Publications by authors named "Mohammed Fouad"

8 Publications

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Study on prevalence and bacterial etiology of mastitis, and effects of subclinical mastitis and stage of lactation on SCC in dairy goats in Egypt.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Nov 24;52(6):3091-3097. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Mastitis and Neonatal Diseases, Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

In Egypt, inadequate information on prevalence and epidemiology of caprine mastitis is available. This study was designed to investigate prevalence and etiological agents of caprine mastitis and assess the efficacy of somatic cell count (SCC) as marker of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy goats. This study was carried out on 249 randomly selected lactating goats in different lactation stages and examined clinically. Of these animals, 477 milk samples were aseptically collected and screened for bacterial carriage. SCC was assessed in 234 apparently normal milk samples, and SCC ≥ 10 cells/ml was indicator for SCM. Prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM) was 33.73% and 16.87% at animal and udder-half levels, respectively. SCM was 52.56% in the apparently healthy halves. Culture results proved single infection in 49.69% of samples, mixed infection in 23.9% of samples, and 26.41% of samples were negative. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most predominant bacteria (58.75%), then Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (24.375%), and Streptococci (1.875%) were the least. No significant difference was recorded between mean of SCC in bacteriologically positive and negative samples, neither in those with SCC ≤ 10 nor with SCC ≥ 10 cells/ml both in middle and late lactation stages. Besides, the percentage of animals harboring SCC ≥ 10 cells/ml and negative for bacteriology in late lactation stage was 3 times (28.57%) more than in midlactation (9.3%). We can assume that SCC is not proper indicator for intra-mammary inflammation (IMI) in goats, and bacteriological examination remains more efficient, despites being time consuming and expensive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02331-5DOI Listing
November 2020

Hand hygiene initiative: comparative study of pre- and postintervention outcomes.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 Feb 24;26(2):198-205. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Taibah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce transmission of nosocomial pathogens.

Aims: To determine the effectiveness of infection control intervention to improve compliance with hand hygiene in the Emergency Department, Al-Leith General Hospital, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate bacterial load on hands as a possible indicator of improvement.

Methods: The study consisted of 3 phases: Phase I, measurement of basal hand hygiene compliance level; Phase II, multimodal hand hygiene educational programme was initiated; and Phase III, hand hygiene compliance level was measured again. Data were collected by direct observation of healthcare workers in the emergency department between October 2016 and March 2017, using the standardized World Health Organization method for direct observation, "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene". The intervention comprised health education sessions using direct personal contact. Hands of healthcare workers were sampled during Phases I and III by sterile bag method, and bacterial load was determined.

Results: A total of 1374 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the triphase study. Implementation of the interventional hand hygiene educational programme significantly improved compliance with hand hygiene guidelines from 30.7% to 45.5% (P < 0.01). Log10 bacterial load per hand dropped from 4.97 (standard deviation = 0.32) to 4.57 (0.47) (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Hand hygiene educational programmes were effective in improving compliance in the emergency department, and bacterial load on hands of healthcare workers could be used as an indicator of improvement in hand hygiene compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/2020.26.2.198DOI Listing
February 2020

Clips vs Resilient Liners Used With Bilateral Posterior Prefabricated Bars for Retaining Four Implant-Supported Mandibular Overdentures.

J Oral Implantol 2017 Aug 19;43(4):273-281. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

2   Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

The objective of this research was to clinically compare peri-implant tissue health of bar-clips vs silicone-resilient liners used with bilateral posterior bars for retaining 4 implant-supported mandibular overdentures. Thirty completely edentulous male patients (mean age, 65 years) were randomly assigned into 2 equal groups. Each patient received 4 implants in the canine and first molar regions of the mandible using a flapless surgical technique. Mandibular overdentures were immediately connected to the implants with bilateral prefabricated instant adjusting bars. According to the method of retention to the bar, 1 group was retained with clips (GI), whereas the other group was retained with a silicone-resilient soft liner (GII). Peri-implant tissue health was evaluated clinically in terms of plaque scores (MPI), bleeding scores (MBI), probing depth (PD), and implant stability (IS). MPI, MBI, and PD were measured at mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual surfaces of each implant. Evaluations were performed 2 weeks (T0), 6 months (T6), and 12 months (T12) after overdenture insertion. Implants of GI with clips demonstrated significant increase in plaque, bleeding, and PD scores compared with those of GII with silicone-resilient liner at all observation times. Implants in GI demonstrated a significant decrease in implant stability compared with those of GII at T6 and T12 anteriorly and at T12 posteriorly. Resilient liners are considered better than bar-clips when used with bilateral posterior bars for retaining implant-supported mandibular overdentures in terms of peri-implant soft tissue health. Bilateral posterior ready-made bars cannot be proposed as a promising design for supporting implant-assisted mandibular overdentures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1563/aaid-joi-D-16-00148DOI Listing
August 2017

