Publications by authors named "Mohammad-Reza Ebadzadeh"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Foot Reflexology on Pain, Fatigue, and Quality of Sleep after Kidney Transplantation Surgery: A Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 1;2020:5095071. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Physiology Research Center, Neuropharmacology Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Materials And Methods: The study was a parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients admitted to the transplantation ward participated in the study. Fifty-three eligible patients were allocated into the foot reflexology group ( = 26) and the control group ( = 27) by using the stratified randomization method. Finally, 25 participants in each group finished the study. The intervention group received foot reflexology for 30 minutes once a day for three consecutive days, and no reflexology was applied in the control group. The intervention started on the second day after surgery. Pain, fatigue, and quality of sleep were measured on the first, second (before intervention), third, fourth, and eleventh days after surgery. Data were collected using visual analogue scale for measuring pain and fatigue and Verran and Snyder-Halpern sleep scale for measuring quality of sleep.

Results: In each group, 25 patients finished the study. The mean pain score in the foot reflexology and control groups decreased from 9.44 ± 0.96 and 9.36 ± 0.91 on the day of surgery to 1.32 ± 0.94 and 4.32 ± 1.68 on the eleventh day after surgery, respectively. The mean fatigue score in the reflexology and control groups decreased from 8.76 ± 1.27 and 8.6 ± 1.26 on the day of surgery to 1.24 ± 1.2 and 3.92 ± 1.63 on the eleventh day after surgery, respectively. The mean sleep score in the foot reflexology and control groups increased from 33.38 ± 11.22 and 39.59 ± 12.8 on the day of surgery to 69.43 ± 12.8 and 56.27 ± 8.03 on the eleventh day after surgery, respectively. While pain, fatigue, and sleep quality scores improved in both groups, those in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement compared with the control group ( < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the use of acetaminophen on the first, second, third, fourth, and eleventh days after surgery ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: Foot reflexology may reduce pain and fatigue and improve sleep quality of patients after kidney transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5095071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7421603PMC
August 2020

Effectiveness of exercise on fatigue in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2020 18;12:19. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

4Department of Urology, Bahonar Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Hemodialysis is one of the common therapies in patients with end-stage renal disease. Even patients who receive regular treatment suffer from fatigue, which is one of the main factors leading to poor quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercising on mini-bikes on fatigue in hemodialysis patients.

Methods: This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-seven hemodialysis patients participated in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to either the intervention group ( = 20) or the control group ( = 17). The participants in the intervention group exercised on mini-bikes for 20 min twice a week for 3 months. The patients' fatigue was measured four times during and after the intervention. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory was used to measure the fatigue level. The total score in the MFI is 4 to 20 for each domain, with the resulting total fatigue score ranging from 20 to 100; thus, the higher the score, the higher the level of fatigue. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18. The repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the fatigue scores within each group and between the groups at different times.

Results: The mean score of fatigue in the intervention group at the beginning was 58.80 ± 15.29, which steadily decreased to 58.78 ± 13.54, 58.75 ± 14.73, 54.20 ± 15.16, and 54.23 ± 13.60 for the 3 months of intervention and 1 month post-intervention, respectively. In contrast, in the control group, this score was 62.53 ± 16.32 in the beginning, increasing to 64.03 ± 13.91, 64.22 ± 13.07, 69.53 ± 9.22, for the 3 months of intervention and 70.34 ± 7.69 one-month post-intervention. There were significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the third month ( = 0.001) and 1 month after the intervention ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results showed that rehabilitation through exercising using mini-bikes had a significant impact on preventing further fatigue build-up in hemodialysis patients, making the mini-bike an effective non-pharmaceutical intervention preventing the increase in fatigue experienced by patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials: IRCT20180314039100N1. Registered 10 June 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-020-00165-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081561PMC
March 2020

The Therapeutic Effect of Intravesical Instillation of Platelet Rich Plasma on Recurrent Bacterial Cystitis in Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Urol J 2019 12 24;16(6):609-613. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Urology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Purpose: Recurrent bacterial cystitis is a common infection in women and there are concerns about its antibiotic therapy. Platelet rich plasma has antimicrobial and tissue repairing effects. We investigated the effect of platelet rich plasma as an intravesical therapy to prevent recurrence of bacterial cystitis.

