Publications by authors named "Milena Karina Colo Brunialti"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HIF-1α and Hypoxia Responsive Genes are Differentially Expressed in Leukocytes From Survivors and Non-Survivors Patients During Clinical Sepsis.

Shock 2021 Jul;56(1):80-91

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is linked to the metabolic and immune alterations in septic patients. Stabilization of HIF-1α by hypoxia or inflammation promotes the expression of several genes related to glycolytic metabolism, angiogenesis, coagulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Here, we analyzed public available blood transcriptome datasets from septic patients and evaluated by PCR array the expression of HIF-1α and other hypoxia responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with sepsis secondary to community acquired infections. Samples were collected at intensive care unit admission (D0, n=29) and after 7 days follow-up (D7, n = 18); healthy volunteers (n = 10) were included as controls. Hypoxia and glycolysis were among the top scored molecular signatures in the transcriptome datasets. PCR array showed that 24 out of 78 analyzed genes were modulated in septic patients compared with healthy volunteers; most of them (23/24) were downregulated at admission. This same pattern was observed in surviving patients, while non-survivors presented more upregulated genes. EGLN1, EGLN2, and HIF1AN, inhibitors of HIF-1α activation were downregulated in patients, regardless of the outcome, while HIF-1α and other target genes, such as PDK1 and HMOX1, expression were higher in non-survivors than in survivors, mainly at D7. Non-survivor patients also presented a higher SOFA score and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Our results indicate a differential modulation of hypoxia pathway in leukocytes between septic patients who survived and those who did not survive with an increased intensity at D7, which is possibly influenced by disease severity and may affect the immune response in sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001694DOI Listing
July 2021

Repurposing of Clinically Approved Poly-(Adp-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors For The Therapy of Sepsis.

Shock 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo - Brazil Laboratory of Medical Research - Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, Brazil Chair of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Abstract: Sepsis' pathogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that lead to a dysregulation of the host's response. Significant efforts have been made in search of interventions that can reverse this situation and increase patient survival. Poly (ADP-polymerase) (PARP) is a constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial enzyme, which functions as a co-activator and co-repressor of gene transcription, thus regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. Several studies have already demonstrated an overactivation of PARP1 in various human pathophysiological conditions and that its inhibition has benefits in regulating intracellular processes. The PARP inhibitor olaparib, originally developed for cancer therapy, paved the way for the expansion of its clinical use for non-oncological indications. In this review we discuss sepsis as one of the possible indications for the use of olaparib and other clinically approved PARP inhibitors as a modulators of the inflammatory response and cellular dysfunction. The benefit of olaparib and other clinically approved PARP inhibitors has already been demonstrated in several experimental models of human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, acute hepatitis, skeletal muscle disorders, aging and acute ischemic stroke, protecting, for example, from the deterioration of the blood-brain barrier, restoring the cellular levels of NAD+, improving mitochondrial function and biogenesis and, among other effects, reducing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-6 and VCAM1. These data demonstrated that repositioning of clinically approved PARP inhibitors may be effective in protecting against hemodynamic dysfunction, metabolic dysfunction, and multiple organ failure in patients with sepsis. Age and gender affect the response to PARP inhibitors, the mechanisms underlying the lack of many protective effects in females and aged animals should be further investigated and be cautiously considered in designing clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001820DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of the Effect of Perioperative Venous Lidocaine on the Intensity of Pain and IL-6 Concentration After Laparoscopic Gastroplasty.

Obes Surg 2020 Oct 12;30(10):3912-3918. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Botucatu 593, São Paulo, 04023-900, Brazil.

Background And Objectives: Opioids are associated with sedation and respiratory depression. The primary objective of this study was to assess pain intensity after gastric bypass with lidocaine. The secondary objective was to assess the IL-6 concentration, consumption of morphine, time to morphine request, time to extubation, and side effects.

Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 60 years, with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) scores of 2 or 3, who underwent bariatric surgery were allocated to two groups. Patients in group 1 were administered lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg) 5 min before the induction of anesthesia, and group 2 was administered 0.9% saline solution in an equal volume. Subsequently, lidocaine (2 mg/kg/h) or 0.9% saline was infused during the entire surgical procedure. Anesthesia was performed with fentanyl (5 μg/kg), propofol, rocuronium, and sevoflurane. Postoperative patient-controlled analgesia was provided with morphine. The following were evaluated: pain intensity, IL-6, 24-h consumption of morphine, time to the morphine request, time to extubation, and adverse effects.

Results: The lidocaine group had a lower pain intensity than the saline group for up to 1 h, with no differences between groups in IL-6 and time to extubation. The lidocaine group consumed less morphine within 24 h, had a longer time until the first supplemental morphine request, and had a lower incidence of nausea.

Conclusions: Lidocaine reduced the intensity of early postoperative pain, incidence of nausea, and consumption of morphine within 24 h and increased time to the first morphine request, without reducing the plasma concentrations of IL-6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04748-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Lipid metabolism impairment in patients with sepsis secondary to hospital acquired pneumonia, a proteomic analysis.

