¯) and Ap were approximately half that of native corn starch in ECCS. Dough sheets prepared with various concentrations of PGCS (5-10%, w/w) had significantly greater tensile strength, and the addition of PGCS significantly increased the smoothness of the cooked noodles. DDCS was better than ECCS for increasing the noodles' processing quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125267DOI Listing
January 2020

Rheological and quality characteristics of composite gluten-free dough and biscuits supplemented with fermented and unfermented Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide flour.

Food Chem 2019 Jan 26;271:193-203. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, functional, rheological and physicochemical characteristics were carried out for composite gluten-free (CGF) flours, dough and biscuits, respectively fortified with fermented and unfermented Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide (FABP and UABP) flours. Addition of both FABP flour and UABP flour improved functional properties, while addition of FABP flour decreased viscosity property. Incorporation of both polysaccharide flours in CGF biscuit dough revealed a significant increase in rheological moduli (G' and G″) and a decrease in tan (δ). Supplementation of UABP flour increased thickness, whereas supplementation of FABP flour increased diameter and spread ratio. All CGF biscuit formulations exhibited lower fracture strength and hardness compared to the control. Furthermore, both UABP flour and FABP flour formulation (F) contained the highest nutrients in terms of protein, dietary fibers, amino acids and minerals among the CGF biscuit formulations. The sensory evaluation result showed that FABP flour formulation (F) and UABP flour F were most acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.189DOI Listing
January 2019

Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

J Texture Stud 2018 Oct 20;49(5):492-502. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

State key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P.R. China.

The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads.

Practical Applications: Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12309DOI Listing
October 2018
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