Materials And Methods: Thirty women with a history of recurrent bacterial cystitis were randomly assigned into two groups: 1) platelet rich plasma and 2) control groups. The first group received 10 mL of platelet rich plasma with intravesical instillation plus 40 mL of normal saline. The control group only received 50 mL of normal saline. We did the instillation once a week for four weeks in both groups. We followed up the participants two and 12 months after the last instillation with a questionnaire (the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire in overactive bladder) and result of their urine culture.

Results: A significant decrease was observed in the number of bacterial cystitis recurrences in the platelet rich plasma group compared to the control group 12 months after the instillation (4 vs. 1, P = 0.004). Also, there was a significant improvement in the questionnaire's score two (3.6 ± 2.58 vs. 0.66 ± 1.63, P = 0.002) and 12 months (3.4 ± 2.77 vs. 0.006 ± 1.83, P < 0.001) after instillation in the platelet rich plasma group compared to control group. There was no adverse effect 12 months after instillation.

Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma can significantly decrease the recurrence of bacterial cystitis up to a year after instillation without any side effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.5239DOI Listing
December 2019

Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and bladder cancer: A case-control study.

J Cell Biochem 2019 09 22;120(9):14847-14859. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Exposure to pesticides is associated with an increase in the incidence of cancer. We aimed to investigate the association of serum organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) levels and GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphism with bladder cancer (BC).

Methods: This study was performed on 57 patients with BC and 30 controls (C). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, arylesterase activity of paraoxonase-1 (ARE), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serums of all participants. Genomic DNA was extracted using the salting out method and GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms were examined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Measurement of OCPs (α-hexachlorocyclohexane [α-HCH], β-HCH, γ-HCH, 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [2,4-DDT], 4,4-DDT, 2,4- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [2,4-DDE], and 4,4-DDE) in serum was carried out using an FID-equipped gas-chromatography system.

Results: AChE activity was significantly lower, ARE activity and TAC were declined but it was not statistically significant, however, α-HCH, γ-HCH, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, and 4,4-DDT pesticides, and MDA were significantly higher in BC patients compared with the control subjects. Also, a positive correlation was found between the number of smoked cigarettes and the years of smoking with BC development. There was no association between GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and OCPs in BC patients.

Conclusion: Due to the higher levels of some OCPs in the BC patients, along with the reduction in AChE activity and increased MDA levels, it may be concluded that OCPs and OPs play an important role in the induction of BC in southeastern Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28746DOI Listing
September 2019

Amplatz versus Balloon for Tract Dilation in Ultrasonographically Guided Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Biomed Res Int 2019 3;2019:3428123. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Urology, Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KMU), Kerman, Iran.

Purpose: To compare balloon with Amplatz for tract dilation in totally ultrasonographically guided PCNL (UPCN).

Methods: We randomized 66 patients candidate for sonographically guided PCNL in the flank position in two study groups. In the first group, we used single step Amplatz dilation (AG) technique in which the 28- or 30-French Amplatz dilator is used for tract dilation. In the other group, we dilated the tract using balloon dilator (BG). We compared procedure time, success rate of dilation, and postoperative clinical outcomes and cost between two groups.

Results: The rate of short dilation was higher in the Amplatz group (57.6%) compared with Balloon group (36.4%) (P=0.08). When using Amplatz for lower pole access, short dilation occurred in 81% of cases compared with 44% in the BG (P=0.02). Overall operation was longer in the AG (80±21 versus 65±20 minutes P=0.02). Stone free rate was 87.9% in the AG compared with 72.7% in the BG (p=0.12). Mean cost of the surgery was 603±85 USD and 718±78 USD in the AG and BG, respectively (P=0.0001). Hemoglobin drop, transfusion rate, renal function alteration, duration of hospitalization, and complication rate based on Clavien classification were similar in both groups.

Conclusions: AG showed a higher rate of short dilation compared with BG; consequently, overall operating time was significantly longer in the AG whereas BG was significantly more expensive than AG. Bleeding and other complications were similar in two groups. We observed an advantage for balloon dilation over Amplatz when approaching the lower pole calyxes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3428123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335701PMC
May 2019

What is the supporting role of health care providers from the perspective of patients with renal allograft rejection? A qualitative study.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2019 Jan 26;34(1):338-345. Epub 2018 Aug 26.