Clin Proteomics 2019 16;16:29. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 669, 10th Floor, Sao Paulo, SP 04039-032 Brazil.

Background: Sepsis is a dysregulated host response to infection and a major cause of death worldwide. Respiratory tract infections account for most sepsis cases and depending on the place of acquisition, i.e., community or hospital acquired infection, differ in etiology, antimicrobial resistance and outcomes. Accordingly, the host response may be different in septic patients secondary to community-acquired pneumonia and hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). Proteomic analysis is a useful approach to evaluate broad alterations in biological pathways that take place during sepsis. Here we evaluated plasma proteome changes in sepsis secondary to HAP.

Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from patients (n = 27) at admission and after 7 days of follow-up, and were analyzed according to the patients' outcomes. The patients' proteome profiles were compared with healthy volunteers (n = 23). Pooled plasma samples were labeled with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitationand analyzed by LC-MS/MS. We used bioinformatics tools to find altered functions and pathways. Results were validated using biochemical estimations and ELISA tests.

Results: We identified 159 altered proteins in septic patients; most of them were common when comparing patients' outcomes, both at admission and after 7 days. The top altered biological processes were acute inflammatory response, response to wounding, blood coagulation and homeostasis. Lipid metabolism emerged as the main altered function in patients, with HDL as a central node in the network analysis, interacting with downregulated proteins, such as APOA4, APOB, APOC1, APOL1, SAA4 and PON1. Validation tests showed reduced plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins ApoA1 and ApoB100, and Paraoxonase 1 in HAP patients.

Conclusion: Proteomic analysis pointed to impairment of lipid metabolism as a major change in septic patients secondary to HAP, which was further validated by the reduced levels of cholesterol moieties and apolipoproteins in plasma. Our results stress the involvement of lipids in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which is in accordance with previous reports supporting the role of lipid moieties in pathogen toxin clearance and in modulating inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12014-019-9252-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631513PMC
July 2019

T helper type cytokines in sepsis: time-shared variance and correlation with organ dysfunction and hospital mortality.

Braz J Infect Dis 2019 Mar - Apr;23(2):79-85. Epub 2019 May 18.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departmento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: We evaluated the kinetics of cytokines belonging to the T helper1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 profiles in septic patients, and their correlations with organ dysfunction and hospital mortality.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study in a cohort of septic patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU) of three Brazilian general hospitals. A total of 104 septic patients and 53 health volunteers (controls) were included. Plasma samples were collected within the first 48h of organ dysfunction or septic shock (0D), after seven (D7) and 14 days (D14) of follow-up. The following cytokines were measured by flow cytometry: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/23p40, IL-17, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF).

Results: IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF and IL-10 concentrations were higher in septic patients than in controls (p<0.001), while IL-12/23p40 presented higher levels in the controls (p=0.003). IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 correlated with Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) D0, D1 and D3 (except for IL-6 at D0). IL-8 was associated with renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. In a mixed model analysis, IL-10 estimated means were lower in survivors than in deceased (p=0.014), while IL-21 had an estimated mean of 195.8pg/mL for survivors and 98.5 for deceased (p=0.03). Cytokines were grouped in four factors according to their kinetics over the three dosages (D0, D7, D14). Group 1 encompassed IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and G-CSF while Group 3 encompassed IL-17 and IL-12/23p40. Both correlated with SOFA (D0) (p=0.039 and p=0.003, respectively). IL-21 (Group 4) was higher in those who survived. IL-2, TNF-α and GM-CSF (Group 2) showed no correlation with outcomes.

Conclusion: Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines shared co-variance in septic patients and were related to organ dysfunctions and hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2019.04.008DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and immune parameters in systemic sclerosis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019 11;58(11):1985-1990

Rheumatology Division, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: Changes in the intestinal microbiota have been associated with the pathogenesis of SSc. Probiotics act by modulating the microbiome and the immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and immune responses in SSc patients.

Methods: Patients with SSc with a moderate-severe total score on the University of California Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract 2.0 (UCLA GIT 2.0) instrument were randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophillus and Bifidobacterium lactis, 109 colony-forming units per capsule) or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was improvement in the UCLA GIT 2.0 total score after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes included changes in Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell circulating levels and in the HAQ Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score. Parameters were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment.

Results: A total of 73 patients were randomized to receive probiotics (n = 37) or placebo (n = 36). After 8 weeks, there was no difference in the UCLA GIT 2.0 score between the two groups. At week 8, the probiotic group showed a significant decrease in the proportion of Th17 cells compared with placebo (P = 0.003). There was no difference in the proportion of Th1, Th2 and regulatory T cells or in the HAQ-DI score between the groups.

Conclusion: Probiotics did not improve GI symptoms in SSc patients. The reduction in Th17 cell levels suggests an immunomodulatory effect of probiotics on SSc.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov), NCT02302352.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez160DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of preoperative pregabalin on analgesia and interleukins after lumbotomy: prospective, randomized, comparative, double-blind study.

