Publications by authors named "Mohammadreza Vafa"

90 Publications

Beneficial effects of Se/Zn co-supplementation on body weight and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 6;9(7):3414-3425. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Nutrition School of Public Health Iran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

This research investigated the effect of co-supplementation of selenium with zinc on weight control and the inflammatory and oxidative status in relation to obesity. Male Wistar rats ( = 32) were randomly divided into four groups after induction of obesity model: 1) "Zn" was supplemented with zinc sulfate (15 mg/kg BW), 2) "Se" supplemented with selenium as sodium selenate (0.5 mg/kg BW), 3) "Zn + Se" which received Zn (15 mg/kg BW) + Se (0.5 mg/kg BW), and 4) "HFD" as the control group. The intervention was done for eight weeks. At the end of treatment, serum and tissue level of Zn, Se, SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 was evaluated. Weight and food intake were significantly reduced in the Se group( < .001), while in the Zn group, weight gain due to obesity was prevented compared to the control group ( = .48). There was a significant and stronger increase in SOD, GSH-Px levels and a remarkable decrease in MDA, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the group receiving the combination of two supplements than either alone( < .001). Leptin had a positive correlation with inflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation marker and showed an inverse relationship with Zn and Se levels and anti-oxidative enzymes( < .05). The analysis showed the mediating role of leptin in the effects of zinc. Co-supplementation of selenium and zinc may have a synergistic effect in reduction of oxidative and inflammatory markers. Regarding the effect of zinc on inflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation, leptin can play a mediating role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488787PMC
July 2021

The association between dietary patterns and quality and duration of sleep in children and adolescents: A systematic review.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 10 28;45:102-110. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Dietary pattern has been represented as a contributor to the duration and quality of sleep. This study aimed to review the evidence on this relation among children and adolescents.

Study Design: This was a systematic review on the association of dietary pattern and sleep.

Methods: A literature search was conducted for all articles published between 1980 and August 2020 using the terms "diet" AND "sleep" in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Screening and selection of eligible studies were performed by two separate investigators. Studies reporting the impact of different dietary patterns and indices on sleep duration or quality were included.

Results: Fourteen publications (12 cross-sectional, 1 cohort, and 1 clinical trial) were identified. Findings from most studies suggested that long sleep duration was consistently associated with healthy dietary patterns, such as "Vegetables & Healthy Proteins", "Traditional", "Fruit & Vegetables", etc. Results were more mixed and inconclusive regarding the quality of sleep, with 2 studies supporting, 2 studies disapproving, and one study neutral about the association between better sleep quality and healthier dietary patterns. The association between diet and sleep seemed to be affected by confounders and covariates, including sex, physical activity, screen time, etc. CONCLUSIONS: Longer sleep duration appears to be associated with healthier dietary pattern. However, various results in regard to the relation between dietary patterns and sleep quality preclude definitive conclusions. Further research with standard measures of sleep quality and experimental study designs are needed to better define the causal relationship between sleep and diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.07.012DOI Listing
October 2021

The association between dairy products and psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Sep 11:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dairy products contain certain nutrients that are useful in mental disorders. This study aimed to assess the associations between dairy products and psychological disorders in a large sample of Iran, a Middle Eastern country.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 7387 adults. Data on dietary intakes were obtained using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Psychological health was assessed by the Iranian validated version of depression, anxiety, and stress scale 21. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between dairy intake and psychological disorders.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, total milk consumption (OR for the highest vs. lowest tertile: 0.73, 0.58-0.92) and total yogurt consumption (0.78, 0.62-0.97) were associated with decreased odds of depression. An inverse relationship was found between total dairy (0.73, 95% CI 0.590.91), total milk (0.72; 0.58-0.88), kashk (0.79, 0.65-0.96), and yogurt drink (0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98) consumption and anxiety symptoms. Higher intake of cheese was related to greater odds of stress (1.52, 1.02-2.26). No association was found between the consumption of high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, high-fat yogurt, cheese, kashk, yogurt drink, and depression. Also, there is no association between dairy products and stress symptoms. This association was significant among men and women and high-fat and low-fat products in the total adjusted stratified analysis models.