Nursing Research Center, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Coping with the new conditions for patients with renal allograft rejection is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of factors. It appears that the supportive role of health care providers in many aspects is 1 of the most important factors in patient satisfaction, increased quality of life, and application of proper coping mechanisms. This study explored the perceptions of patients with renal allograft rejection about the supportive role of health care providers. This study was conducted with a qualitative research approach and content analysis. Participants were 19 patients with renal allograft rejection in teaching hospitals in southeastern Iran who were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. During content analysis, 2 categories emerged: empathy and emotional support and educational counseling. These themes reflect the nature of patient perceptions of the supportive role of health care providers. The findings suggest that the supportive role of health care providers plays an important role in the promoting a feeling of comfort, reliability, and security in patients with renal allograft rejection and improves their coping mechanisms. These findings give health care providers greater motivation to provide comprehensive care from knowledge of their supportive role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.2639DOI Listing
January 2019

Epidemiology and Hospitalization Cost of Bladder Cancer in Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Apr;47(4):567-574

Regional Knowledge Hub, and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in Iran. In this study, we aimed to assess the epidemiological status and calculate the hospitalization cost of bladder cancer patients in the southeastern part of Iran.

Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of 243 patients admitted to a referral center for the treatment of bladder cancer patients in the southeastern part of Iran during the years 2014-2015 and extracted their pathologic and hospitalization cost data. Using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests, we investigated the association between hospitalization cost and other variables including sex, age, cancer grade, cancer histology, type of treatment and time from diagnosis.

Results: About 53% of patients were in grade III or IV. More than half of them were non-muscle invasive (65%). The mean and median hospitalization costs per month were US$101 and US$72, respectively. The annual hospitalization cost for the first, second, and third year after diagnosis was estimated US$1608, US$840, and US$468 respectively. About 70% of patients were hospitalized only during the first year after diagnosis. In muscle-invasive bladder cancer, patients the average monthly hospitalization cost were about 2.1 times more than for non-muscle invasive patients (US$156 vs. US$76).

Conclusion: Bladder cancer is a costly disease and its cost significantly varies with disease stage at diagnosis. Developing effective strategies for early detection of bladder cancer as well as careful surveillance programs for early diagnosis of recurrence could reduce the cost of this cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996338PMC
April 2018

Role of Donors and Recipients' Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms in Association of Oxidative Stress With Delayed Graft Function in Kidney Allograft Recipients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2017 May;11(3):241-248

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Centre, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Oxidative stress contributes to delayed graft function (DGF). Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are polymorphic genes which produce enzymes with protective effect against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the association between donors' and recipients' GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and DGF, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress parameters in kidney allograft recipients.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and eighty-two donor-recipient pairs were studied. Lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity were measured in the recipients' plasma as the parameters of oxidative stress. Delayed graft function was determined based on at least 10% increase, no change, or less than 10% decrease in the serum creatinine level in 3 consecutive days during the 1st week after transplantation.

Results: Lipid peroxidation was significantly greater in the recipients with DGF (P < .001). The frequency of GSTM1 null was significantly higher in the patients with DGF (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.86; P = .02). There was also a significant association between the donors' GSTM1 polymorphism and DGF (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.68; P = .003). A significant association was detected between combination of recipients and donors' GSTM1 polymorphism and DGF (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.64, P = .006). The recipients' GSTM1 polymorphism, alone and in combination with donors' GSTM1 and GSTT1, significantly affected the creatinine clearance on discharge day.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the donors and recipients' GSTM1 polymorphism may be a major risk factor for oxidative stress and poor kidney allograft transplantation outcomes.
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May 2017

Effect of fruit extract on renal stone formation and kidney injury in rats.

Nat Prod Res 2018 May 7;32(10):1180-1183. Epub 2017 May 7.

c Department of Physiology , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran.

This study investigated the effect of oral administration of Cactus fruit extracts on calcium oxalate deposition, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rat model. About 42 rats were used for the study. The animals were divided into seven groups. Control group maintained on regular rat food and drinking water throughout the study period, whereas in other groups nephrolithiasis was induced by ethylene glycol. Rats in kidney stone group were sacrificed after 28 days and all remaining groups after 58 days. Treatment groups were treated with 1 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cactus fruit for 30 days. After treatment, SOD activity was increased and MDA was decreased significantly. CaOx depositions were decreased significantly, especially in ethanolic extract of Cactus fruit in high dose (100 mg/kg).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1320790DOI Listing
May 2018

Investigation of association between donors' and recipients' NADPH oxidase p22(phox) C242T polymorphism and acute rejection, delayed graft function and blood pressure in renal allograft recipients.

