Publications by authors named "Michael J Larson"

116 Publications

Dissociating the effect of reward uncertainty and timing uncertainty on neural indices of reward prediction errors: A reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) study.

Biol Psychol 2021 May 29;163:108121. Epub 2021 May 29.

Brigham Young University, Department of Psychology, Provo, UT, USA; Brigham Young University, Neuroscience Center, Provo, UT, USA. Electronic address:

Accurate reward predictions include forecasting both what a reward will be and when a reward will occur. We tested how variations in the certainty of reward outcome and certainty in timing of feedback presentation modulate neural indices of reward prediction errors using the reward positivity (RewP) component of the scalp-recorded brain event-related potential (ERP). In a within-subjects design, seventy-three healthy individuals completed two versions of a cued doors task; one cued the probability of a reward outcome while the other cued the probability of a delay before feedback. Replicating previous results, RewP amplitude was larger for uncertain feedback compared to certain feedback. Additionally, RewP amplitude was differentially associated with uncertainty of presence/absence of reward, but not uncertainty of feedback timing. Findings suggest a dissociation in that RewP amplitude is modulated by reward prediction certainty but is less affected by certainty surrounding timing of feedback.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2021.108121DOI Listing
May 2021

The impact of exercise intensity on neurophysiological indices of food-related inhibitory control and cognitive control: A randomized crossover event-related potential (ERP) study.

Neuroimage 2021 May 18;237:118162. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, United States; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, United States.

Food-related inhibitory control, the ability to withhold a dominant response towards highly palatable foods, influences dietary decisions. Food-related inhibitory control abilities may increase following a bout of aerobic exercise; however, the impact of exercise intensity on both food-related inhibitory control and broader cognitive control processes is currently unclear. We used a high-powered, within-subjects, crossover design to test how relative intensity of aerobic exercise influenced behavioral (response time, accuracy) and neural (N2 and P3 components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential [ERP]) measures of food-related inhibitory and cognitive control. Two hundred and ten participants completed three separate conditions separated by approximately one week in randomized order: two exercise conditions (35% VO or 70% VO) and seated rest. Directly following exercise or rest, participants completed a food-based go/no-go task and a flanker task while electroencephalogram data were recorded. Linear mixed models showed generally faster response times (RT) and improved accuracy following 70% VO exercise compared to rest, but not 35% VO; RTs and accuracy did not differ between 35% VO exercise and rest conditions. N2 and P3 amplitudes were larger following 70% VO exercise for the food-based go/no-go task compared to rest and 35% VO exercise. There were no differences between exercise conditions for N2 amplitude during the flanker task; however, P3 amplitude was more positive following 70% VO compared to rest, but not 35% VO exercise. Biological sex did not moderate exercise outcomes. Results suggest improved and more efficient food-related recruitment of later inhibitory control and cognitive control processes following 70% VO exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118162DOI Listing
May 2021

The open access advantage for studies of human electrophysiology: Impact on citations and Altmetrics.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 Jun 24;164:103-111. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America.

Barriers to accessing scientific findings contribute to knowledge inequalities based on financial resources and decrease the transparency and rigor of scientific research. Recent initiatives aim to improve access to research as well as methodological rigor via transparency and openness. We sought to determine the impact of such initiatives on open access publishing in the sub-area of human electrophysiology and the impact of open access on the attention articles received in the scholarly literature and other outlets. Data for 35,144 articles across 967 journals from the last 20 years were examined. Approximately 35% of articles were open access, and the rate of publication of open-access articles increased over time. Open access articles showed 9 to 21% more PubMed and CrossRef citations and 39% more Altmetric mentions than closed access articles. Green open access articles (i.e., author archived) did not differ from non-green open access articles (i.e., publisher archived) with respect to citations and were related to higher Altmetric mentions. These findings demonstrate that open-access publishing is increasing in popularity in the sub-area of human electrophysiology and that open-access articles enjoy the "open access advantage" in citations similar to the larger scientific literature. The benefit of the open access advantage may motivate researchers to make their publications open access and pursue publication outlets that support it. In consideration of the direct connection between citations and journal impact factor, journal editors may improve the accessibility and impact of published articles by encouraging authors to self-archive manuscripts on preprint servers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.03.006DOI Listing
June 2021

A commentary on establishing norms for error-related brain activity during the arrow flanker task among young adults.

Neuroimage 2021 07 4;234:117932. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

We suggest that a large data set for the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-related brain potential (ERP) recently published as normative is not ready for such use in research and, especially, clinical application. Such efforts are challenged by an incomplete understanding of the functional significance of between-person differences in amplitudes and of nuisance factors that contribute to amplitude differences, a lack of standardization of methods, and the use of a convenience sample for the potentially normative database. To move ERPs toward standardization and useful norms, we encourage more research on the meaning of differences in ERN scores, including factors that influence between- and within-person variation, and the dissemination of protocols for data collection and processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117932DOI Listing
July 2021

Using generalizability theory and the ERP reliability analysis (ERA) toolbox for assessing test-retest reliability of ERP scores part 2: Application to food-based tasks and stimuli.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America.