J Pain Res 2019 11;12:339-344. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Anesthesia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil,

Background: Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant and has been used for postoperative analgesia. This study aimed to assess the effect of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin for analgesia after nephrectomy.

Methods: The study was prospective, randomized, comparative, and double-blinded, conducted in 40 kidney transplant donors, between 18 and 60 years, American Society of Anesthesia physical status I or II. Epidural anesthesia was performed with 15 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine single shot and general anesthesia with 3 µg/kg of fentanyl, propofol, atracurium, and sevoflurane, and 50% of oxygen without nitrous oxide. Patients in group 1 were administered 300 mg of pregabalin and those in group 2 were administered placebo, in identical capsules, 1 hour prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was supplemented with tramadol. The following parameters were assessed: pain intensity after 6 and 24 hours; pain threshold, from the thenar and peri-incisional region, analgesic supplementation; ILs (IL6, IL8, and IL10) prior to surgery and after 6 and 24 hours.

Results: The pain intensity was lower with pregabalin after 24 hours (G1: 2.5±2.4, G2: 3.0±2.6). There was no difference in the sensitivity of the thenar and peri-incisional region after 6 and 24 hours; in the number of patients requiring supplementation (G1=15%, G2=45%); concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10; and side effects (nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and pruritus).

Conclusion: Pregabalin in a single preoperative dose of 300 mg reduced pain intensity 24 hours after lumbotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S189441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333154PMC
January 2019

External quality assessment for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count test: Performance of the Brazilian public health laboratories network.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 May;97(1S Suppl 1):S32-S37

Department of Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV), Secretariat of Health Surveillance, Ministry of Health, Brasília, Distrito Federal Immunology Laboratory/Division of Infectious Diseases/Escola Paulista de Medicina/Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Serology, Department of Clinical Analysis, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

The National Network for CD4+ T-lymphocyte counting of Brazil comprises 93 laboratories. This study reports the laboratory performances achieved in external quality assessment (EQA) rounds provides by Ministry of Health to evaluate the quality of the kits used and the performance of test by the technicians.Ten EQA rounds were analyzed according the EQA criteria aimed to evaluate individual laboratory performance on the basis of the accuracy of their results compared to the general mean obtained by all participating laboratories and the reproducibility of the results obtained between 2 samples from the same donor.The percentage of approved and failed laboratories in the EQAs tends to follow a uniform pattern. Since 2011, approval has remained above 80% and the failure rate has never exceeded 15%.EQA is very important to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, to identify monitor, and to resolve errors as quickly as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991543PMC
May 2018

Immunophenotyping of Monocytes During Human Sepsis Shows Impairment in Antigen Presentation: A Shift Toward Nonclassical Differentiation and Upregulation of FCγRi-Receptor.

Shock 2018 09;50(3):293-300

Division of Infectious Diseases, Sao Paulo Hospital, Escola Paulista de Medicina.

Monocytes and macrophages are pivotal in the host response to sepsis, recognizing the infecting microorganism and triggering an inflammatory response. These functions are, at least in part, modulated by the expression of cell surface receptors. We aimed to characterize the monocyte phenotype from septic patients during an ongoing sepsis process and its association with clinical outcomes. Sixty-one septic patients and 31 healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled in the study. Samples were obtained from patients at baseline (D0, N = 61), and after 7 (D7, N = 36) and 14 days of therapy (D14, N = 22). Monocytes from septic patients presented decreased expression of CD86, HLA-DR, CD200R, CCR2, CXCR2, and CD163 compared with HV monocytes. In contrast, the PD-1, PD-L1, CD206, CD64, and CD16 expression levels were upregulated in patients. HLA-DR, CD64, PD-1, and PD-L1 expression levels were higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors. Increased CD86, HLA-DR, and CXCR2 expression levels were observed in follow-up samples; in contrast, CD64 and CD16 GMFI decreased over time. In conclusion, monocytes from septic patients show antigen presentation impairment as characterized by decreased HLA-DR and costimulatory CD86 expression and increased PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. On the contrary, increased monocyte inflammatory and phagocytic activities may be inferred by the increased CD16 and CD64 expression. We found conflicting results regarding differentiation toward the M2 phenotype, with increased CD206 expression and decreased CD163 expression on monocytes from septic patients, whereas the subset of nonclassical monocytes was demonstrated by increased CD16.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001078DOI Listing
September 2018

Proteomic study revealed cellular assembly and lipid metabolism dysregulation in sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia.

Sci Rep 2017 Nov 15;7(1):15606. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 04039-032, Brazil.