Strains Around Abutment Teeth with Different Attachments Used for Implant-Assisted Distal Extension Partial Overdentures: An In Vitro Study.

J Prosthodont 2017 Jan 29;26(1):42-47. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Mansoura, Eldakahlia, Egypt.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare strain around abutment teeth with different attachments used for implant-assisted distal extension partial overdentures (IADEPODs).

Materials And Methods: A mandibular Kennedy class I acrylic model (remaining teeth from first premolar to first premolar) was constructed. A conventional partial denture was constructed over the model (control, group 1). Two laboratory implants were then placed bilaterally in the first molar areas parallel to each other and perpendicular to the residual ridge. Three additional experimental partial overdentures (PODs) were constructed and connected to the implants using ball (group 2), magnetic (group 3), and Locator (group 4) attachments. Three linear strain gauges were bonded buccal, lingual, and distal to the first premolar abutment tooth at the right (loading) and the left (nonloading) sides. For each group, a universal testing device was used to apply a unilateral vertical static load (50 N) on the first molar area, and the strain was recorded using a multichannel digital strainometer.

Results: Significant differences between groups and between sites of strain gauges were detected. Strains recorded for all groups were compressive (negative) in nature. Group 1 demonstrated the highest strain, followed by group 3 and group 4; group 2 recorded the lowest strain. For group 2, the highest strain was recoded at the lingual nonloading side. For group 1, group 3, and group 4, the highest strain was recorded at the buccal loading side.

Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, ball attachments used to retain IADEPODs to the implants were associated with lower strains around abutment teeth than Locator and magnetic attachments. The highest strain was recorded with conventional partial dentures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12370DOI Listing
January 2017

Study of non-organ-specific antibodies in children with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2013 Nov-Dec;19(6):262-70

Department of Pediatric Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background/aim: Adult studies established a relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the presence of non-organ-specific antibodies (NOSAs). Most studies were carried out on genotypes 1 and 2. Only a few studies addressed that issue in pediatrics. No studies have been carried out on autoimmunity and genotype 4 in children. We aim to investigate NOSAs in 80 Egyptian children with chronic HCV infection along with studying the underlying genotype of HCV, and correlating autoimmunity with the epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, and virological features.

Materials And Methods: HCV-RNA was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction and viral genotypes were determined. NOSAs were measured and liver biopsies were taken for histopathological examination.

Results: Genotype 4 was the only detected genotype in the included 80 patients. Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) were the only detected antibodies in 32 (40%) patients, always with V specificity (vessels only) at titers ranging from 1:20 and 1:160. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and liver-kidney microsomal antibodies-1 (LKMA-1) were not detected in any of our patients. Epidemiologic and clinical features did not significantly differ between autoantibody-positive and -negative patients. Among biochemical features, significantly high levels of total bilirubin, albumin, immunoglobulins, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were found in the antibody-positive group.

Conclusion: Genotype 4 HCV is the prevailing genotype in Egyptian children with chronic HCV infection. A consistent proportion of these children with chronic HCV infection circulate non-organ-specific autoantibodies. The prevalence of ASMA and the absence of ANA and LKMA-1 might be related to the unique situation in Egypt with unique prevalence of genotype 4. More studies are warranted on larger pediatric population to validate these findings.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3958974PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.121038DOI Listing
July 2014

Scanning electron microscopy observations of osseointegration failures of dental implants that support mandibular overdentures.

Implant Dent 2013 Dec;22(6):645-9

*Assistant Professor, Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. †Associate Professor, Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. ‡Associate Professor, Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. §Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. ‖Post Doctoral Research Fellow, WELMEC, Center of Excellence in Medical Engineering, Department Of Oral Biology, Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds University, United Kingdom; Assistant Lecturer, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University.

Aim: : Investigating possible failure causes of mandibular implants after their immediate loading with an overdenture retained with bilateral bar attachments, using scanning electron microscope.