Transpl Immunol 2015 Jan 28;32(1):46-50. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

Physiology Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Nephrology, Urology and Renal Transplantation, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby induction of oxidative stress seem to be one of the major mediators of inflammatory adverse outcomes after renal transplantation. p22(phox) is a polymorphic subunit of NAD(P)H-oxidase that is critical for activation and stabilization of the enzyme. This enzyme is involved in the production of superoxide that triggers inflammatory injuries to the kidney. So in this study, the association between donors and recipients' C242T polymorphism of p22(phox) and acute rejection (AR), delayed graft function (DGF), creatinine clearance (CrCl), and blood pressure in renal-allograft recipients was studied.

Methods: One hundred ninety six donor-recipient pairs were studied. The C242T polymorphism of p22(phox) was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). According to p22 genotype, the subjects were divided in wild-type (CC) and T allele carriers (CT+TT). Transplantation outcomes were determined using acute rejection and delayed graft function criteria. The mean arterial pressure was also measured monthly after transplantation.

Results: There was a significant association between the recipients' p22(phox) polymorphism and DGF occurrence (OR=2.5, CI: 1.2-4.9, p=0.0009). No significant association was detected between donors' p22(phox) polymorphism and AR and DGF events. CrCl during the six months follow-up after transplantation was lower in the patients who received allograft from donors carrying 242T allele (B=-12.8, CI: -22.9-12.8 (-22.9 to -2.6)). Changes in the blood pressure were not different among the patients having different genotypes of p22(phox).

Conclusion: These results suggest that the recipients' p22(phox) C242T polymorphism may be a major risk factor for DGF in renal transplantation. Moreover, the donors' 242T allele seems to affect the rate of CrCl in the renal allograft recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2014.08.004DOI Listing
January 2015

Patient Survival in Renal Allograft Failure: A Time-dependent Analysis.

Nephrourol Mon 2014 Jan 30;6(1):e13589. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Physiology Research Center, Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Renal Transplantation, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran.

Background: To improve patient survival after a renal transplant, it is important to detect which variables affect it.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of renal allograft failure on patient survival.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 405 renal transplant patients from Kerman University of Medical Sciences hospital, Kerman, Iran from 2004 to 2010. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival rates of patients, and time-dependent Cox regression was used to examine the effect of allograft failure on patient survival.

Results: During 4.06 years (median) of follow-up 28 (6.9%) patients died and 20 (71.4%) of dead patients had allograft failure. Survival rate of patients with allograft failure at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year were 0.98, 0.8, 0.53, and 0.53, respectively; in patients with allograft function these values were 0.99, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.96, respectively. The unadjusted death rate was 0.5 per 100 patient years for the maintained allograft function, which increased to 9 per 100 patient years for patients following allograft failure. In fully adjusted model the risk of death increased in patients with allograft failure (HR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.56-2.81), pretransplant diabetes (HR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.2-6.7), patients with BMI ≥ 25 (vs. 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) (HR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.09-11.6). With an increase in recipient age this risk increased (HR = 1.04 per year increase; 95% CI: 1.01-6.7). Receiving a living kidney transplant decreased this risk (HR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39-0.69).

Conclusions: An increase in recipient age and BMI, affliction with diabetes, allograft failure, and receiving deceased kidney transplant increased the risk of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.13589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3968962PMC
January 2014

Multi-state survival analysis in renal transplantation recipients.

Iran J Public Health 2014 Mar;43(3):316-22

1. Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Background: Renal transplantation is a therapy for end-stage renal disease. During the study of recipients' survival after renal transplantation, there are some events as intermediate events that not only affect the recipients' survival but also events which are affected by various factors. The aim of this study was to handle these intermediate events in order to identify factors that affect recipients' survival by using multi-state models.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 405 renal transplant patients from Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 2004 to 2010. The survival time of these recipients was determined after transplantation and the effect of various factors on the death hazard with and without renal allograft failure and hazard of renal allograft failure was studied by using multi-state models.