Sepsis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by organ dysfunction and a major cause of mortality worldwide. The major challenge in studying sepsis is its diversity in such factors as age, source of infection and etiology. Recently, genomic and proteomic approaches have improved our understanding of its complex pathogenesis. In the present study, we use quantitative proteomics to evaluate the host proteome response in septic patients secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Samples obtained at admission and after 7 days of follow-up were analyzed according to the outcomes of septic patients. The patients' proteome profiles were compared with age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Bioinformatic analyses of differentially expressed proteins showed alteration in the cytoskeleton, cellular assembly, movement, lipid metabolism and immune responses in septic patients. Actin and gelsolin changes were assessed in mononuclear cells using immunofluorescence, and a higher expression of gelsolin and depletion of actin were observed in survivor patients. Regarding lipid metabolism, changes in cholesterol, HDL and apolipoproteins were confirmed using enzymatic colorimetric methods in plasma. Transcriptomic studies revealed a massive change in gene expression in sepsis. Our proteomic results stressed important changes in cellular structure and metabolism, which are possible targets for future interventions of sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15755-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688086PMC
November 2017

Cytokine Kinetics in Febrile Neutropenic Children: Insights on the Usefulness as Sepsis Biomarkers, Influence of Filgrastim, and Behavior of the IL-23/IL-17 Pathway.

Mediators Inflamm 2017 9;2017:8291316. Epub 2017 Jul 9.

Grupo de Apoio ao Adolescente e à Criança com Câncer (GRAACC), Instituto de Oncologia Pediatrica (IOP), Sao Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP), Rua Pedro de Toledo 572-Vila Clementino, 04039-001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: The study aimed to describe the kinetics of various cytokines from day 1 to day 14 of the onset of fever in neutropenic children and to evaluate their performances as discriminators of sepsis in the first 24 hours of fever, the possible influence of filgrastim, and the functioning of the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

Methods: IL-1, TNF-, IL-10, IL-12/23p40, IL-21, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, G-CSF, and GM-CSF were measured in plasma on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 14 from the onset of fever in 35 patients.

Results: Thirteen patients (37.1%) developed sepsis. In mixed models, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and G-CSF showed higher estimated means in septic patients ( < 0.005), and IL-12/23p40 and IL-17 in nonseptic patients ( < 0.05). On day 1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 appeared upregulated in patients who received filgrastim. Only IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and procalcitonin were useful as discriminators of sepsis. Associating the markers with each other or to a risk assessment model improved performance.

Conclusions: Cytokines kinetics showed proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses similar to what is described in nonneutropenic patients. IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and procalcitonin are useful as early biomarkers of sepsis. Filgrastim upregulates expression of these markers, and we observed deficiency in the IL-23-IL-17 axis accompanying sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8291316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5523193PMC
May 2018

Effect of intravenous lidocaine combined with amitriptyline on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized double-blind study.

Int J Rheum Dis 2016 Oct 16;19(10):946-953. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Department of Anesthesia, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Aim: Regarding the use of intravenous lidocaine in fibromyalgia, there are no well-controlled studies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8 in fibromyalgia patients.

Methods: In a randomized double-blind study, group 1 patients received 240 mg of lidocaine in 125 mL of saline solution, while group 2 patients received 125 mL of saline, both once a week for 4 weeks (T1, T2, T3 and T4). All patients received amitriptyline. The following were assessed: pain intensity before treatment (T0) and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment; clinical manifestations; the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) before and at 4 and 8 weeks after; the levels of IL 1, 6 and 8 before and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment.

Results: Lower pain intensity was observed in the lidocaine group at T2, with no difference at the other time points. There was a reduction in pain intensity in both groups. The use of paracetamol and tramadol and plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ between the groups. Clinical manifestations and side effects did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: The combination of 240 mg of intravenous lidocaine (once a week for 4 weeks) with 25 mg of amitriptyline for 8 weeks had no meaningful impact in fibromyalgia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.12904DOI Listing
October 2016

Gene expression profiling of mononuclear cells from patients with sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia.

Genom Data 2014 Dec 12;2:332-4. Epub 2014 Oct 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Mechanisms governing the inflammatory response during sepsis involve crosstalk between diverse signaling pathways, but current knowledge provides an incomplete picture of the syndrome. Microarray-based expression profiling is a powerful approach for the investigation of complex clinical conditions such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated whole-genome expression profiles in mononuclear cells from septic patients admitted in intensive care units with community-acquired pneumonia. Blood samples were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis and seven days later since we aimed to evaluate the role of biological processes or genes possibly involved in patient recovery. Here we provide a detailed description of the study design, including clinical information, experimental methods and procedures regarding data analysis. Metadata corresponding to microarray results deposited in the database Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession number GSE48080 are also described in this report. Our dataset allows the identification of genes possibly associated with host defense to infection as well as gene expression patterns associated with patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2014.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535862PMC
December 2014

CD163 and CD206 expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2017 05 8;92(3):192-199. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista De Medicina, Hospital Sao Paulo, Universidade Federal De Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes produce small amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which is one of the characteristics of the alternative activated macrophages (AAM). These cells exhibited an increased expression of CD206 and CD163. Given the functional similarities of AAMs with the modulation of monocytes' functions observed during sepsis and LPS-tolerance, we evaluated whether the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-tolerant monocytes is associated with the phenotype of cells expressing CD206 and CD163.