If an ERP score is to reflect a trait-like characteristic or indicate if an intervention had an effect over time, adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability of that ERP score across multiple testing sessions must be established. The current paper is a companion paper to Clayson et al. (current issue) that applied generalizability theory formulas and the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox to assess test-retest and internal consistency in a dataset of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) assessing food-related cognition. Although ERPs in response to food cues have been related to eating behaviors or assessed during a health intervention, the reliability of food-related ERPs generally has not been tested. Within the generalizability theory framework, we assessed the stability (cf., test-retest reliability) and equivalence (cf., internal consistency) of four commonly used food-related ERPs: the late positive potential (LPP), centro-parietal P3, N2, and fronto-central P3. 132 participants (92 female) completed two testing sessions held two weeks apart. During the sessions, participants completed a passive food viewing task, a high-calorie go/no-go task, and a low-calorie go/no-go task in a counterbalanced fashion. Coefficients of equivalence for all ERPs were excellent (>0.96). Coefficients of stability were moderate-to-low, with N2 scores on the low-calorie go/no-go task showing the highest test-retest reliability (>0.65) and fronto-central P3 scores on the high-calorie go/no-go task showing the lowest (0.48). Results suggest the ERPs in the current dataset have high internal consistency and would be reliable in detecting individual differences, but their test-retest reliability is limited. Reliability of these ERPs may be improved with changes in task stimuli, task instructions, and study procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.02.015DOI Listing
February 2021

Cognitive control in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Proactive control adjustments or consistent performance?

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 19;298:113809. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, 244 TLRB, Provo, UT 84602, United States. Electronic address:

Cognitive control is often parsed into proactive and reactive control components. In proactive control, task- and goal-relevant information is utilized in a top-down manner to improve performance, while reactive control is a late-response corrective mechanism that occurs after conflict or errors. We tested whether people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would show specific proactive control dysfunction in 31 individuals with OCD and 30 psychiatrically-healthy controls. We employed two tasks that differentiate proactive and reactive cognitive control processes: the cued-Stroop and the AX version of a continuous performance task (AX-CPT). There was a 1s or 5s delay between the cue and probe for both tasks to allow for implementation of proactive control processes. Participants also completed a neuropsychological test battery and mood and symptom severity self-report questionnaires. Although there were group-level differences in OCD severity and depression/anxiety symptoms, there were no significant differences in response times (RT) and error rates between groups for delay or condition for the cued-Stroop or for the AX-CPT, indicating similar performance in implementing proactive control strategies. There were also no significant differences between OCD and control participants on neuropsychological test performance. Results suggest a convergence of evidence wherein individuals with OCD are not showing disproportionately altered proactive control abilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113809DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluating the internal consistency of subtraction-based and residualized difference scores: Considerations for psychometric reliability analyses of event-related potentials.

Psychophysiology 2021 Apr 21;58(4):e13762. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

In studies of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), difference scores between conditions in a task are frequently used to isolate neural activity for use as a dependent or independent variable. Adequate score reliability is a prerequisite for studies examining relationships between ERPs and external correlates, but there is no extensive treatment on the suitability of the various available approaches to estimating difference score reliability that focus on ERP research. In the present study, we provide formulas from classical test theory and generalizability theory for estimating the internal consistency of subtraction-based and residualized difference scores. These formulas are then applied to error-related negativity (ERN) and reward positivity (RewP) difference scores from the same sample of 117 participants. Analyses demonstrate that ERN difference scores can be reliable, which supports their use in studies of individual differences. However, RewP difference scores yielded poor reliability due to the high correlation between the constituent reward and non-reward ERPs. Findings emphasize that difference score reliability largely depends on the internal consistency of constituent scores and the correlation between those scores. Furthermore, generalizability theory yields more suitable estimates of internal consistency for subtraction-based difference scores than classical test theory. We conclude that ERP difference scores can show adequate reliability and be useful for isolating neural activity in studies of individual differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13762DOI Listing
April 2021

Using generalizability theory and the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox for assessing test-retest reliability of ERP scores part 1: Algorithms, framework, and implementation.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America.

The reliability of event-related brain potential (ERP) scores depends on study context and how those scores will be used, and reliability must be routinely evaluated. Many factors can influence ERP score reliability; generalizability (G) theory provides a multifaceted approach to estimating the internal consistency and temporal stability of scores that is well suited for ERPs. G theory's approach possesses a number of advantages over classical test theory that make it ideal for pinpointing sources of error in observed scores. The current primer outlines the G-theory approach to estimating internal consistency (coefficients of equivalence) and test-retest reliability (coefficients of stability). This approach is used to evaluate the reliability of ERP measurements. The primer outlines how to estimate reliability coefficients that consider the impact of the number of trials, events, occasions, and groups. The uses of two different G-theory reliability coefficients (i.e., generalizability and dependability) in ERP research are elaborated, and a dataset from the companion manuscript, which examines N2 amplitudes to Go/NoGo stimuli, is used as an example of the application of these coefficients to ERPs. The developed algorithms are implemented in the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, which is open-source software designed for estimating score reliability using G theory. The toolbox facilitates the application of G theory in an effort to simplify the study-by-study evaluation of ERP score reliability. The formulas provided in this primer should enable researchers to pinpoint the sources of measurement error in ERP scores from multiple recording sessions and subsequently plan studies that optimize score reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.01.006DOI Listing
January 2021

Does inhibitory control training reduce weight and caloric intake in adults with overweight and obesity? A pre-registered, randomized controlled event-related potential (ERP) study.

