Publications by authors named "Mohammed A Babatin"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Greater prevalence of comorbidities with increasing age: Cross-sectional analysis of chronic hepatitis B patients in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2019 May-Jun;25(3):194-200

Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: Middle Eastern countries, including Saudi Arabia to some extent, are endemic for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection which could be associated with high mortality and comorbidities risk. However, limited data characterizing this CHB population exists. Our aim was to characterize and compare CHB patients in 2015 with those in 2010 and 2012 in Saudi Arabia.

Patients And Methods: We conducted and compared three cross-sectional analyses of adult patients with CHB defined as either positive hepatitis B surface antigen or documented CHB history in 2010, 2012, and 2015. Data were accessed from the multicenter Systematic Observatory Liver Disease Registry (SOLID).

Results: A total of 765 CHB patients were identified in 2010 (n = 274), 2012 (n = 256), and 2015 (n = 235). Median age was significantly higher in 2015 (47 years) compared to 2010 and 2012 (42 years;P < 0.05). The proportions of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (range 1-12%) and cirrhosis (range 5-23%) were significantly higher in 2015 compared to 2010 and 2012 (P < 0.05). Compared to 2010, patients in 2015 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (10% vs. 4%) and hyperbilirubinemia (18% vs. 9%). Although not significant, there was a numerical increase in 2015 in chronic kidney disease (9% vs. 7% in 2010;P= 0.559) and hepatic steatosis (32% vs. 25% in 2010;P= 0.074). Significantly more patients in 2015 (P < 0.05) were treatment experienced (23% vs. 5% in 2010/2012) and switched treatment (17% vs. 1-2% in 2010/2012).

Conclusions: Between 2010 and 2015, the CHB population in Saudi Arabia had significantly aged and was more likely to develop liver disease sequelae and other comorbidities.
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April 2020

Treatment efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 8 weeks in non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2019 Jan-Feb;25(1):55-60

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah; Liver Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) combination is administered for 12 to 24 weeks to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV); guidelines recommend 8 weeks treatment duration for HCV genotype (GT) 1 infection based on the patient's baseline characteristics. Data on treating HCV GT4 with LDV/SOF are limited. In this prospective cohort study, the efficacy and safety of 8 weeks treatment duration with LDV/SOF was evaluated in HCV GT4 patients in Saudi Arabia.

Patients And Methods: Treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic HCV GT4 patients received LDV/SOF for 8 weeks. HCV RNA levels and laboratory evaluations were recorded at baseline and at Weeks 4, 8, and 20. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of the treatment (SVR12). Safety data were also recorded.

Results: Forty-five patients with a mean age of 43.9 ± 17.2 years participated, of whom 57.8% were male. Mean logHCV RNA was 6.26 ± 6.32 IU/mL and most (91.1%) had baseline HCV RNA levels <6 million IU/mL. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus (20.0% each). Concomitant medication was taken by 18 patients (40.0%), of whom two took proton pump inhibitors. Overall, SVR12 was 97.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.2%-99.9%); one patient (2.2%) relapsed post treatment. No serious adverse events or discontinuations were reported. Eighteen patients (44.4%) had 38 adverse events related to LDV/SOF; the most frequent was headache.

Conclusions: An 8-week regimen of LDV/SOF was well tolerated and efficacious in this treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic HCV GT4-infected population. This study provides valuable information on a short treatment regimen for HCV GT4 infection in a real-world setting.
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April 2019

Pharmacokinetics-Based Adjusted Versus Standard Dose of Ribavirin Does Not Improve Virologic Response Rates in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4 Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2017 11;37(11):488-493

10 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CHU Limoges , Limoges, France .

Optimal doses of Ribavirin (RBV) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment are not known. To assess the safety and efficacy of PegIFNalfa-2a in combination with an adjusted (ADJ) RBV dose based on early pharmacokinetics versus a fixed standard (STD) dose of RBV in chronic HCV genotype (GT) 4-naive patients in a randomized trial. One hundred eighty-one patients were randomized. The baseline variables were similar in both arms and females were 50.3% of the patients, 76.5% had minimal-moderate fibrosis (F0-2). Sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved in 99 (54.7%) subjects. SVR was seen in 50/90 (55.6%) of ADJ dose of RBV and 49/91 (53.9%) of STD dose subjects. Prematurely withdrawal or discontinuation of treatment prematurely in the ADJ RBV arm occurred in 11/90 patients (12.2%) compared with 6/91 subjects (6.6%) in the STD arm (P = 0.214). Similarly, virologic relapse was seen in 14/90 (15.6%) patients of the ADJ arm and 12/91 (13.2%) of the STD arm. Anemia grade 3-4 was seen in 36.7% in ADJ versus 17.6% in STD arm (P = 0.003). Occurrence of rapid virologic response and absences of F4 fibrosis predicted SVR in a univariate analysis. However, age, gender, weight, presence of diabetes, baseline alanine aminotransferase, and vitamin D levels were not significantly different in patients achieving SVR. ADJ higher doses of RBV based on its early pharmacokinetics-based RBV do not improve SVR rates in HCV GT4 treated in combination with peg-IFN alpha-2-a versus STD therapy. Patients on ADJ higher doses of RBV experienced higher rates of anemia and require more erythropoietin without increasing SVR.
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November 2017

Diminished accuracy of biomarkers of fibrosis in low replicative chronic hepatitis B.