Methods: We investigated whether tolerant human monocytes would modulate their expression of CD206 and CD163, markers of alternative activation, and whether the level of their expression would be related to cytokines detection. Tolerance to LPS was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cell by pre-incubating the cells with increasing concentrations of LPS. The expression of CD206 and CD163 and intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 was determined 24 h after LPS challenge by flow cytometry.

Results: No differences in CD163 expression were observed between tolerant and non-tolerant cells, while the expression of CD206, which was decreased following LPS stimulation in non-tolerized cells, was further reduced in tolerant cells. Decreased production of inflammatory cytokines was observed in the tolerized cells, regardless of the expression of CD163 and CD206, with the exception of IL-6 in CD206+ monocytes, which was similarly expressed in both tolerized and non-tolerized cells.

Conclusions: The effect of LPS in the expression of CD163 and CD206 on monocytes is not reverted in LPS tolerant cells, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in tolerant cells is not related with modulation of these receptors. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21321DOI Listing
May 2017

Effect of natural porcine surfactant in Staphylococcus aureus induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species generation in monocytes and neutrophils from human blood.

Int Immunopharmacol 2014 Aug 27;21(2):369-74. Epub 2014 May 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Surfacen® is a clinical surfactant preparation of porcine origin. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of Surfacen® in the modulation of oxidative burst in monocytes and neutrophils in human blood and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured in monocytes and neutrophils by flow cytometry using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as substrate, while, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were estimated in PBMC supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results show that Staphylococcus aureus-induced ROS level was slightly affected by Surfacen® added to whole blood monocytes and neutrophils. The time course experiments of pre-incubation with Surfacen® showed no significant increase of ROS level at 2h; however, the ROS level decreased when pre incubated for 4h and 6h with Surfacen®. Pre-incubation of PBMC cells with Surfacen® at 0.125 and 0.5mg/mL showed a dose-dependent suppression of TNF-α levels measured after 4h of S. aureus stimulation, an effect less impressive when cells were stimulated for 24h. A similar behavior was observed in IL-6 release. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence supporting an anti-inflammatory role of Surfacen® in human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2014.05.020DOI Listing
August 2014

Patterns of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and outcomes from patients with sepsis secondary to community acquired pneumonia.

PLoS One 2014 25;9(3):e91886. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil.

Mechanisms governing the inflammatory response during sepsis have been shown to be complex, involving cross-talk between diverse signaling pathways. Current knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying sepsis provides an incomplete picture of the syndrome, justifying additional efforts to understand this condition. Microarray-based expression profiling is a powerful approach for the investigation of complex clinical conditions such as sepsis. In this study, we investigate whole-genome expression profiles in mononuclear cells from survivors (n = 5) and non-survivors (n = 5) of sepsis. To circumvent the heterogeneity of septic patients, only patients admitted with sepsis caused by community-acquired pneumonia were included. Blood samples were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis and seven days later to evaluate the role of biological processes or genes possibly involved in patient recovery. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) profiling discriminated between patients with early sepsis and healthy individuals. Genes with differential expression were grouped according to Gene Ontology, and most genes related to immune defense were up-regulated in septic patients. Additionally, PCA in the early stage was able to distinguish survivors from non-survivors. Differences in oxidative phosphorylation seem to be associated with clinical outcome because significant differences in the expression profile of genes related to mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) I-V were observed between survivors and non-survivors at the time of patient enrollment. Global gene expression profiles after seven days of sepsis progression seem to reproduce, to a certain extent, patterns collected at the time of diagnosis. Gene expression profiles comparing admission and follow-up samples differed between survivors and non-survivors, with decreased expression of genes related to immune functions in non-survivors. In conclusion, genes related to host defense and inflammatory response ontology were up-regulated during sepsis, consistent with the need for a host response to infection, and the sustainability of their expression in follow-up samples was associated with outcomes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0091886PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3965402PMC
January 2015

Bacterial sensing, cell signaling, and modulation of the immune response during sepsis.

Shock 2012 Aug;38(3):227-42

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hospital Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Since the definition of systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis was originally proposed, a large amount of new information has been generated showing a much more complex scenario of inflammatory and counterinflammatory responses during sepsis. Moreover, some fundamental mechanisms of sensing and destroying invading microorganisms have been uncovered, which include the discovery of TLR4 as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) gene, implications of innate immune cells as drivers of the adaptive response to infection, and the modulation of multiple accessory molecules that stimulate or inhibit monocyte/macrophage and lymphocyte interactions. The complexity of the infection/injury-induced immune response could be better appreciated with the application of genomics and proteomics studies, and LPS was a useful tool in many of these studies. In this review, we discuss aspects of bacterial recognition and induced cellular activation during sepsis. Because of the relevance of endotoxin (LPS) research in the field, we focus on LPS and host interactions as a clue to understand microorganisms sensing and cell signaling, then we discuss how this response is modulated in septic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e318262c4b0DOI Listing
August 2012

Increased percentages of T helper cells producing IL-17 and monocytes expressing markers of alternative activation in patients with sepsis.