Behav Res Ther 2021 01 8;136:103784. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

A cognitive intervention that may reduce weight and caloric intake is inhibitory control training (ICT; having individuals repeatedly withhold dominant responses to unhealthy food images). We conducted a randomized controlled trial where 100 individuals with overweight or obesity were assigned to complete a generic (n = 48) or food-specific ICT (n = 52) training four times per week for four weeks. Weight and caloric intake were obtained at baseline, four-weeks, and 12-weeks. Participants also completed high-calorie and neutral go/no-go tasks while N2 event-related potential (ERP) data, a neural indicator of inhibitory control, was measured at all visits. Results from mixed model analyses indicate that neither weight, caloric intake, nor N2 ERP component amplitude towards high-calorie foods changed at post-testing or at the 12-week follow up. Regression analyses suggest that individuals with smaller N2 difference amplitudes to food may show greater weight loss and reductions in caloric intake after a generic ICT, while individuals with larger N2 difference amplitudes to food may show greater weight loss and reductions in caloric intake after a food-specific ICT. Overall, multiple food-specific or generic ICT sessions over the course of a four-week period do not affect overall weight loss, caloric intake, or N2 ERP amplitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103784DOI Listing
January 2021

To play or not to play? The relationship between active video game play and electrophysiological indices of food-related inhibitory control in adolescents.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Feb 19;53(3):876-894. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Sedentary behaviors, such as computer use and sedentary video games, are barriers to physical activity, contribute to overweight and obesity among adolescents, and can adversely affect eating behaviors. Active video games may increase daily physical activity levels among adolescents and improve food-related inhibitory control. We compared the effects of acute bouts of active and sedentary video gaming on event-related potential (ERP) indices of food-related inhibitory control, energy expenditure, and ad libitum eating. In a within-subjects design, 59 adolescent participants (49% female, M  = 13.29 ± 1.15) completed two separate counterbalanced, 60-min long video gaming sessions separated by seven days. Immediately after, participants completed two go/no-go tasks with high- and low-calorie images and N2 and P3 ERP amplitudes were measured. Participants also completed a Stroop task and were given high- and low-calorie snacks to consume ad libitum. Results indicated that active relative to sedentary video games significantly increased energy expenditure on multiple measures (e.g., METs, heart rate, kcals burned) and participants consumed more calories after the active compared to the sedentary video game session. N2 amplitudes were larger when participants inhibited to high- compared to low-calorie foods, suggesting that high-calorie foods necessitate increased the recruitment of inhibitory control resources; however, there were non-significant differences for the N2 or P3 amplitudes, accuracy or response times, and Stroop performance between active versus sedentary video game sessions. Overall, sixty minutes of active video gaming increased energy expenditure and food consumption but did not significantly alter neural or behavioral measures of inhibitory control to food stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15071DOI Listing
February 2021

The relationship between exercise intensity and neurophysiological responses to food stimuli in women: A randomized crossover event-related potential (ERP) study.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 12 1;158:349-361. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, United States of America. Electronic address:

We tested the effect of different intensities of acute exercise on hunger, and post-exercise energy intake, and neurophysiological measures of attention towards food- and non-food stimuli in women. In a within-subjects crossover design, forty-two women completed no exercise, moderate-intensity exercise, and vigorous-intensity exercise sessions separated by one week, in a counterbalanced fashion. At each session, participants completed a passive viewing task of food (high- and low-calorie) and non-food pictures while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. The early posterior negativity (EPN), P3, and late positive potential (LPP) components of the event-related potential (ERP) measured neurophysiological responses. Subjective ratings of hunger were measured before and immediately after each condition using a visual analog scale (VAS) and food intake was measured using an ad libitum snack buffet offered at the end of each condition. Results indicated that hunger levels increased as time passed for all sessions. EPN amplitude was larger to non-food compared to food images; P3 amplitude was larger to food than non-food stimuli. LPP amplitude did not differ by high-calorie, low-calorie, or non-food images. Notably, there were no significant main effects or interactions of any ERP component amplitude as a function of exercise intensity. Food intake also did not differ by rest or moderate or vigorous exercise, although subjective arousal ratings to the images were higher after moderate and vigorous exercise compared to rest. Food images also had higher arousal and valence ratings than non-food images overall. Findings indicate that, in this sample, acute moderate and vigorous exercise compared to rest did not disproportionately affect neurophysiological measures of attention to food or non-food stimuli, caloric intake, or hunger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.10.011DOI Listing
December 2020

Does type of active workstation matter? A randomized comparison of cognitive and typing performance between rest, cycling, and treadmill active workstations.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(8):e0237348. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America.

