Publications by authors named "Michael DePietro"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Digital Health Technology in Asthma: A Comprehensive Scoping Review.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Woodland Clinic Medical Group, Allergy Department, Dignity Health, Woodland, Calif.

Background: A variety of digital intervention approaches have been investigated for asthma therapy during the past decade, with different levels of interactivity and personalization and a range of impacts on different outcome measurements.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of digital interventions in asthma with regard to acceptability and outcomes and evaluate the potential of digital initiatives for monitoring or treating patients with asthma.

Methods: We evaluated digital interventions using a scoping review methodology through a literature search and review. Of 871 articles identified, 121 were evaluated to explore intervention characteristics, the perception and acceptability of digital interventions to patients and physicians, and effects on asthma outcomes. Interventions were categorized by their level of interactivity with the patient.

Results: Interventions featuring non-individualized content sent to patients appeared capable of promoting improved adherence to inhaled corticosteroids, but with no identified improvement in asthma burden; and data-gathering interventions appeared to have little effect on adherence or asthma burden. Evidence of improvement in both adherence and patients' impairment due to asthma were seen only with interactive interventions involving two-way responsive patient communication. Digital interventions were generally positively perceived by patients and physicians. Implementation was considered feasible, with certain preferences for design and features important to drive use.

Conclusions: Digital health interventions show substantial promise for asthma disease monitoring and personalization of treatment. To be successful, future interventions will need to include both inhaler device and software elements, combining accurate measurement of clinical parameters with careful consideration of ease of use, personalization, and patient engagement aspects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.02.028DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Outcomes and Health-Care Resource Use Associated With Reslizumab Treatment in Adults With Severe Eosinophilic Asthma in Real-World Practice.

Chest 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

Background: Reslizumab, an anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, is indicated as add-on maintenance treatment for adults with severe eosinophilic asthma.

Research Question: What are the real-world outcomes associated with reslizumab use in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma in a US clinical practice?

Study Design And Methods: In this retrospective study, patient-level data from adults treated with reslizumab were obtained from center- and panel-based medical chart reviews. Eligible patients had available medical records and treatment history for ≥ 6 months before initiation of reslizumab treatment (index date) to ≥ 7 months after reslizumab initiation. The primary outcome was response to reslizumab treatment, based on clinical expert predefined definitions of response. Other outcomes included clinical asthma exacerbations (CAEs), use of maintenance oral corticosteroids (OCS), FEV percent predicted, Asthma Control Test (ACT) score, and health-care resource use (HRU).

Results: Medical charts were obtained for 215 patients. Most patients (58.6%) showed an excellent response, 16.3% showed a clinically meaningful response, 21.9% showed a partial response, and 3.3% were nonresponders or treatment failures. A significant reduction was observed in the proportion of patients experiencing a CAE in a 6-month period (from 86.0% to 40.5%; P < .001) and in the mean number of CAEs per patient (2.84 [SD, 2.41] vs 0.94 [SD, 1.86]) after reslizumab initiation. Improvements were observed in FEV percent predicted (65.1% [SD, 20.5%] vs 73.1% [SD, 23.1%]; P < .001) and in ACT scores (13.8 [SD, 4.2] vs 18.6 [SD, 4.0]; P < .001) before to after reslizumab initiation. Among patients using maintenance OCS at baseline, more than half discontinued use of these by approximately 10 months after reslizumab initiation. Significant reductions in asthma-related HRU were observed after reslizumab initiation.

Interpretation: In clinical practice, reslizumab may have been initiated in response to heavy symptom burden and CAEs. Reslizumab was associated with improved clinical and patient-reported outcomes and significant reductions in asthma-related HRU.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.11.060DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical and Economic Outcomes in Patients with Persistent Asthma Who Attain Healthcare Effectiveness and Data Information Set Measures.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Nov - Dec;8(10):3443-3454.e2. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Real World Insights, IQVIA, Cambridge, Mass.

Background: Attainment of asthma-specific US Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality measures may be associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced economic burden.

Objective: We examined the relationship between the attainment of HEDIS measures asthma medication ratio (AMR) and medication management for people with asthma (MMA) on clinical and economic outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective claims database analysis linked to ambulatory electronic medical records enrolled US patients aged ≥5 years with persistent asthma between May 2015 and April 2017. The attainment of AMR ≥0.5 and MMA ≥75% was determined over a 1-year premeasurement period. Asthma exacerbations and asthma-related health care costs were evaluated during the subsequent 12-month measurement period, comparing patients attaining 1 or both measures with those not attaining either.