PLoS One 2012 31;7(5):e37393. Epub 2012 May 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hospital Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: A shift from Th1 to Th2 as well as an increase in Treg CD4+T cell subsets has been reported in septic patients (SP). Furthermore, these patients display modulation of monocyte function, with reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulus, which resembles the phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, we evaluated the percentages of T cells differentiated into Th1, Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as the percentage of monocytes expressing markers of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages (AAM) in SP.

Methodology/principal Findings: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from 32 healthy volunteers (HV) and from SP at admission (D0, n = 67) and after 7 days of therapy (D7, n = 33). Th1 and Th17 (CD3+CD8-) lymphocytes were identified by the intracellular detection of IFN-γ and IL-17, respectively, spontaneously and after PMA/Io stimulation, and Treg cells were identified by Foxp3+CD127- expression. Monocytes were evaluated for CD206 and CD163 expression. Absolute numbers of CD4+T lymphocytes were measured in whole blood samples by flow cytometry. The Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon test was applied, as appropriate. The percentage of Th1 cells was lower in SP than in HV at admission after PMA/Io stimulation, whereas the percentage of Th17 cells was higher. In patients' follow-up samples, a higher percentage of Th1 cells and a lower percentage of Th17 cells were observed on D7 compared with the D0 samples. Treg cells remained unchanged. Septic patients showed a markedly increased proportion of monocytes expressing CD163 and CD206.

Conclusions/significance: Upon in vitro stimulus, the percentage of T helper lymphocytes producing IL-17 was higher in SP than in HV at admission, and the percentage producing IFN-γ was lower, a pattern that was reversed during follow-up. The increased expression of CD163 and CD206 indicates that monocytes may acquire the AAM phenotype during sepsis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037393PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3365066PMC
October 2012

Generation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and monocytes from septic patients and association with outcomes.

Shock 2012 Jul;38(1):18-23

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

In this study, our aims were to evaluate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation by monocytes and neutrophils from septic patients and to correlate their levels with clinical outcomes. Forty-nine septic patients and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. The ROS and NO production was quantified in monocytes and neutrophils in whole blood by flow cytometry, constitutively, and after stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nitric oxide production by monocytes was higher in septic patients compared with healthy volunteers for all conditions and by neutrophils at baseline, and ROS generation in monocytes and neutrophils was higher in septic patients than in healthy volunteers for all conditions. Nitric oxide production by monocytes and neutrophils was decreased at day 7 compared with that at admission (day 0) in survivors at baseline and after stimulation with S. aureus. Reactive oxygen species production by the monocytes and neutrophils was decreased in survivors at day 7 compared with day 0 under all conditions, except by neutrophils at baseline. No difference was found in NO and ROS generation by monocytes and neutrophils between day 7 and day 0 in nonsurvivors. Generation of NO and ROS by neutrophils and monocytes is increased in septic patients, and their persistence is associated with poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e318257114eDOI Listing
July 2012

Influence of GB virus C on IFN-γ and IL-2 production and CD38 expression in T lymphocytes from chronically HIV-infected and HIV-HCV-co-infected patients.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2011 Sep;106(6):662-9

Disciplina de Infectologia, Laboratório de Virologia e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

This study was designed to assess the effect of GB virus (GBV)-C on the immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in chronically HIV-infected and HIV- hepatitis C virus (HCV)-co-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. A cohort of 159 HIV-seropositive patients, of whom 52 were HCV-co-infected, was included. Epidemiological data were collected and virological and immunological markers, including the production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2 by CD4, CD8 and Tγδ cells and the expression of the activation marker, CD38, were assessed. A total of 65 patients (40.8%) presented markers of GBV-C infection. The presence of GBV-C did not influence HIV and HCV replication or TCD4 and TCD8 cell counts. Immune responses, defined by IFN-γ and IL-2 production and CD38 expression did not differ among the groups. Our results suggest that neither GBV-C viremia nor the presence of E2 antibodies influence HIV and HCV viral replication or CD4 T cell counts in chronically infected patients. Furthermore, GBV-C did not influence cytokine production or CD38-driven immune activation among these patients. Although our results do not exclude a protective effect of GBV-C in early HIV disease, they demonstrate that this effect may not be present in chronically infected patients, who represent the majority of patients in outpatient clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762011000600004DOI Listing
September 2011

Differential expression of toll-like receptor signaling cascades in LPS-tolerant human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Immunobiology 2011 Mar 19;216(3):285-95. Epub 2010 Aug 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Pre-exposure to low doses of LPS induces resistance to a lethal challenge, a phenomenon known as endotoxin tolerance. In this study, tolerance was induced in human PBMC by culturing cells with 1 ng/mL LPS for 48 h. Cells were subsequently challenged with 100 ng/mL LPS for 2, 6 and 24 h, and the expression of 84 genes encoding proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway was evaluated at each time point by PCR array. LPS pretreatment did not modulate the expression of TLR4 and CD14 on the surface of monocytes. A gene was defined as tolerized when LPS pretreatment reversed the effect of LPS challenge on the expression of the gene or as non-tolerized when LPS pretreatment did not reverse the effects of LPS challenge. We observed impaired signal transduction through the NF-κB, JNK, ERK and TRIF pathways, whereas expression of p38 pathway-related genes was preserved in LPS-tolerant cells. These results show a distinct regulation of the TLR pathway cascades during tolerance; this may account for the differential gene expression of some inflammatory mediators, such as up-regulation of IL-10 and COX2 as well as down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-12. Depending on the effect of LPS-induced gene up-regulation or down-regulation, tolerance, as a reversion of such LPS effects, may result in repression or induction of gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2010.07.008DOI Listing
March 2011

Effects of pentoxifylline on inflammation and lung dysfunction in ventilated septic animals.