Conclusions: Findings of this study revealed that both high-fat and low-fat dairy products are associated with a reduced prevalence of psychological disorders. Still, more prospective studies are required to confirm these associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2021.1969065DOI Listing
September 2021

Testing the Physical and Molecular Effects of Nutritional Supplements and Resistance Exercise in Middle-Aged Females.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2343:345-360

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aging results in loss of muscle mass and strength, which are linked to development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of studies have now shown that these effects can be ameliorated by dietary supplementation with natural products such as vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, and protein and by physical activities such as aerobic and resistance exercise. Here, we present a protocol for setting up a trial to test the effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and resistance exercise on various anthropometric and molecular measurements in middle-aged females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1558-4_25DOI Listing
January 2022

Therapeutic Effects of Resveratrol on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Through Inflammatory, Oxidative Stress, Metabolic, and Epigenetic Modifications.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2343:19-35

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing around the world, in association with the progressive elevation in overweight and obesity. The accumulation of lipids in NAFLD patients contributes to the development of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in hepatocytes, and alteration of blood lipids and glycaemia. There are currently no effective pharmacological therapies for NAFLD, although lifestyle and dietary modifications targeting weight reduction are among the prevailing alternative approaches. For this reason, new approaches should be investigated. The natural polyphenol resveratrol represents a potential new treatment for management of NAFLD due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Although preclinical trials have demonstrated promising results of resveratrol against NALFD, the lack of conclusive results creates the need for more trials with larger numbers of patients, longer time courses, and standardized protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1558-4_2DOI Listing
January 2022

The relationship between depression, stress, anxiety, and postpartum weight retention: A systematic review.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 30;10:230. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a factor that causes permanent obesity and subsequent chronic and noncommunicable diseases. The relationship between depression/stress/anxiety and PPWR has been studied in some articles, but there is no definitive conclusion in this regard. The present systematic review was conducted to investigate the relationship between depression/stress/anxiety and PPWR. An extensive search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, SID, and Magiran, Irandoc databases using Medical Subject Headings terms (or their Persian synonyms) from 2000 to 2020. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for articles selection. The quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Out of 371 reviewed articles, 24 articles were selected. The total sample size was 51,613 (range: 49-37,127). The mean of PPWR ranged from 0.5 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 6.49) to 6.4 kg (SD = 8.5). There was a statistically significant relationship between depression/stress/anxiety and PPWR in 12 of 23, 4 of 6, and 3 of 8 studies. This review demonstrates the relationship between depression/stress/anxiety and PPWR. Time of depression/stress/anxiety assessment is an important issue, as well as different measurement tools. Prevention of the mothers' psychological problems through educational and supportive programs may help to limit PPWR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_1409_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318190PMC
June 2021

How Do We Manage Breastfeeding During the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1327:129-137

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing global disturbances and creating many questions in every aspect of life. Since it influences health in multiple ways, including sexual and reproductive health, publishing in all of these areas has increased lately. One aspect that requires basing on scientific evidence is breastfeeding. There are some controversies in the literature on the breastfeeding management in confirmed COVID-19 mothers. Breast milk is excellent for the infant's nutritional needs and growth, because it includes all of the nutrients an infant requires. It promotes the immature immune system of the infant and reinforces defense mechanisms against infectious and other agents during the breastfeeding period. While limited clinical research is available, we can build on what we know about breastfeeding and previous similar outbreaks to plan and manage this crisis. The aim of this chapter is to provide pediatricians with further guidance on breastfeeding and associated safety measures during the COVID-19 crisis, particularly in instances where a mother has or may have COVID-19. This will also be a benefit to future epidemics and pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-71697-4_10DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of raw red beetroot consumption on metabolic markers and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes patients.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 21;20(1):673-682. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of raw red beetroot consumption on metabolic markers and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes patients.

Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, 44 type 2 diabetes patients (57 ± 4.5 years) consumed raw red beetroot (100 g, daily), for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers including body weight, glucose and lipid profile parameters, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, paraoxonase-1 activity, hepatic enzymes, blood pressure and cognitive function were measured at the beginning and end of 8 weeks.

Results: Raw red beetroot consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels (-13.53 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)(-0.34%), apolipoproteinB100 (ApoB100) (-8.25 mg/dl), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (-1.75 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (-3.7 U/L), homocysteine (-7.88 μmol/l), systolic (-0.73 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.34 mmHg), anda significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (105 μmol/L) and cognitive function tests (all values <0.05). Other variables did not change significantly after the intervention.

Conclusions: Raw red beetroot consumption for 8 weeks in T2DM patients has beneficial impacts on cognitive function, glucose metabolism and other metabolic markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00798-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212206PMC
June 2021

Effect of spirulina and chlorella alone and combined on the healing process of diabetic wounds: an experimental model of diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 19;20(1):161-169. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Using chemical agents to cure diabetes mellitus and its complications may be accompanied by complications. New natural agents, such as spirulina and chlorella, could be used as alternative choices in this case.

Methods: 65 male Wistar rats were allocated to 5 groups: A (healthy control), B (diabetic rats with a normal diet), C (diabetic rats supplemented with 50 g/kg/day spirulina), D (diabetic rats supplemented with 50 g/kg/day chlorella) and E (diabetic rats supplemented with 25 g/kg/day chlorella and 25 g/kg/day spirulina). After 21 days, wounds were inflicted on the back of rats. Assessment of blood sugar (BS), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulation tissue formation, vascularization, epithelialization, and percentage of wound healing were determined along with macroscopic examinations.