Results: In total, 32,748 patients were included, 75.2% of whom attained AMR (n = 24,388) and/or MMA (n = 12,042) during the premeasurement period. Fewer attainers of 1 or more HEDIS measures had ≥1 asthma-related hospitalizations, emergency department visit, corticosteroid burst, or exacerbation (4.9% vs 7.3%; 9.6% vs 18.2%; 43.8% vs 51.6%; 14.3% vs 23.3%, respectively; all P < .001) compared with nonattainers. In adjusted analyses, HEDIS attainment was associated with a lower likelihood of exacerbations (odds ratio: 0.63, [95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.67]; P < .001). The attainment of ≥1 HEDIS measures lowered total and asthma-related costs, and asthma exacerbation-related health care costs per patient relative to nonattainers (cost ratio: 0.87, P < .001; 0.96, P = .02; and 0.59, P < .001, respectively). Overall and asthma-specific costs were lower for patients attaining AMR, but not MMA.

Conclusions: HEDIS attainment was associated with significantly improved asthma outcomes and lower asthma-specific costs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.06.012DOI Listing
June 2020

Metabolic and cardiorespiratory effects of decreasing lung hyperinflation with budesonide/formoterol in COPD: a randomized, double-crossover, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

Respir Res 2020 Jan 20;21(1):26. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: Studies suggest that acute decreases in lung hyperinflation at rest improves cardiac function and increases lung vascular perfusion from decompression of a compromised heart. In those studies, changes in resting oxygen uptake induced by medications, an alternative explanation for compensatory increased cardiac function, were not explored.

Methods: This double-blind, multicenter, double-crossover study enrolled adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, resting hyperinflation, and > 10% improvement in inspiratory capacity after 2 inhalations of budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg. Metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory function were measured 60 min pre-/post-dose at each visit. Primary endpoint was change in resting oxygen uptake for budesonide/formoterol versus placebo.

Results: Fifty-one patients (median age: 63 years) received treatment. Compared with placebo, budesonide/formoterol significantly increased resting oxygen uptake (mean change from baseline: 1.25 vs 11.37 mL/min; P = 0.007) as well as tidal volume and minute ventilation. This occurred despite improvements in the inspiratory capacity, forced vital capacity, and expiratory volume in 1 s. No significant treatment differences were seen for oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and resting dyspnea. There was a numerical increase in oxygen pulse (oxygen uptake/heart rate). Correlations between inspiratory capacity and oxygen pulse were weak.

Conclusions: Budesonide/formoterol treatment in resting hyperinflated patients with COPD results in significant deflation. The increase in oxygen uptake and minute ventilation at lower lung volumes, without changes in heart rate and with minimal improvement in oxygen pulse, suggests increased oxygen demand as a contributor to increased cardiac function.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02533505.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-1288-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6972029PMC
January 2020

Patient-reported outcomes of dual bronchodilator fixed-dose combination versus bronchodilator monotherapy in individuals with COPD.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 28;14:1377-1388. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, USA.

This study compared real-world patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), the London Chest Activities of Daily Living (LCADL) scale, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire between individuals with COPD initiating LAMA/LABA fixed-dose combination (FDC) dual therapy versus either long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) monotherapy. Individuals with COPD aged ≥40 years initiating a LAMA/LABA FDC dual therapy or a LAMA or LABA monotherapy (index date = first prescription date) between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016 were identified from a large US administrative claims database. Individuals were excluded if they were prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or ICS/LABA two months prior to the index date or were diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or asthma. The cohorts were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 for COPD severity using baseline measures. Each participant completed a survey. Surveys were completed by 399 participants in the dual therapy cohort, and 718 participants in the monotherapy cohort. Following PSM, 379 participants remained in each cohort for analysis (monotherapy: 369 LAMA and 10 LABA). The dual therapy cohort reported fewer COPD-related symptoms (CCQ symptom score 2.75 vs 2.97, respectively, =0.023), and, fewer limitations in leisure activities (LCADL leisure score 4.78 vs 5.17, respectively, =0.021) versus the monotherapy cohort. No significant differences were found in the WPAI. A greater percentage of participants in the dual therapy cohort stayed on index therapy (63.1%) when compared with the monotherapy cohort (30.3%, <0.0001). Only 30% of the participants prescribed monotherapy, usually with a LAMA, remained on index therapy alone at the time of survey administration. In the dual therapy cohort, 63% of the participants remained on the index medication and had fewer COPD-related symptoms and fewer limitations in leisure activities compared with participants in the monotherapy cohort.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S194856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612016PMC
February 2020

Advanced fabrication of biosensor on detection of Glypican-1 using S-Acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (SAMSA) modification of antibody.