Results: During 4.06 years (median) of follow-up; 28 (6.9%) recipients died and allograft failure occurred in 51 (12.6%) recipients. Based on the results of multi-state model, receiving a living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of renal allograft failure (HR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.17- 0.87), pre-transplant hypertension (HR=2.94; 95% CI: 1.54- 5.63) and serum creatinine levels >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital (HR=7.38; 95% CI: 3.87- 7.08) increased the hazard of renal allograft failure. Receiving living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of death directly (HR=0.18; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.93).

Conclusion: It was concluded that the effect of donor type, pre-transplant hypertension and having serum creatinine >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital was significant on hazard of renal allograft failure. The only variable that had a direct significant effect on hazard of death was donor type.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4419169PMC
March 2014

Effect of donor tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 genotypes on delayed graft function and acute rejection in kidney transplantation.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2013 Mar;7(2):135-41

Physiology Research Center; Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: This study evaluated the influence of interleukin-10 (IL10) gene -1082G>A and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) gene -308G>A polymorphisms in the donor and recipients on the acute rejection (AR) episodes and delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplant recipients.

Materials And Methods: The IL10 -1082G>A and TNF -308G>A polymorphisms were determined in 100 kidney allograft recipients and their donors using the polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Transplantation outcomes were determined in terms of AR and DGF criteria.

Results: The A allele of the TNF polymorphism (high producer) in the donors was associated with DGF in the recipients (odd ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.1). There was also a significant association between the combination of donor's IL10-TNF genotypes and DGF (odd ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 17.1); the frequency of a combination of IL10 AA or GA and TNF AA or GA was higher in the recipients with DGF. No association was found between the donors and recipients' IL10 -1082G>A and TNF -308G>A polymorphisms and AR. No association was detected between recipients and donors' IL10 polymorphisms or recipients' TNF polymorphisms and DGF.

Conclusions: This study showed that donors with high TNF production may have increased risk of DGF in their recipients. Routine screening of these gene polymorphisms may have a clinical role in identifying patients at risk of DGF.
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March 2013

Chemokine receptor 2-V64I and chemokine receptor 5-Delta32 polymorphisms and clinical risk factors of delayed graft function and acute rejection in kidney transplantation.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2012 Jan;6(1):56-62

Physiology Research Center and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Chemokines and chemokine receptors have a pivotal role in immunity and inflammation. We aimed to evaluate their role in kidney transplant rejection.

Materials And Methods: The association of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2)-V64I and CCR5-Delta32 gene polymorphisms with acute rejection (AR) and delayed graft function (DGF) were examined in 100 donor-recipient pairs. The CCR2-V64I and CCR5-Delta32 alleles were determined using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively.

Results: No associations were found between donors or recipients' CCR2-V64I and CCR5-Delta32 gene polymorphisms and AR or DGF. Of the characteristics of the donors, recipients, and transplantation, glomerulonephritis as a cause of kidney failure in the recipients was weakly associated with AR (relative risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 46.0; P = .07). Transplantation of kidney from females to males was weakly associated with DGF (relative risk, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 33.0; P = .06). There was a significant association between AR, but not DGF, and graft loss in the patients (relative risk, 28.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 487.0; P = .03).

Conclusions: Our study failed to suggest CCR2-V64I or CCR5-Delta32 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for AR and DGF in kidney transplantation. Sex-matching between donors and recipients should be considered for living donor kidney transplantation.
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January 2012

Transverse testicular ectopia, a case report and review of literature.

Ger Med Sci 2011 7;9:Doc15. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE)/transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare but well known congenital anomaly, in which both gonads migrate toward the same hemiscrotum. It is usually associated with other abnormalities such as persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, true hermaphroditism, inguinal hernia, hypospadias, pseudohermaphroditism, and scrotal anomalies. About 100 cases of transverse testicular ectopia have been reported in published studies. We report a case of transverse testicular ectopia in an 8-month-old boy who presented with right inguinal hernia and nonpalpable left testis. On exploration, both testes were present in the right inguinal region. Bilateral orchiopexy was performed by crossing the left testis in the extra-peritoneal space and ipsilateral scrotal orchiopexy. The diagnosis could not be made preoperatively in most of reported cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/000138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3141845PMC
December 2011

Lymphocele after kidney transplantation: where are we standing now?

Urol J 2008 ;5(3):144-8

Department of Urology, Shafa Hospital, Kerman Medical University, Kerman, Iran.

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January 2009