Active workstations are associated with improved health outcomes, but differences in cognitive and typing outcomes between the types of active workstations are unclear. We addressed two main questions: (1) Are there differences in cognitive and typing performance between seated and active workstations? (2) Are there differences in cognitive and typing performance between cycling and treadmill workstations, specifically? Participants included 137 healthy young adults (74 female, mean age = 20.8 years) who completed two sessions. At session one (baseline), all participants completed cognitive and typing tests including the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a typing test, and a flanker task while sitting at rest. At session two, participants were randomized to an active workstation group (treadmill or cycling desk) during which they performed the tests listed above in a randomized fashion, using alternate versions when available. Participants showed significantly better attention and cognitive control scores during the active session as compared to the seated session, but worse verbal memory scores during the active session. Participants were faster and more accurate at typing during the active session relative to the seated session. There were no significant differences between cycling or treadmill workstations on any cognitive or typing outcomes. Improvements during active sessions may be influenced by practice effects, although alternate forms were used when possible. We conclude that active workstations do not seem to largely impact cognitive abilities, with the exception of a slight decrease in verbal memory performance. Findings suggest active workstations, whether walking or cycling, are useful to improve physical activity, particularly when completing tasks that do not require verbal memory recall.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237348PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413476PMC
October 2020

The Association Between Experimentally Induced Stress, Performance Monitoring, and Response Inhibition: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Analysis.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 5;14:189. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States.

Psychological stress is increasingly associated with alterations in performance and affect. Yet, the relationship between experimentally induced psychological stress and neural indices of performance monitoring and error processing, as well as response inhibition, are unclear. Using scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), we tested the relationship between experimental stress, using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and the error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), and N2 ERP components. A final sample of 71 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to go through the TSST ( = 36; 18 female) or a brief mindfulness relaxation exercise ( = 35; 16 female) immediately followed by a go/no-go task while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure confirmed increased physiological stress in the TSST group relative to control. Reaction times, accuracy, and post-error slowing did not differ by stress group. Two-group (TSST, control) by 2-trial type (correct, incorrect for ERN/Pe; go correct, no-go correct for N2) repeated measures ANOVAs for the ERN, Pe, and N2 showed the expected main effects of trial type; neither the ERN nor the N2 ERP components showed interactions with the stress manipulation. In contrast, the Pe component showed a significant Group by Trial interaction, with reduced Pe amplitude following the stress condition relative to control. Pe amplitude did not, however, correlate with cortisol reactivity. Findings suggest a reduction in Pe amplitude following experimental stress that may be associated with reduced error awareness or attention to errors following the TSST. Given the variability in the extant literature on the relationship between experimentally induced stress and neurophysiological reflections of performance monitoring, we provide another point of data and conclude that better understanding of moderating variables is needed followed by high-powered replication studies to get at the nuance that is not yet understood in the relationship between induced stress and performance monitoring/response inhibition processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291882PMC
June 2020

Dimensions of anxiety and depression and neurophysiological indicators of error-monitoring: Relationship with delta and theta oscillatory power and error-related negativity amplitude.

Psychophysiology 2020 09 15;57(9):e13595. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Error-monitoring processes may be affected by transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology symptoms including trait anxiety, worry, and severity of depressive symptoms. We tested the relationship between continuous measures of anxiety and depressive symptomology and neural correlates of error-monitoring as measured by time-frequency domain delta and theta oscillatory power and time-domain error-related negativity (ERN) amplitude extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Secondary analyses tested for diagnostic group differences in error-related neural responses in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and comorbid psychiatric disorders. About 178 participants (104 female, M[SD]  = 21.7[4.6]) with a wide range of psychopathology symptoms completed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task and symptom questionnaires. Residualized difference values between correct and error trials for delta/theta power and error/correct ERN amplitude were used as dependent variables. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and task accuracy showed nonsignificant associations of symptom dimension measures with error-related residualized delta/theta power or residualized ERN amplitude. Subset analyses on those with confirmed psychopathology diagnoses also did not predict residualized error-related delta/theta power nor residualized ERN amplitude (n  = 14, n  = 28, n  = 19, n  = 85). Taken in the context of the previous literature, results suggest a heterogeneous relationship between depressive and anxiety symptom dimensions and neurophysiological indices of error-monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13595DOI Listing
September 2020

Performance of Seven Commercially Available Demineralized Bone Matrix Fiber and Putty Products in a Rat Posterolateral Fusion Model.

Front Surg 2020 20;7:10. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

SeaSpine Inc., Carlsbad, CA, United States.

Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a widely used bone graft in spinal fusion. Most commercial DBMs are composed of demineralized bone particles (~125-800 microns) suspended in a carrier that provides improved handling but dilutes the osteoinductive component. DBM fibers (DBF) provide improved osteoconductivity and do not require a carrier. It has been suggested that 100% DBF may offer improved performance over particulate-based DBMs with carrier. Seven commercially available DBM products were tested in an athymic rat posterolateral fusion model. There were four 100% DBFs, two DBFs containing a carrier, and one particulate-based DBM containing carrier. The study objectives were to evaluate the performance: (1) compare fusion rate and fusion maturity of six commercially available DBFs and one particulate-based DBM, and (2) assess the effect of carrier on fusion outcomes for DBFs in a posterolateral fusion model. The DBF/DBM products evaluated were: Strand Family, Propel® DBM Fibers, Vesuvius® Demineralized Fibers, Optium® DBM Putty, Grafton® DBF, Grafton Flex, and DBX® Putty. Single-level posterolateral fusion was performed in 69 athymic rats. Fusion was assessed bilaterally after 4 weeks by manual palpation, radiograph and CT for bridging bone. Fusion mass maturity was assessed with a CT maturity grading scale and by histology. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers Exact Test for categorical data and Kruskal-Wallis Test for non-parametric data. Strand Family achieved 100% fusion (18/18) by manual palpation, radiographic and CT evaluation, significantly higher than Propel Fibers, Vesuvius Fibers, Optium Putty, and DBX Putty, and not statistically higher than Grafton DBF and Grafton Flex. Strand Family provided the highest fusion maturity, with CT maturity grade of 2.3/3.0 and 89% mature fusion rate. Fusion results suggest a detrimental effect of carrier on fusion performance. There were large variations in fusion performance for seven commercially available DBM products in an established preclinical fusion model. There were even significant differences between different 100% DBF products, suggesting that composition alone does not guarantee performance. In the absence of definitive clinical evidence, surgeons should carefully consider available data in valid animal models when selecting demineralized allograft options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.00010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7099880PMC
March 2020

Day-of-Injury Computed Tomography and Longitudinal Rehabilitation Outcomes: A Comparison of the Marshall and Rotterdam Computed Tomography Scoring Methods.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020 09;99(9):821-829

From the Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah (KMF, JEF, RBF); Utah Valley Orthopedics and Sports Medicine and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Utah Valley Hospital, Provo, Utah (JEF); Raymond G. Murphy VA Medical Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico (RBF); Department of Neurology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (RBF); Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (ROH); Center for Humanizing Critical Care, Intermountain Healthcare, Murray, Utah (ROH); Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah (ROH, EDB, MJL); Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (EDB); Division of Trauma Services and Surgical Critical Care, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (SM, MS); Department of Emergency Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (JB); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (DR); Neurosurgery, Salt Lake Regional Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah (JM); Institute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, Utah (RB, SDH); University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (SDH); and Department of Radiology, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (DP).

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the relative predictive value of Marshall Classification System and Rotterdam scores on long-term rehabilitation outcomes. This study hypothesized that Rotterdam would outperform Marshall Classification System.

Design: The study used an observational cohort design with a consecutive sample of 88 participants (25 females, mean age = 42.0 [SD = 21.3]) with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury who were admitted to trauma service with subsequent transfer to the rehabilitation unit between February 2009 and July 2011 and who had clearly readable computed tomography scans. Twenty-three participants did not return for the 9-mo postdischarge follow-up. Day-of-injury computed tomography images were scored using both Marshall Classification System and Rotterdam criteria by two independent raters, blind to outcomes. Functional outcomes were measured by length of stay in rehabilitation and the cognitive and motor subscales of the Functional Independence Measure at rehabilitation discharge and 9-mo postdischarge follow-up.

Results: Neither Marshall Classification System nor Rotterdam scales as a whole significantly predicted Functional Independence Measure motor or cognitive outcomes at discharge or 9-mo follow-up. Both scales, however, predicted length of stay in rehabilitation. Specific Marshall scores (3 and 6) and Rotterdam scores (5 and 6) significantly predicted subacute outcomes such as Functional Independence Measure cognitive at discharge from rehabilitation and length of stay.

Conclusions: Marshall Classification System and Rotterdam scales may have limited utility in predicting long-term functional outcome, but specific Marshall and Rotterdam scores, primarily linked to increased severity and intracranial pressure, may predict subacute outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483635PMC
September 2020

A registered report of error-related negativity and reward positivity as biomarkers of depression: P-Curving the evidence.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 04 24;150:50-72. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America.

Performance-monitoring event-related brain potentials (ERPs), such as the error-related negativity (ERN) and reward positivity (RewP), are advocated as biomarkers of depression symptoms and risk. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated effect size heterogeneity in the ERN and RewP literatures. Hence, advocating these ERPs as biomarkers of depression might be premature or possibly misguided due to the selective reporting of significant analyses on the part of researchers (e.g., p-hacking or omission of non-significant findings). The present study quantified the degree of selective reporting and the evidential value for a true relationship between depression and ERN and RewP using a p-curve analysis. We predicted that the ERN and RewP literatures would fail to show evidential value for a relationship between each ERP and depression. Contrary to expectations, both literatures showed evidential value, albeit weak. The statistical power of the included ERN studies was between 20% and 25%, and the statistical power of the RewP was around 27%. Taken together, these findings provide support for a relationship between these ERPs and depression, which strengthens claims that these ERPs represent candidate biomarkers of depression symptoms and risk. In light of the evidence for these relationships being weak, some recommendations moving forward include conducting a priori power analyses, increasing sample sizes to improve statistical power, assessing the internal consistency of ERP scores, and carefully planning statistical approaches to maximize power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.01.005DOI Listing
April 2020

Differentiating electrophysiological indices of internal and external performance monitoring: Relationship with perfectionism and locus of control.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(10):e0219883. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, United States of America.