BMC Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 25;17(1):101. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), AST/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), and age-platelet index (API) for significant fibrosis (Metavir F2-4) in low-replicative (HBV DNA <20,000 IU/mL) chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients.

Methods: The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of HBeAg-negative, low-replicative (n = 213) and high-replicative (HBV DNA ≥20,000 IU/mL, n = 153) patients was assessed.

Results: Overall, 113 patients (30.9%) had F2-4 fibrosis. Of the low and high-replicative patients, 40 (18.8%) and 73 (47.7%) had F2-4, respectively (P < 0.0001). APRI ≥0.5 less frequently identified F2-4 fibrosis in low vs. high-replicative patients (48.7% vs. 69.6%, P = 0.032) and AAR identified it more frequently in low-replicative patients (37.5% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.037). FIB-4 and API were not different (P > 0.05) for identifying F2-4 fibrosis in low and high-replicative patients. Higher specificities were seen at the lowest cut-offs in low vs. high-replicative states for APRI (≥0.5, 98% vs. 68.9%), AAR (84.3% vs. 76.6%), FIB-4 (≥1.45, 97.5% vs. 87.8%) and API (>4, 94.8% vs. 93.8%). At ROC-defined thresholds, APRI (≥0.33), AAR (≥0.93), FIB-4 (≥0.70) and API (>2) showed greater AUROCs for F2-4 diagnosis in low replicative (0.80, 0.62, 0.81 and 0.71, respectively) vs. high-replicative patients (0.73, 0.52, 0.67 and 0.69, respectively).

Conclusion: All 4 biomarkers in both, low and high-replicative HBV demonstrate modest accuracy for fibrosis diagnosis at conventional cut-offs. Lowering the cut-offs may increase the diagnostic relevance of these biomarkers, particularly for APRI and FIB-4 in low-replicative disease.
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August 2017

Efficacy and Safety of Simeprevir or Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Genotype 4 Infection.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2018 May/Jun;52(5):452-457

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Endoscopy, Prince Sultan Military Medical City.

Introduction: The combination of sofosbuvir (SOF) with simeprevir (SMV) or daclatasvir (DCV) is very effective in treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, particularly genotype (GT) 1. However, the data on GT4 are very limited. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of SOF in combination with either SMV or DCV in GT4-infected patients.

Patients And Methods: In this real life, prospective, observational study, HCV (GT4) patients (n=96) were evaluated in 2 groups on the basis of the 12-week treatment regimen they received. Group 1 (n=56) patients were treated with SOF and SMV±ribavirin (RBV), whereas group 2 patients were treated with SOF and DCV±RBV (n=40). The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12, whereas the primary safety endpoint was drug discontinuation or occurrence of grade 3/4 adverse events.

Results: The mean age was 49±14.6 years (59.4% men). Cirrhosis was present in 53.6% and 35.0% of groups 1 and 2, respectively, whereas 27 patients (48.2%) in group 1 and 21 patients (52.5%) in group 2 had failed prior interferon-based treatment. The median pretreatment HCV-RNA log10 was 6.1 (3.6 to 7.0) and 6.0 (3.6 to 7.2) IU/mL in groups 1 and 2, respectively. RBV was given to 17 patients (30.4%) in group 1 and 2 patients (5%) in group 2. All patients achieved sustained virologic response 12 (100%). Adverse events occurred in 32% of patients (grade 1 and 2), but none discontinued treatment. One patient died in the SMV group (not related to treatment).

Conclusions: SMV/SOF or DCV/SOF combinations are safe and highly effective in HCV-GT4 treatment. Cirrhosis and failure of prior interferon-based treatment did not influence treatment response.
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July 2019

SASLT position statement on the direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2015 Mar-Apr;21(2):60-3

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah; Liver Disease Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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January 2016

Predictors of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients with low viremia.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2014 Jul;48(6):e50-6

*College of Medicine, Liver Disease Research Center, King Saud University †Department of Medicine, Liver Unit, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Calgary, AB, Canada ‡Department of Gastroenterology, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh §Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah ∥Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology ¶Department of Pathology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center Departments of #Pathology **Hepatobiliary Sciences & Liver Transplantation, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Aim: The data on the prevalence and predictors of significant fibrosis (≥F2, METAVIR) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients with low viremia are limited. We aimed to assess both the prevalence predictors of ≥F2 fibrosis in hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative patients with HBV DNA <20,000 IU/mL.

Methods: Hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative patients (n=213) with mean HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL (n=97) and HBV DNA 2000 to 20,000 IU/mL (n=116) were included and all had liver biopsy. Variables significantly associated with ≥F2 fibrosis on an univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression model.