Results: The microscopic changes at days 3, 7, 14, and 21 showed significant evidence of improved angiogenesis, epithelial proliferation, and granulation tissue formation in the spirulina and chlorella treated rats compared with the controls (p˂0.05). Both spirulina and chlorella treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in BS and weight (p˂0.05), but VEGF and hs-CRP levels did not significantly change ( > 0.05). Percentage of wound healing was 100% on day 21 in all groups, except the control group B (97.8 ± 1.15%).

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that supplementation with spirulina and chlorella alone and combined could improve wound healing indices in diabetic rats and could therefore be recommended for the management of diabetic ulcer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00723-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212205PMC
June 2021

Randomized study of the effects of vitamin D and/or magnesium supplementation on mood, serum levels of BDNF, inflammation, and SIRT1 in obese women with mild to moderate depressive symptoms.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Jul 2:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and/or magnesium supplementation on mood, serum levels of BDNF, inflammation, and SIRT1 in obese women with mild to moderate depressive symptoms.

Methods: In this trial, the 108 obese women with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) co- supplementation group ( = 27): receiving a 50000 IU vitamin D soft gel weekly + a 250- mg magnesium tablet daily; (2) vitamin D group ( = 27): receiving a 50000 IU vitamin D soft gel weekly + a magnesium placebo daily; (3) magnesium group ( = 27): receiving a vitamin D placebo weekly + a 250- mg magnesium tablet daily; (4) control group ( = 27): receiving a vitamin D placebo weekly + a magnesium placebo daily, for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric indices, depressive symptoms, serum levels of BDNF, 25(OH)-D, inflammation, and SIRT1, were measured.

Results: At the end of the study, ANCOVA demonstrated significant differences between the 4 groups in 25(OH)-D, magnesium, TNF-α, IL-6, and BDNF levels. But, we found no significant differences in terms of hs-CRP and SIRT1 levels. A significant reduction in depression score was observed in 3 intervention groups and also in control group. No significant differences in BDI-II score were shown among the 4 groups at the end of the intervention.

Conclusion: Vitamin D plus magnesium supplementation in obese women with mild to moderate depressive symptoms has beneficial influences on mood, serum levels of BDNF, inflammation, and SIRT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2021.1945859DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of coenzyme Q10 on inflammatory biomarkers and its role in future therapeutic strategies.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 06 18;43:25-30. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Nutritional Sciences, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an important component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The finding that multiple chronic diseases show lower levels of CoQ10 has led to the possibility that CoQ10 supplementation could be an effective approach to ameliorate or prevent disease progression. In this review, we discuss the state of the art regarding the role of CoQ10 in health and disease and describe the latest clinical studies which have tested the effects of CoQ10 supplementation in inflammatory diseases. The results of these studies indicate that individuals suffering from inflammation-related diseases show improvement under the CoQ10 supplementation protocol. However, these results have been inconsistent, leading to the need for additional studies at the preclinical and clinical levels, involving a greater number of subjects and different treatment regimes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.04.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of coenzyme Q10 on health-related quality of life, clinical disease activity and blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis: a randomized clinical trial.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 6;35. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is specified by a chronic mucosal inflammation that has a deleterious impact on the quality of life (QoL). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) appears to influence disease activity by its obvious properties. Therefore, the current research intends to assess the impacts of CoQ10 on QoL, disease activity, and blood pressure in UC patients. This clinical trial performed on men and women with UC in 2017 who were attended the gastrointestinal center of Hazrat Rasool Akram Hospital and private clinic. Eighty-eight UC patients were randomly allocated to receive either CoQ10 (200 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. The anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire-32 (IBDQ-32) score, and the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) score were measured pre and post-intervention. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 24. Eighty-six UC patients (44 males) with a mean age of 39.29 (10.19) years completed the trial. The results of between- and within-group analysis revealed that the SCCAI score (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.025 and p=0.001, respectively), and systolic blood pressure (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) decremented significantly; while, the mean IBDQ-32 (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively) increased substantially in the CoQ10 group; whereas there was no significant difference in anthropometric indices in both groups. Findings suggest that CoQ10 can be used as a potential intervention for diminishing the disease severity and blood pressure and may improve QoL and UC patients. IRCT number: IRCT20090822002365N17.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47176/mjiri.35.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111632PMC
January 2021

Dietary intake of B vitamins and their association with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms: A cross-sectional, population-based survey.

J Affect Disord 2021 06 26;288:92-98. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: B vitamins have vital roles in the development, maintenance, and functioning of the brain, while severe deficiencies have been linked to increased psychological disorders. However, no published studies have examined the association between dietary intake of vitamin B and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in a general population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 7387 Iranian adults aged 20-70 years within the population-based cohort study framework. A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (DS-FFQ) was used to ascertained vitamin B intake. Participants completed the Iranian validated version of depression, anxiety, and stress scale questionnaire 21 (DASS 21) to assess their psychological health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between vitamin B intake and psychological disorders.