The impact of individual differences on performance monitoring and psychopathology is a question of active debate. Personality traits associated with psychopathology may be related to poor internal performance monitoring (as measured by the error-related negativity [ERN]) but intact external performance monitoring (as measured by the reward positivity [RewP]), suggesting that there are underlying neural differences between internal and external performance monitoring processes. We tested the relationships between individual difference measures of perfectionism, locus of control, and ERN, error-positivity (Pe), and RewP component difference amplitude in a healthy undergraduate sample. A total of 128 participants (69 female, M(SD)age = 20.6(2.0) years) completed two tasks: a modified version of the Eriksen Flanker and a doors gambling task along with the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale, the Rotter Locus of Control scale, and the Levenson Multidimensional Locus of Control scale to quantify perfectionism and locus of control traits, respectively. Linear regressions adjusting for age and gender showed that neither ΔERN nor ΔRewP amplitude were significantly moderated by perfectionism or locus of control scores. Findings suggest that, in psychiatrically-healthy individuals, there is not a strong link between perfectionism, locus of control, and ERN or RewP amplitude. Future research on individual difference measures in people with psychopathology may provide further insight into how these personality traits affect performance monitoring.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219883PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822767PMC
March 2020

Methodological reporting behavior, sample sizes, and statistical power in studies of event-related potentials: Barriers to reproducibility and replicability.

Psychophysiology 2019 11 19;56(11):e13437. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Methodological reporting guidelines for studies of ERPs were updated in Psychophysiology in 2014. These guidelines facilitate the communication of key methodological parameters (e.g., preprocessing steps). Failing to report key parameters represents a barrier to replication efforts, and difficulty with replicability increases in the presence of small sample sizes and low statistical power. We assessed whether guidelines are followed and estimated the average sample size and power in recent research. Reporting behavior, sample sizes, and statistical designs were coded for 150 randomly sampled articles from five high-impact journals that frequently published ERP research from 2011 to 2017. An average of 63% of guidelines were reported, and reporting behavior was similar across journals, suggesting that gaps in reporting is a shortcoming of the field rather than any specific journal. Publication of the guidelines article had no impact on reporting behavior, suggesting that editors and peer reviewers are not enforcing these recommendations. The average sample size per group was 21. Statistical power was conservatively estimated as .72-.98 for a large effect size, .35-.73 for a medium effect, and .10-.18 for a small effect. These findings indicate that failing to report key guidelines is ubiquitous and that ERP studies are primarily powered to detect large effects. Such low power and insufficient following of reporting guidelines represent substantial barriers to replication efforts. The methodological transparency and replicability of studies can be improved by the open sharing of processing code and experimental tasks and by a priori sample size calculations to ensure adequately powered studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13437DOI Listing
November 2019

The impact of recent and concurrent affective context on cognitive control: An ERP study of performance monitoring.

Int J Psychophysiol 2019 09 26;143:44-56. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States.

The impact of affective context on performance-monitoring aspects of cognitive control is not clear, and findings in the literature are contradictory. The contradictory findings might be due to failing to consider the impact of recent and concurrent affective contexts, participant ratings of emotional images, and the distinct impact of emotional arousal and valence. The present study utilized multilevel modeling (MLM) on person-specific ratings of arousal and valence to determine how recent and concurrent affective context uniquely impacts cognitive control and to determine the unique arousal and valence contributions. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 35 and 33 participants completed a recent and concurrent affective manipulation, respectively. The recent manipulation used a task wherein a flanker stimulus was preceded by emotional images, and the concurrent manipulation used a task wherein a flanker stimulus was overlaid on emotional images. Higher arousing images were related to larger error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) during the recent but not concurrent affective context manipulation. For valence, more pleasant images were related to attenuated ERN during the concurrent, but not recent, affective context manipulation. For Pe, amplitude decreased with more pleasant valence during the concurrent affective context manipulation, and increased with more pleasant ratings during the recent affective context manipulation. Taken together, recent and concurrent affective context demonstrated unique impacts on performance monitoring. These effects were dissociable along orthogonal dimensions of arousal and valence. The present study highlights the importance of considering arousal and valence in studies of affective context and cognitive control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.06.007DOI Listing
September 2019

Quantifying evidential value and selective reporting in recent and 10-year past psychophysiological literature: A pre-registered P-curve analysis.