J Trauma 2010 Apr;68(4):822-6

Division of Histology and Structural Biology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Pedro de Toledo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of ventilatory strategy and the modulating activity of pentoxifylline in a sepsis-induced lung dysfunction model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups, undergoing two different ventilatory strategies. Rats received live Escherichia coli or saline intraperitoneally. After 6 hours, the septic animals were treated with either pentoxifylline (25 mg/kg for 20 minutes) or normal saline infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg; septic animals with E. coli intraperitoneal [IP] infusion, PTX-treated and ventilated with low tidal volume and septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume, respectively) or high tidal volume (12 mL/kg; septic animals with E. coli IP infusion, PTX-treated and ventilated with high tidal volume and septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume, respectively) for 3 hours. The control animals received normal saline infusion and, after 6 hours, were ventilated with low or high tidal volume (control animals with saline infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume and control animals with saline infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume, respectively). Lung dysfunctions were assessed by wet-to-dry lung ratios, total cell count, total protein, malondialdehyde, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume presented increased wet-to-dry lung ratios, total cell count, total protein, and malondialdehyde in BAL compared with the septic animals ventilated with low tidal volume. Septic animals treated with pentoxifylline presented higher arterial oxygenation and lower cellular influx, protein leakage, malondialdehyde concentration, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in BAL compared with septic animals undergoing the same ventilatory support strategies (septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume and septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume). Ventilatory strategy modulated the inflammatory response and pulmonary alterations in a sepsis-induced acute lung injury model, and these effects are improved by pentoxifylline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e3181a5f4b5DOI Listing
April 2010

TLR signaling pathway in patients with sepsis.

Shock 2008 Oct;30 Suppl 1:73-7

The pathogenesis of sepsis involves complex interaction between the host and the infecting microorganism. Bacterial recognition and signaling are essential functions of the cells of innate immune systems and drive a coordinated immune response. One of the more intriguing aspects of sepsis is the fact that the protective and damaging host response are part of the same process, that is, the inflammatory response that is aimed to control the infectious process also underscores many of the pathophysiological events of sepsis. The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in humans, and the early recognition of TLR-4 as the receptor that signals LPS bioactivity were major breakthroughs not only in the field of sepsis but also in immunology as a whole. In this article, we aimed to review TLR expression and signaling in the context of sepsis. The results obtained by our group show that TLR and other cellular surface receptors may be differently regulated on mononuclear cells and neutrophils, and that they are dynamically modulated across the stages of sepsis. Toll-like receptor signaling gene expression in mononuclear cells is decreased in more severe forms of the disease. In contrast, up-regulated genes are seen along the clinical spectrum of sepsis in neutrophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e318181af2aDOI Listing
October 2008

Flow cytometry of human primary epidermal and follicular keratinocytes.

Eplasty 2008 Feb 19;8:e14. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Cell Culture, Division of Plastic Surgery, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize using flow cytometry cultured human primary keratinocytes isolated from the epidermis and hair follicles by different methods.

Methods: Human keratinocytes derived from discarded fragments of total skin and scalp hair follicles from patients who underwent plastic surgery in the Plastic Surgery Division at UNIFESP were used. The epidermal keratinocytes were isolated by using 3 different methods: the standard method, upon exposure to trypsin for 30 minutes; the second, by treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes; and the third, by treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 30 minutes. Follicular keratinocytes were isolated using the standard method.

Results: On comparing the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 30 minutes, it was observed that the first group presented the largest number of viable cells, the smallest number of cells in late apoptosis and necrosis with statistical significance, and no difference in apoptosis. When we compared the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the group treated with trypsin, the first group presented the largest number of viable cells, the smallest number of cells in apoptosis with statistical significance, and no difference in late apoptosis and necrosis. When we compared the results of the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the results for follical isolation, there was a statistical difference in apoptosis and viable cells.