Results: After adjustment for a wide range of confounders, higher intake of biotin was associated with a lower odds of depression (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.91, P-trend=0.008), anxiety (0.71, 0.56-0.89, P-trend=0.003), and stress (0.58, 0.39-0.87, P-trend=0.01). An inverse relationship was found between B and stress risk (0.50, 0.28-0.90, P-trend= 0.01). Moderate intake of thiamin (0.76, 0.61-0.94, P-trend=0.20), niacin (0.78, 0.62-0.97, P-trend=0.41), and pantothenic acid (0.80, 0.65-0.99, P-trend=0.05) were related to lower odds of anxiety. Additionally, moderate folic acid intake was associated with lower odds of depression (0.78, 0.61-0.99, P-trend=0.71). A subgroup analysis based on sex revealed that biotin's dietary intake reduced the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress, but this association was not significant in the male population.

Limitations: Cross-sectional nature of the data prevents causal associations.

Conclusions: This study suggests that a higher intake of dietary B vitamins, especially biotin, was associated with a lower prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. The role of B vitamins requires further investigation in randomized controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.03.055DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of cashew nut consumption on body composition and glycemic indices: A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Mar-Apr;15(2):605-613. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Present meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to synthesis a definitive conclusion from previous randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs).

Methods: A comprehensive search was done up to July 2020, in order to extract RCTs which investigated the effect of cashew nut on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate effect size. Meta regression analysis was done to identify probable sources of heterogeneity.

Results: Six clinical trials with 521 participants were included. Combined effect sizes demonstrated no effect of cashew consumption on weight (WMD): 0.02, 95% CI: -1.04, 1.09, P > 0.05), BMI (WMD: 0.1, 95% CI: -0.72, 0.74, P > 0.05), and WC (WMD: -0.13, 95% CI: -1.97, 1.70, P > 0.05). Results were also not significant for FBS (WMD: 3.58, 95% CI: -3.92, 11.08, P > 0.05), insulin (WMD: -0.19, 95% CI: -1.63, 1.25, P > 0.05), and HOMA-IR (WMD: 0.25, 95% CI: -0.55, 1.06, P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The sum up, incorporating cashew into the diet has no significant effect on body composition or modifying glycemic indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2021.02.038DOI Listing
March 2021

Obesity and Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Severity: Available Evidence and Mechanisms.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:97-107

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in worldwide research efforts to recognize people at greatest risk of developing critical illness and dying. Growing numbers of reports have connected obesity to more severe COVID-19 illness and death. Although the exact mechanism by which obesity may lead to severe COVID-19 outcomes has not yet been determined, the mechanisms appear to be multifactorial. These include mechanical changes of the airways and lung parenchyma, systemic and airway inflammation, and general metabolic dysfunction that adversely affect pulmonary function and/or response to treatment. As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, clinicians should carefully monitor and manage obese patients for prompt and targeted treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_8DOI Listing
March 2021

Experience in Nutrition Management of Diabetes-Affected COVID-19 Patients.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:69-80

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

When diabetic patients are ill, their bodies react by releasing hormones to combat the illness. These hormones can be triggered by some states, such as infections. Some illnesses that most likely have an influence on blood glucose levels include common cold or flu, COVID-19, bronchitis, or chest infections. So, it is important for diabetic patients affected by COVID-19 to eat a healthy balanced diet to maintain stable blood glucose levels and enhance their immune functions. The immune response has often been demonstrated to be attenuated by insufficient nutrition in many model systems as well as in human studies. We summarize and propose potential nutritional therapeutic options available for the treatment of this novel coronavirus in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_6DOI Listing
March 2021

A randomized controlled trial on the coloprotective effect of coenzyme Q10 on immune-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative status, antimicrobial peptides, and microRNA-146a expression in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Sep 23;60(6):3397-3410. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), having potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pharmacological properties, has recently been shown to be a safe and promising agent in maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis (UC). This trial was, therefore, designed to determine CoQ10 efficacy on inflammation and antioxidant status, antimicrobial peptides, and microRNA-146a expression in UC patients.

Methods: In this randomized double-blind controlled trial, 88 mild-to-moderate UC patients were randomly allocated to receive CoQ10 (200 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour) for 2 months. At the baseline and at an 8-week follow-up, serum levels of Nrf2, cathelicidin LL-37, β-defensin 2, IL-10, IL-17, NF-κB p65 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), simple clinical colitis activity index questionnaire (SCCAIQ), and quality of life (IBDQ-32 score), as well as an expression rate of microRNA-146a were measured.