Int J Psychophysiol 2019 08 10;142:33-49. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, United States of America; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, United States of America. Electronic address:

Selective reporting (i.e., only reporting significant findings as opposed to all analyses or results) is a questionable research practice that undermines the integrity of published research. Psychophysiology research may be susceptible to selective reporting, given the high number of decision points and methodological complexity in analyses of psychophysiology data. We aimed to assess the presence of selective reporting and evidential value (i.e., that significant results are due to true underlying effects) in recent and past psychophysiological research by utilizing p-curve analyses. Study protocols and methods were pre-registered on the Open Science Framework (OSF). P-values and the associated test statistics were extracted from articles in the most recent issue (as of January 2018) and 10-year previous counterpart issue of three major psychophysiology journals: Psychophysiology, International Journal of Psychophysiology, and Journal of Psychophysiology. Using the p-curve application, 10 primary p-curves were conducted: all recent articles, all past articles, recent articles split by journal, past articles split by journal, recent cognitive electrophysiology articles, and past cognitive electrophysiology articles. Evidential value and generally adequate average power (≥78% average power) were present in all p-curves, except those that only included articles from the Journal of Psychophysiology because of the small number of articles published in the journal. Findings provide some positive news and indicate that, generally, results were not selectively reported, and selective reporting may not be a primary issue for this sample of psychophysiological research. Future p-curve analyses examining sub-disciplines of psychophysiology are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.06.004DOI Listing
August 2019

Quantifying the presence of evidential value and selective reporting in food-related inhibitory control training: a -curve analysis.

Health Psychol Rev 2019 09 4;13(3):318-343. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

a Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University , Provo , UT , USA.

Meta-analyses suggest inhibitory control training (ICT) may be effective for reducing food intake. However, psychological research has come under scrutiny for lack of reliability. Selective reporting (only reporting significant results) is one factor contributing to the lack of reliability in published research. Therefore, estimates of food-related ICT effects may be inaccurate. We conducted -curve analyses to assess the presence of selective reporting, evidential value, average effect size, and power in the food-related ICT literature. Extracted -values were selected from articles included in food-related ICT meta-analyses and an updated literature search. Four -curve analyses resulted in 'U'-shaped distributions, suggesting evidence for both a true underlying effect and selective reporting in the food-related ICT literature. Robust analyses suggested the evidence for an underlying effect was primarily driven by the smallest -value. The average effect size from included studies was small ( = 0.04 to 0.25). Average power to detect this effect was also small (7% to 18%). Results suggest no clear support for or against a true effect for food-related ICT. Low average effect size and power across studies suggests estimated effects are likely inflated in published literature. Higher-powered, pre-registered, longitudinal food-related ICT studies are needed to test for the presence and magnitude of ICT effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1622144DOI Listing
September 2019

The utility of event-related potentials (ERPs) in understanding food-related cognition: A systematic review and recommendations.

Appetite 2018 09 19;128:58-78. Epub 2018 May 19.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, United States; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, United States.

Daily dietary decisions have the potential to impact our physical, mental, and emotional health. Event-related potentials (ERPs) can provide insight into cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and inhibitory control, that may influence the food-related decisions we make on a daily basis. We conducted a systematic review of the food-related cognition and ERP research in order to summarize the extant literature, identify future research questions, synthesize how food-related ERP components relate to eating habits and appetite, and demonstrate the utility of ERPs in examining food-related cognition. Forty-three articles were systematically extracted. In general, results indicated food cues compared to less palatable foods or neutral cues elicited greater ERP amplitudes reflecting early or late attention allocation (e.g., increased P2, P3, late positive potential amplitudes). Food cues were associated with increased frontocentral P3 and N2 ERP amplitudes compared to neutral or less palatable food cues, suggesting increased recruitment of inhibitory control and conflict monitoring resources. However, there was significant heterogeneity in the literature, as experimental tasks, stimuli, and examined ERP components varied widely across studies, and therefore replication studies are needed. In-depth research is also needed to establish how food-related ERPs differ by BMI groups and relate to real-world eating habits and appetite, in order to establish the ecological validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.05.135DOI Listing
September 2018

Reward sensitivity following boredom and cognitive effort: A high-powered neurophysiological investigation.

Neuropsychologia 2019 02 27;123:159-168. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Brigham Young University, United States.

What do people feel like doing after they have exerted cognitive effort or are bored? Here, we empirically test whether people are drawn to rewards (at the neural level) following cognitive effort and boredom. This elucidates the experiences and consequences of engaging in cognitive effort, and compares it to the consequences of experiencing boredom, an affective state with predicted similar motivational consequences. Event-related potentials were recorded after participants (N = 243) were randomized into one of three conditions - boredom (passively observing strings of numbers), cognitive effort (adding 3 to each digit of a four-digit number), or control. In the subsequent task, we focused on the feedback negativity (FN) to assess the brain's immediate response to the presence or absence of reward. Phenomenologically, participants in the boredom condition reported more fatigue than those in the cognitive effort condition, despite reporting exerting less effort. Results suggest participants in the boredom condition exhibited larger FN amplitude than participants in the control condition, while the cognitive effort condition was neither different from boredom nor control. The neural and methodological implications for ego depletion research, including issues of replicability, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.03.033DOI Listing
February 2019

Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998).