Conclusion: The isolation method of treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes produced the largest number of viable cells and the smallest number of cells in apoptosis/necrosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258552PMC
February 2008

Bacterial recognition and induced cell activation in sepsis.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2006 Jun;6(2):183-91

Immunology Laboratory, Division of Infectious Diseases, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, CEP 04039-032, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The pathogenesis of sepsis involves complex interaction between the host and the infecting microorganism. Recognition and processing of microorganism antigens are essential functions of the cells of innate immune systems, and will ultimately, through the antigen presentation to the cells of adaptive immunity and the synthesis and secretions of mediators, such as cytokines, drive a coordinated immune response. Neutrophils and monocytes will therefore function as sensing and effectors cells. Fundamental in this process is the ability to discriminate self from non-self molecules. Of major interest in sepsis is that the protective and damaging host responses are part of the same process, that is, the inflammatory response that controls the infection process also underscores many of the pathophysiological events of sepsis. Moreover, this is a dynamic process according to the continuum of sepsis and its complications; up and down regulation of cellular activities may be differently regulated in different tissues, different cells and even in different functions of the same cell. This review will focus on microorganism recognition and signalization in sepsis, with emphasis on the neutrophils and monocytes adaptation during the ongoing disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187153006777442350DOI Listing
June 2006

TLR2, TLR4, CD14, CD11B, and CD11C expressions on monocytes surface and cytokine production in patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.

Shock 2006 Apr;25(4):351-7

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Bacterial recognition and induced cellular activation are fundamental for the host control of infection, yet the limit between protective and harmful response is still inexact. Forty-one patients were enrolled in this study: 14 with sepsis, 12 with severe sepsis, and 15 with septic shock. Seventeen healthy volunteers (HV) were included as control. The expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD14, CD11b, and CD11c was analyzed on monocytes surface in whole blood. sCD14 was measured in serum, and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 cytokine levels were measured in PBMC supernatants after LPS, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha stimuli by ELISA. An increase in sCD14 and a decreased mCD14 were found in patients as compared with HV (P < 0.001). However, no differences in the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD11c were found among the groups. A trend toward differential expression of CD11b was observed, with higher values found in patients with sepsis as compared with HV. A negative regulation of the inflammatory cytokine production was observed in patients with severe sepsis and shock septic in relation to sepsis and HV, regardless of the stimulus. No significant difference in IL-10 production was found among the groups. In this study, we show that the inflammatory response is associated with the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis, with a strong inflammatory response in the early phase (sepsis) and a refractory picture in the late phases (severe sepsis and septic shock). Correlation between cell surface receptors and cytokine production after IL-1beta and TNF-alpha stimuli and the observation of a single and same standard response with the different stimulus suggest a pattern of immunology response that is not dependent only on the expression of the evaluated receptors and that is likely to have a regulation in the intracellular signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.shk.0000217815.57727.29DOI Listing
April 2006

Peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation induced by Leptospira interrogans glycolipoprotein.

Infect Immun 2002 Apr;70(4):1677-83

Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Leptospira interrogans glycolipoprotein (GLP) has been implicated in pathological and functional derangement seen in leptospirosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate GLP's ability to induce cellular activation, as assessed by cytokine production and expression of surface activation markers. GLP extracted from either pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc (GLPp) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy donors. Supernatant cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of CD69 and HLA-DR on lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding, were measured by flow cytometry. At 6 h of incubation, GLP induced a significant rise in tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, which dropped progressively until 72 h of incubation. Interleukin-10 peak levels were obtained at between 24 and 48 h, with sustained levels until 72 h of incubation. The response magnitude was proportional to the GLP dose. CD69 expression on T lymphocytes and monocytes increased significantly, as did HLA-DR expression on monocytes. GLPp induced no CD69 or HLA-DR expression. GLP did not block biotinylated LPS binding to monocytes, suggesting that different pathways are used to induce cell activation. In conclusion, GLP induces cellular activation and may play a major role in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC127819PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.4.1677-1683.2002DOI Listing
April 2002

Influence of EDTA and heparin on lipopolysaccharide binding and cell activation, evaluated at single-cell level in whole blood.

Cytometry 2002 Feb;50(1):14-8

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The use of whole blood (WB) in studying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular activation preserves the milieu in which LPS-cell interaction occurs in vivo. However, little information is available on using such a system at a single-cell level. We evaluated LPS binding and cell activation in WB by using flow cytometry. The influence of heparin or EDTA as anticoagulants was also addressed.

Methods: Blood was obtained from healthy donors in EDTA and/or heparin tubes. Biotinylated LPS (LPSb) was used to evaluate cell binding of LPS in WB. Cells were surface stained with appropriate antibodies and LPSb was detected by adding streptavidin-allophycocyanin (APC). LPS-induced activation was evaluated by the expression of surface activation markers and by the detection of intracellular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

Results: LPSb bound promptly to monocytes in EDTA- and heparin-treated blood. In EDTA-treated blood, membrane-bound LPSb decreased after 60 min of incubation, whereas it remained detectable in heparinized blood during the 6 h of incubation. LPS induced TNF-alpha and enhanced the expression of HLA-DR in monocytes, as well as the expression of CD69 in T and B lymphocytes. Induction of both TNF-alpha in monocytes and CD69 in lymphocytes was more efficient in heparinized blood.

Conclusion: Detection of membrane-bound LPSb on monocytes differed in EDTA or heparin-treated blood, and cell activation was better obtained in heparinized blood.
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February 2002