Patients And Methods: Twenty edentulous male patients were included in the present study. Each patient had 2 fixtures inserted in the canine and the first molar areas on each side of the mandible. After abutments screwing, the 2 fixtures on the same side were splinted with a bar, and immediately loaded with an overdenture. Implants mobility was assessed on weekly basis. Failed implants were removed, and examined by scanning electron microscope.

Results: The failed implants, removed after 4 weeks of treatment, showed an intimate contact of mineralized and osteoid tissues with dense collagen-rich matrix in the apical third of implants. Furthermore, newly developed bone was observed at the same area in implants removed after 7 weeks. However, there was no evidence of such growth at the middle and/or cervical thirds in either case.

Conclusion: Lack of osseointegration at the middle and cervical thirds of the root could be a possible cause of implant failure. Early loading by an overdenture retained with bilateral bars is considered a major contributing factor to incomplete osseointegration of the supporting implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.id.0000433934.99474.75DOI Listing
December 2013

A comparison of mandibular denture base deformation with different impression techniques for implant overdentures.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2013 Aug 17;24 Suppl A100:127-33. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Eldakahlia, Egypt.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate mandibular denture base deformation along with three impression techniques used for implant-retained overdenture.

Materials And Methods: Ten edentulous patients (five men and five women) received two implants in the canine region of the mandible and three duplicate mandibular overdentures which were constructed with mucostatic, selective pressure, and definitive pressure impression techniques. Ball abutments and respective gold matrices were used to connect the overdentures to the implants. Six linear strain gauges were bonded to the lingual polished surface of each duplicate overdenture at midline and implant areas to measure strain during maximal clenching and gum chewing.

Results: The strains recorded at midline were compressive while strains at implant areas were tensile. Clenching recorded significant higher strain when compared with gum chewing for all techniques. The mucostatic technique recorded the highest strain and the definite pressure technique recorded the lowest. There was no significant difference between the strain recorded with mucostatic technique and that registered with selective pressure technique. The highest strain was recorded at the level of ball abutment's top with the mucostatic technique during clenching.

Conclusion And Recommendation: Definite pressure impression technique for implant-retained mandibular overdenture is associated with minimal denture deformation during function when compared with mucostatic and selective pressure techniques. Reinforcement of the denture base over the implants may be recommended to increase resistance of fracture when mucostatic or selective pressure impression technique is used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02395.xDOI Listing
August 2013

Marginal bone loss adjacent to conventional and immediate loaded two implants supporting a ball-retained mandibular overdenture: a 3-year randomized clinical trial.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2012 Apr 19;23(4):496-503. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare marginal bone loss and clinical outcomes of conventionally and immediately loaded two implants supporting a ball-retained mandibular overdenture.

Materials And Methods: Thirty six completely edentulous patients (22 males and 14 females) were randomly assigned into two groups. Each patient received two implants in the canine area of the mandible after a minimal flap reflection. Implants were loaded by mandibular overdentures either 3 months (conventional loading group) or the same day (immediate loading group) after implant placement. Ball attachments were used to retain all overdentures to the implants. Vertical and horizontal alveolar bone losses were evaluated in both groups 1 and 3 years after implant placement using multislice computed tomography, which allow evaluation of peri-implant buccal and lingual alveolar bone. Plaque scores, gingival scores, probing depths and periotest values (PTVs) were evaluated at 4 months (baseline), 1 and 3 years after implant placement. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at distal, labial, mesial and lingual peri-implant sites.

Results: After 3 years of follow-up period, the immediate loading group recorded significant vertical bone loss at distal and labial sites than the conventional loading group and no significant differences in horizontal bone loss between groups were observed. Probing depth at distal and labial sites in the immediate loading group were higher than the conventional loading group, while plaque scores, gingival scores and PTVs showed no significant differences between the two groups. A low level of positive correlation between plaque scores, gingival scores, probing depths and vertical bone loss was noted.

Conclusion: Immediately loaded two implants supporting a ball-retained mandibular overdenture are associated with more marginal bone resorption and increased probing depths when compared with conventionally loaded implants after 3 years. The bone resorption and probing depths at distal and labial sites are significantly higher than those at mesial and lingual sites. Clinical outcomes do not differ significantly between loading protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02173.xDOI Listing
April 2012
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