Perspect Psychol Sci 2018 03 21;13(2):268-294. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence ("professor") subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence ("soccer hooligans"). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%), but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multilab Registered Replication Report. A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, and 23 of these laboratories met all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic results for those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493), which tested whether performance on a 30-item general-knowledge trivia task differed between these two priming conditions (results of supplementary analyses of the data from all 40 labs, N = 6,454, are also reported). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with the "professor" category and those primed with the "hooligan" category (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691618755704DOI Listing
March 2018

A direct comparison between ERP and fMRI measurements of food-related inhibitory control: Implications for BMI status and dietary intake.

Neuroimage 2018 02 4;166:335-348. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

Obesity and maintaining a healthy diet have important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and obesity is inhibitory control. We tested how N2 and P3 amplitude, event-related potential (ERP) components that reflect inhibitory control, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity in brain regions associated with inhibitory control differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli across BMI status. We also assessed the relationship between neural indices of food-related inhibitory control and laboratory and daily food intake. Fifty-four individuals (17 normal-weight; 18 overweight; 19 individuals with obesity) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high- and one with low-calorie foods as no-go stimuli), once during ERP data acquisition and once during fMRI data acquisition. After testing, participants were presented with an ad libitum weighed food buffet. Participants also recorded their food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) system across four days. Individuals recruited more inhibitory control when withholding responses towards high-compared to low-calorie foods, although this effect was more consistent for N2 than P3 or fMRI assessments. BMI status did not influence food-related inhibitory control. A larger inhibitory response as measured by N2 amplitude was related to increased ASA24 food intake; P3 amplitude and fMRI region of interest activity did not predict ASA24 intake; neither method predicted food intake from the buffet. ERP and fMRI measurements show similar neural responses to food, although N2 amplitude may be somewhat more sensitive in detecting differences between food types and predicting self-reports of food intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.11.008DOI Listing
February 2018

Inter-trial Coherence of Medial Frontal Theta Oscillations Linked to Differential Feedback Processing in Youth and Young Adults with Autism.

Res Autism Spectr Disord 2017 May 17;37:1-10. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Yale Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine 230 South Frontage Rd., New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Background: Impairment in prediction and appreciation for choice outcomes could contribute to several core symptoms of ASD. We examined electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in 27 youth and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 22 IQ-matched neurotypical controls while they performed a chance-based reward prediction task.

Method: We re-analyzed our previously published ERP data (Larson et al., 2011) and examined theta band oscillations (4-8 Hz) at frontal midline sites, within a timing window that overlaps with the feedback-related negativity (FRN). We focused on event-related changes after presentation of feedback for reward (WIN) and punitive (LOSE) outcomes, both for spectral power and inter-trial phase coherence.

Results: In our reward prediction task, for both groups, medial frontal theta power and phase coherence were greater following LOSE compared to WIN feedback. However, compared to controls, inter-trial coherence of medial frontal theta was significantly lower overall (across both feedback types) for individuals with ASD. Our results indicate that while individuals with ASD are sensitive to the valence of reward feedback, comparable to their neurotypical peers, they have reduced synchronization of medial frontal theta activity during feedback processing.

Conclusions: This finding are consistent with previous studies showing neural variability in ASD and suggest that the processes underlying decision-making and reinforcement learning may be atypical and less efficient in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2017.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624320PMC
May 2017

Brain reactivity to visual food stimuli after moderate-intensity exercise in children.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Aug;12(4):1032-1041

Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill. During the sedentary session, participants sat continuously for 30 min. Neural responses to high- and low-calorie pictures of food were determined immediately following each condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging. There was a significant exercise condition*stimulus-type (high- vs. low-calorie pictures) interaction in the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe (p < 0.05). Main effects of exercise condition were observed in the left posterior central gyrus (reduced activation after exercise) (p < 0.05) and the right anterior insula (greater activation after exercise) (p < 0.05). The left hippocampus, right medial temporal lobe, left posterior central gyrus, and right anterior insula appear to be activated by visual food stimuli differently following an acute bout of exercise compared to a non-exercise sedentary session in 8-11 year-old children. Specifically, an acute bout of exercise results in greater activation to high-calorie and reduced activation to low-calorie pictures of food in both the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe. This study shows that response to external food cues can be altered by exercise and understanding this mechanism will inform the development of future interventions aimed at altering energy intake in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-017-9766-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858994PMC
August 2018

Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

Psychophysiology 2017 Jul 24;54(7):982-997. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12860DOI Listing
July 2017

Electrophysiological Endophenotypes and the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Family Study.

J Autism Dev Disord 2017 May;47(5):1436-1452

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, 244 TLRB, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

We examined the error-related negativity (ERN) as an endophenotype of ASD by comparing the ERN in families of ASD probands to control families. We hypothesized that ASD probands and families would display reduced-amplitude ERN relative to controls. Participants included 148 individuals within 39 families consisting of a mother, father, sibling, and proband. Robust ANOVAs revealed non-significant differences in ERN amplitude and behavioral performance among ASD probands relative to control youth. In subsequent multiple regression analyses group and kinship (proband, sibling, mother, father) did not significantly predict ΔERN (error minus correct ERN) or behavioral performance. Results do not provide evidence for the ERN as an endophenotype of ASD. Future research is needed to examine state- or trait-related factors influencing ERN amplitudes in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3066-8DOI Listing
May 2017