Results: A significant reduction was detected in the serum IL-17 level, activity of NF-κB p65 in PBMCs, and also SCCAI score in the CoQ10 group compared to the placebo group, whereas IL-10 serum concentrations and IBDQ-32 score of the CoQ10 group considerably increased versus the control group; the changes of these variables were also significantly different within and between groups at the end of the study. Furthermore, CoQ10 remarkably increased serum levels of cathelicidin LL-37. A significant change in serum cathelicidin LL-37 levels was also observed between the two groups. No statistical difference, however, was seen between the two groups in terms of the serum levels of Nrf2 and β-defensin 2 and the relative expression of microRNA-146a.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation, along with drug therapy, appears to be an efficient reducer of inflammation in patients with mild-to-moderate UC at a remission phase.

Trial Registration: The research has also been registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20090822002365N17.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02514-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Randomized Study of the Effects of Zinc, Vitamin A, and Magnesium Co-supplementation on Thyroid Function, Oxidative Stress, and hs-CRP in Patients with Hypothyroidism.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Nov 7;199(11):4074-4083. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hypothyroidism can occur due to deficiencies in micronutrients such as zinc, magnesium, and vitamin A. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with these micronutrients on thyroid function, oxidative stress, and hs-CRP levels in patients with hypothyroidism. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups, 86 hypothyroid patients aged 20-65 were allocated to receive daily supplementation with either: (intervention group, n = 43) one 30 mg zinc gluconate capsule per day, one 250 mg magnesium oxide tablet per day, and one 25,000 IU vitamin A capsule twice/week for 10 weeks or (placebo group, n = 43) placebo capsules and tablets as above for 10 weeks. Neither of the groups changed their diet or physical activity. Thyroid hormones (free and total thyroxine (FT4 and TT4), free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), oxidative markers (malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), serum hs-CRP, and anthropometric indices (height and weight) were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the study. In the intervention group, we found a significant increase in serum FT4, decreased anthropometric indices, and lower levels of serum hs-CRP by the end of the 10 week protocol (P < 0.05). In the placebo group, serum TAC was decreased and hs-CRP increased (P < 0.05), with no significant changes in serum TSH, FT3, TT4, and MDA after the intervention. Zinc, vitamin A, and magnesium supplementation may have beneficial effects in patients with hypothyroidism and in diseases associated with hyperthyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02548-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Effects of quercetin supplementation on inflammatory factors and quality of life in post-myocardial infarction patients: A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 20;35(4):2085-2098. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Epidemiological studies have shown that dietary flavonoids are inversely related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study aimed to determine whether quercetin supplementation can improve inflammatory factors, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and quality of life (QOL) in patients following MI. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 88 post-MI patients. Participants were randomly assigned into quercetin (n = 44) and placebo groups (n = 44) receiving 500 mg/day quercetin or placebo tablets for 8 weeks. Quercetin supplementation significantly increased serum TAC compared to placebo (Difference: 0.24 (0.01) mmol/L and 0.00 (0.00) mmol/L respectively; p < .001). TNF-α levels significantly decreased in the quercetin group (p = .009); this was not, however, significant compared to the placebo group. As for QOL dimensions, quercetin significantly lowered the scores of insecurity (Difference: -0.66 (12.5) and 0.00 (5.55) respectively; p < .001). No significant changes in IL-6, hs-CRP, blood pressure and other QOL dimensions were observed between the two groups. Quercetin supplementation (500 mg/day) in post-MI patients for 8 weeks significantly elevated TAC and improved the insecurity dimension of QOL, but failed to show any significant effect on inflammatory factors, blood pressure and other QOL dimensions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6955DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on quantitative and qualitative parameters of spermograms and hormones in infertile men: A Randomized controlled trial.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Sep 8;53:102529. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran; Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute (PMMHRI), 93338 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D3 is known to have an effect on reproductive system in both genders and may change the semen parameters in men.

Objective: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral vitamin D3 supplementation on spermogram quantitative and qualitative parameters in infertile men.

Materials And Methods: This study was a triple-blind randomized controlled trial involving 62 infertile men with impaired spermatogonial tests. They were randomly divided into placebo and D3-supplemented groups. Spermograms and tests for LH (Luteinizing Hormone), FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), TT (Total Testosterone), FT (Free Testosterone), SHBG (Sex Hormone Bonding Globulin), FAI (Free Androgen Index) and vitamin D3 levels were performed before and after the intervention.

Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in parameters of the spermograms or serum levels of LH, FSH, TT, and FAI. In the intervention group, SHBG was significantly decreased after intervention (p = 0.01) and there was a significant increase in FT in the placebo group (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: The intake of vitamin D3 did not change the quality and quantity of spermograms and serum levels of LH, FSH, TT, and FAI but affected FT and SHBG. Further studies are still needed to clarify the biological role of vitamin D3 on fertility particularly on male fertility. This study lays a foundation for more extensive studies on male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102529DOI Listing
September 2020

The effect of Capsaicinoids or Capsinoids in red pepper on thermogenesis in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Phytother Res 2021 Mar 15;35(3):1358-1377. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The outcomes of the earlier trials are controversial concerning the effect of Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids on thermogenesis. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids on thermogenesis indices including resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) in healthy adults. An electronic literature search was conducted between 1990 and 2019, using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE. Placebo-controlled clinical trials were considered as eligible papers. Effect sizes were pooled using weighted mean difference (WMD), with a random-effects model. Of the 4,092 articles, 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled effect sizes revealed that compared with placebo, Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids significantly increased RMR (WMD: 33.99 Kcal/day, 95% CI: 15.95, 52.03; I : 0%, p = .94), energy expenditure, and fat oxidation. It also significantly lessened RQ (WMD: -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02, -0.01; I : 5.4%, p = .39) and carbohydrate oxidation. Moreover, intervention in capsule form for longer duration had a more considerable influence on RMR than comparative groups. We observed moderate improvement in RMR, RQ, and fat oxidation following supplementation with Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids. However, further high-quality studies are required to clarify the thermogenic properties of Capsaicinoids/Capsinoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6897DOI Listing
March 2021

The effects of royal jelly and tocotrienol-rich fraction on impaired glycemic control and inflammation through irisin in obese rats.

J Food Biochem 2020 12 5;44(12):e13493. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The effects of royal jelly (RJ) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on obesity-induced glucose intolerance and inflammation were assessed in the current study. Regarding irisin as an important adipomyokine that attenuates obesity-induced disorders, we evaluated whether RJ and TRF could exert their metabolism regulatory effects through irisin. Obese rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without supplementation of RJ, TRF, or both, for 8 weeks. At the end of the intervention, weight, irisin, glycemic, and inflammatory indices were measured. The weight of the rats did not remarkably reduce in any of the groups. Glucose homeostasis and inflammation were improved when we added RJ and TRF to HFD. RJ elevated irisin concentration, but the effect of TRF on irisin was not noticeable. Our results indicated that, despite the lack of significant weight loss, RJ and TRF promoted healthy obesity. This improvement was mediated by irisin in RJ consuming rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Obesity is a public health concern associated with several chronic disorders. The beneficial effects of irisin on obesity-related disorders are well-established. It is the first study assessing the effect of RJ and TRF as functional foods, with pharmacological and nutritional activities on obesity complications, through irisin mediation. Our study demonstrated that RJ exerts its metabolic regulatory effects by irisin as a mediator. Our investigation makes a remarkable contribution to the literature, because it suggests a new mechanism for the anti-obesity properties of RJ and TRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13493DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of saffron supplementation on oxidative/antioxidant status and severity of disease in ulcerative colitis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Phytother Res 2021 Feb 4;35(2):946-953. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Supplementation with saffron helps improve antioxidant status. Oxidative stress plays an important role in ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of saffron supplementation on disease severity and Oxidative/Antioxidant factors in patients with UC. This randomized double-blinded study was conducted on 80 mild to moderate UC patients. Participants were randomly divided into intervention (100 mg saffron/daily) and placebo (100 mg maltodextrin/daily) groups. Of all the participants, 75 completed the study. After 8 weeks, there were significantly increased in the mean score of simple clinical colitis activity index questionnaire (3.83 ± 1.78 to 3 ± 1.60, p = .004), the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (2.68 ± 0.90 to 2.79 ± 0.87, p = .016), superoxide dismutase (60.69 ± 9.59 to 66.30 ± 10.79, p = .009) and glutathione peroxidase (22.05 ± 14.27 to 29.67 ± 17.97, p = .011) in patients received saffron compared to the placebo group. Whereas, there was no significant difference in serum levels of malondialdehyde between the two groups. Finally, dietary saffron as an alternative therapy may effective in improving antioxidant factors and reducing the severity of disease in UC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6848DOI Listing
February 2021

Changes in Bone Turnover, Inflammatory, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Markers in Women Consuming Iron plus Vitamin D Supplements: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jul 25;199(7):2590-2601. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas Woman's University, Denton Campus, Denton, TX, 76204, USA.