Results: Overall, 40 (18.8%) patients had ≥F2 fibrosis, with no difference between those with mean HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL (19.6%) compared with patients with HBV DNA of 2000 to 20,000 IU/mL (18.1%; P=0.782). Fibrosis ≥F2 was similar in patients with HBV DNA <2000 versus 2000 to 20,000 IU/mL in relation to varying alanine aminotransferase thresholds (P>0.05), and was less frequent in persistently normal alanine aminotransferase patients (13.6%) when compared with those with elevated or fluctuating levels (25.3%, P=0.030). Fewer patients under 40 years of age had ≥F2 fibrosis (12.5%) as compared with older ones (28.2%; P=0.004). Logistic regression analysis identified higher aspartate aminotransferase [odds ratio (OR), 6.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.48-15.54; P<0.0001], lower albumin (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; P=0.002), platelet count (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99; P=0.013), and age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P=0.024) as independent predictors of significant fibrosis.

Conclusions: A small but significant minority of HBV patients with low viremia harbor significant fibrosis, although its rate is not different in those with viremia above or below 2000 IU/mL. Our findings may guide in decisions regarding liver biopsy and treatment in this category of patients.
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July 2014

Accuracy of international guidelines for identifying significant fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen--negative patients with chronic hepatitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Nov 28;11(11):1493-1499.e2. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary Sciences and Liver Transplantation, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Liver Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Differing threshold levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are recommended by international guidelines for commencement of antiviral therapy. These guidelines advocate therapy for patients with significant fibrosis (METAVIR score ≥F2); we assessed the accuracy of these guideline-defined thresholds in identifying patients with ≥F2 fibrosis.

Methods: We applied the European (European Association for the Study of the Liver [EASL] 2012), Asian-Pacific (Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver [APASL] 2012), American (American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases [AASLD] 2009), and United States Panel Algorithm (USPA 2008) criteria to 366 consecutive hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with liver biopsy samples: EASL, ALT >laboratory-defined upper limit of normal (ULN) and HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL (n = 171); APASL, ALT >2-fold laboratory-defined ULN and HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL (n = 87); AASLD, ALT >2-fold the updated ULN (0.5-fold ULN [corresponding to ≤19 U/L] for women and 0.75-fold the ULN [corresponding to ≤30 U/L] for men) and HBV DNA ≥20,000 IU/mL (n = 53); and USPA, ALT >updated ULN (>0.5-fold ULN for women and >0.75-fold ULN for men) and HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL (n = 173).

Results: Overall, 113 patients (30.9%) had ≥F2 fibrosis, which was more frequent among patients who fulfilled any guideline criteria (45.7% vs 17.9% for those who did not fulfill any criteria, P < .0001). In applying the EASL, AASLD, APASL, and USPA criteria, sensitivity and specificity values for detection of ≥F2 fibrosis were 45.6%, 58.5%, 56.3%, and 45.7% (P = .145) and 82.1%, 73.8%, 77.1%, and 82.4% (P = .366), respectively. The EASL criteria (area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] curve, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.71) and USPA criteria (AUROC, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.73) performed better than APASL (AUROC, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.59-0.69; P = .421) and significantly better than the AASLD criteria (AUROC, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.54-0.64; P = .013).

Conclusions: In hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with chronic hepatitis, the EASL, AASLD, APASL, and USPA criteria identify patients with ≥F2 fibrosis with low levels of accuracy. However, the EASL and USPA criteria are the most accurate for identification of these patients.
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November 2013

Liver abscess presentation and management in Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom.

Ann Saudi Med 2011 Sep-Oct;31(5):528-32

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Objectives: Liver abscess (LA) is a well-described disease in the medical literature; however, information about its characteristics and outcome in the Middle East is lacking. We compared the mode of presentation, risk factors, management and outcome of LA patients in Saudi Arabia with cases from the United Kingdom (UK).

Design And Setting: Retrospective review of LA patients from three tertiary care centers (2 from Saudi Arabia and 1 from the UK) over a period of 10 years, from 1995 to 2005.

Patients And Methods: Data collected included demographic characteristics; clinical presentation; biochemical, microbiological and radiological findings; treatment modalities; and outcome.

Results: A total of 83 patients were diagnosed with LA, including 48 patients from Saudi Arabia and 35 patients from the UK. The mean (SD) age was 45.2 (20.3) years for those from Saudi Arabia and 55.4 (18.8) years for those from the UK (P=.022). The majority of the patients were males (70% from Saudi Arabia and 80% from the UK). Upper abdominal pain and fever were the commonest symptoms, each reported in 87% of the cases. Alkaline phosphatase elevation was the commonest liver function abnormality, seen in 66 (80%) patients. Organisms were isolated in 43 (52%) cases and the majority of these were coliforms (58%). Amebic liver abscesses occurred in 19 (23%) patients and all of those patients were either from or had traveled recently to the Indian subcontinent. Complete resolution of the abscesses was achieved in 66 (80%) patients with aspiration and/or antibiotics, and 9 (10.8%) patients died. On multivariate analysis, underlying malignancy, hypotension and chest signs at presentation were predictors of poor outcome (P=.008, .029 and .001, respectively).

Conclusions: Successful resolution of LA is achievable in the majority of the cases, although underlying malignancy is associated with poor outcome. Amebic liver abscesses must be considered in patients with a history of travel to endemic areas.
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January 2012