We aimed to investigate whether combination of vitamin D and iron supplementation, comparing vitamin D alone, could modify bone turnover, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and metabolic markers. Eighty-seven women with hemoglobin (Hb) ≤ 12.7 g/dL and 25OHD ≤ 29 ng/mL vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency aged 18-45 years were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) receiving either 1000 IU/day vitamin D3 plus 27 mg/day iron (D-Fe); (2) vitamin D3 plus placebo supplements (D-P), for 12 weeks. In D-Fe group, significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC) (P = 0.001) and hematocrit (Hct) (P = 0.004) and increases in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P = 0.001), 25OHD (P < 0.001), osteocalcin (P < 0.001), high-density cholesterol (HDL) (P = 0.041), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P < 0.001) were observed. D-P group showed significant decrease in RBC (P < 0.001), Hb (P < 0.001), Hct (P < 0.001), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (P = 0.004), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (P < 0.001), MCHC (P = 0.005), serum ferritin (P < 0.001), and low-density cholesterol (LDL) (P = 0.016) and increases of 25OHD (P < 0.001), osteocalcin (P < 0.001), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) (P = 0.025), triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.004), FBS (P < 0.001), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P = 0.001) at week 12. After the intervention, the D-P group had between-group increases in mean change in the osteocalcin (P = 0.007) and IL-6 (P = 0.033), and decreases in the RBC (P < 0.001), Hb (P < 0.001), Hct (P < 0.001), and MCV (P = 0.001), compared with the D-Fe group. There were significant between-group changes in MCH (P < 0.001), MCHC (P < 0.001), ferritin (P < 0.001), and serum iron (P = 0.018). Iron-vitamin D co-supplementation does not yield added benefits for improvement of bone turnover, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and metabolic markers, whereas, vitamin D alone may have some detrimental effects on inflammatory and metabolic markers. IRCT registration number: IRCT201409082365N9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02400-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Randomized Study of the Effects of Vitamin D and Magnesium Co-Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Function, Body Composition, and Inflammation in Vitamin D-Deficient Middle-Aged Women.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jul 21;199(7):2523-2534. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D and magnesium co-supplementation on muscle strength and function, body composition, and inflammation in vitamin D-deficient middle-aged women. In this study, 83 healthy middle-aged women (40-55 years) with vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) intervention: receiving a 50,000-IU vitamin D soft gel (weekly) plus a 250-mg magnesium tablet (daily); (2) control: receiving a vitamin D placebo (weekly) plus a magnesium placebo (daily), for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric indices, muscle strength, muscle function, and some inflammatory markers were measured. After 8 weeks of supplementation, significant difference was observed in handgrip strength and time for Time Get Up and Go (TGUG) test between the intervention and placebo groups (P < 0.05). Regarding percentage of fat mass (FM%) and fat free mass (FFM%), and knee extension strength, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > .05). Serum 25(OH)-D levels increased significantly (P < 0.001) and its change was significantly different between the two groups, at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001). Serum level of hs-CRP decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to baseline (P < 0.001), and the change in hs-CRP was significant between the two groups at the end of the intervention (P < 0.01). Furthermore, serum level of TNF-α declined significantly in the intervention group compared to baseline (P < 0.001) but, no significant differences were seen between the two groups in regard of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 after the intervention (P > 0.05). Our findings show that vitamin D and magnesium co-supplementation, for 8 weeks, in healthy middle-aged women with vitamin D deficiency have beneficial impacts on muscle strength, muscle function, and probably inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02387-2DOI Listing
July 2021

The effect of royal jelly and tocotrienol-rich fraction along with calorie restriction on hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress and adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese rats.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Aug 31;13(1):409. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes adipose tissue dysfunction and chronic inflammation in obesity. Royal jelly (RJ) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) are reported to ameliorate inflammation. However, the improving effects of RJ and TRF on inflammation from ER stress modulating view have not been assessed so far. Hence, we investigated the effect of RJ and TRF on ER stress and some adipose tissue-derived inflammatory markers in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Wistar obese rats randomly allocated into 5 groups: HFD, calorie restriction diet (CRD), RJ + CRD, TRF + CRD, RJ + TRF + CRD. After 8-week intervention, adipose tissues and hypothalamus were dissected and serum was collected.

Results: RJ reduced glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) expression as ER stress indicator in WAT and hypothalamus compared to CRD. Besides, RJ diminished the expression of inflammatory markers in white adipose tissue (WAT) and also decreased the serum concentration of them. TRF reduced inflammatory markers in the serum without remarkable effects on ER stress. Overall, RJ has protective effect against adipose tissue dysfunction and inflammation then suggested as a therapeutic approach to reduce some obesity-related complications. The impact of TRF in this regard is lower than RJ and limited to systemic inflammation improvement without remarkable changes in adipose tissue inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05258-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460780PMC
August 2020

Vitamin C and Cancer: The Role of Vitamin C in Disease Progression and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients.

Nutr Cancer 2021 21;73(8):1282-1292. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Much attention has been put on antioxidants as potential preventive and therapeutic agents against cancer. Vitamin C, an important antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune system enhancement features, could provide protection against cancer. However, experimental and epidemiologic evidence on vitamin C and cancer risk are still indefinite. Substantial literature reports that cancer patients experience vitamin C deficiency associated with decreased oral intake, infection, inflammation, disease processes, and treatments such as radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery. Studies demonstrate associations between IVC and inflammation biomarkers and propose some amelioration in symptoms, with a possible advantage in quality of life (QoL) when intravenous vitamin C (IVC) alone or in combination with oral vitamin C is administered in oncologic care. While, the anticancer impact of high doses of IVC remains debatable in spite of growing evidence that high dose vitamin C shows anti-tumorigenic activity by elevating the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells without meaningful toxicities. Hence, there is an urgent requirement for rigorous and well-controlled assessments of IVC as an adjuvant therapy for cancer before clear conclusions can be drawn. Thus, more clinical trials are required to determine the additive impact of high dose vitamin C in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1795692DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of Royal Jelly and Tocotrienol Rich Fraction in obesity treatment of calorie-restricted obese rats: a focus on white fat browning properties and thermogenic capacity.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 1;17:42. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Road Traffic Injury Prevention Research Center, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Obesity has reached an alarming rate worldwide. Promoting thermogenesis via increasing the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or white adipose tissue (WAT) browning has been proposed as a new protective approach against obesity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of Royal Jelly (RJ) and tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on BAT activation and WAT browning during calorie restriction diet (CRD) in obesity model.

Methods: In this experimental study, 50 obese Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups and then received one of the following treatments for a period of 8-week: High-fat diet (HFD), CRD, RJ + CRD, TRF + CRD, and RJ + TRF + CRD. Effects of RJ and TRF, individually and in combination on body weight and the expression of key thermoregulatory genes in WAT and BAT were examined by quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR). Also, morphological alterations were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining.

Results: RJ (- 67.21 g ±4.84 g) and RJ + TRF (- 73.29 g ±4.51 g) significantly reduced weight gain relative to the CRD group (- 40.70 g ±6.50 g,  < 0.001). In comparison with the CRD group, RJ and RJ + TRF remarkably enhanced the uncoupling protein1 expression in WAT (5.81, 4.72 fold,  < 0.001) and BAT (4.99, 4.75 fold,  < 0.001). The expression of PR domain containing 16, cAMP response element-binding protein1 , P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and Bone morphogenetic protein8B have significantly increased following RJ and RJ + TRF treatments ( < 0.001). However the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta and Bone morphogenetic protein7 did not remarkably change. Multilocular beige cells in WAT and compacted dense adipocytes were also observed in BAT of RJ and RJ + TRF received groups. TRF showed no substantial effects on the expression of the mentioned thermoregulatory genes and brown fat-like phenotype.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that, Royal Jelly promotes thermogenesis and browning of WAT, contributing to an increase in energy expenditure. Thus, Royal Jelly may give rise to a novel dietary choice to attenuate obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00458-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266117PMC
June 2020

Effects of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Co-Supplementation on Inflammatory Factors and Tumor Marker CEA in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Nutr Cancer 2020 5;72(6):948-958. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation on inflammatory factors and tumor marker CEA in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this study, 81 patients with stage ӀӀ or ӀӀӀ colorectal cancer were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) control: receiving a vitamin D placebo, weekly + two omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules, daily; (2) omega-3 fatty acid, receiving two omega-3 fatty acid capsules (each capsule containing 330 mg of omega-3 fatty acids), daily + a vitamin D placebo, weekly; (3) vitamin D, receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D soft gel, weekly + two omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules, daily; (4) co-supplementation, receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D soft gel, weekly + two omega-3 fatty acids capsules, for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, serum levels of 25(OH)D, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, NF-kB activity, and tumor marker CEA, were measured. After 8 weeks of intervention, patients who received combined vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids supplements compared with omega-3, vitamin D, and placebo had significantly decreased TNF-α, and IL-1β ( < .05). In addition, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor marker CEA were decreased significantly in omega-3, vitamin D, and co-supplementation of them, compared with baseline. NF-kB activity was decreased significantly in vitamin D and co-supplementation groups, compared with baseline. Regarding CEA, there was no significant difference between the four groups at the end of intervention ( > .05). Results show that co-supplementation of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation, in colorectal cancer patients have beneficial impacts on inflammation and tumor marker CEA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1659380DOI Listing
August 2021

The Role of Nutrition in Attenuating Age-Related Skeletal Muscle Atrophy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1260:297-318

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The elderly population is increasing rapidly worldwide, and we are faced with the significant challenge for maintaining or improving physical activity, independence, and quality of life. Sarcopenia, the age-related decline of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by loss of muscle quantity and quality resulting to a gradual slowing of movement, a decrease in strength and power, elevated risk of fall-related injury, and often frailty. Supplemental, hormonal, and pharmacological approaches have been attempted to attenuate sarcopenia but these have not achieved outstanding results. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of nutrition-based therapies for counteracting sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42667-5_12DOI Listing
June 2020
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