Sci Rep 2018 09 10;8(1):13541. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Glypican-1 (GPC-1) has been recognized as biomarker of pancreatic cancer. Quantification of GPC-1 level is also pivotal to breast cancer and prostate cancer's patients. We hereby report the first biosensor for GPC-1 detection. Instead of using crosslinking technique and surface immobilization of antibody, we applied a novel method for biosensor fabrication, using S-Acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (SAMSA) to modify the Anti-GPC-1 producing a thiol-linked Anti-GPC-1. The thiol-linked Anti-GPC-1 was then directly formed a single-layer antibody layer on the gold biosensor, minimizing the biosensor preparation steps significantly. Time of Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) characterization verified the thiol-linked antibody layer and demonstrated a unique perspective for surface protein characterization. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was applied to quantify GPC-1 antigen in undiluted human serum with a concentration range of 5,000 pg/µL to 100 pg/µL. The performance of this newly designed biosensor was also compared with modified self-assembled monolayer system fabricated biosensor, demonstrating the high-sensitivity and high-reproducibility of the SAMSA modified antibody based biosensor. This simple fabrication method can also expand to detection of other biomolecules. The simplified operation process shows great potential in clinical application development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31994-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131508PMC
September 2018

Overlap of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients in the United States: Analysis of Prevalence, Features, and Subtypes.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018 Aug 20;4(3):e60. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Although asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are clinically distinct diseases, they represent biologically diverse and overlapping clinical entities and it has been observed that they often co-occur. Some research and theorizing suggest there is a common comorbid condition termed asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO). However, the existence of ACO is controversial.

Objective: The objective of this study is to describe patient characteristics and estimate prevalence, health care utilization, and costs of ACO using claims-based diagnoses confirmed with medical record information.

Methods: Eligible patients were commercial US health plan enrollees; ≥40 years; had asthma, COPD, or ACO; ≥3 prescription fills for asthma/COPD medications; and ≥2 spirometry tests. Records for a random sample of 5000 patients with ACO were reviewed to validate claims-based diagnoses.

Results: The estimated ACO prevalence was 6% (estimated 10,250/183,521) among 183,521 full study patients. In the claims-based cohorts, the comorbidity burden for ACO was greater versus asthma but similar to COPD cohorts. Medication utilization was higher in ACO versus asthma and COPD. Mean total health care costs were significantly higher for ACO versus asthma but similar to COPD. In confirmed diagnoses cohorts, mean total health care costs (medical plus pharmacy) were lower for ACO versus COPD but similar to asthma (US $20,035; P=.56). Among confirmed cases, where there was medical record evidence, smoking history was higher in ACO (300/343, 87.5%) versus asthma cohorts (100/181, 55.2%) but similar to COPD (68/84, 81%).

Conclusions: ACO had more comorbidities, medication utilization, and costs than patients with asthma or COPD but differences were not seen after confirmation with medical records.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.9930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121140PMC
August 2018

Inhaler usability of a pressurized metered dose inhaler and a soft mist inhaler in patients with COPD: A simulated-use study.

Chron Respir Dis 2019 Jan-Dec;16:1479972318787914. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

2 AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate task performance and handling errors with soft mist inhalers (SMIs) or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experienced with, but not recently trained in, using these devices. This exploratory, noninterventional, simulated-use study (D5970R00004) assessed handling/usability of SMIs and pMDIs in inhaler-experienced patients with COPD (40-78 years; diagnosis ≥6 months). Patients received a device and instruction-for-use leaflet but no training and were recorded while performing tasks required for checking the device, priming, and dosing. Errors that could substantially affect the lung-delivered dose were considered critical. Sixteen of 61 patients (52% male) had used SMIs and 55 had used pMDIs. Thirty-one patients received an SMI and 30 a pMDI. Overall, 79% made ≥5 performance errors (SMI 94%; pMDI 63%) and 49% made ≥5 critical errors (SMI 68%; pMDI 30%). All patients made ≥1 error; three (all pMDI) made no critical errors. Regardless of the device used and previous inhaler experience, patient-centered training, education, and continuous retraining on correct inhaler use should be key aspects of routine patient care in COPD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479972318787914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302969PMC
June 2020

Real-world outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease initiating long-acting mono bronchodilator therapy.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2018 Jan-Dec;12:1753466618772750

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA.

Background: Randomized clinical trials have shown long-acting mono bronchodilator therapy to be efficacious in improving lung function and dyspnea, while reducing exacerbations; however, less is known regarding the effectiveness in routine clinical practice. This study examined treatment patterns, rescue medication use, healthcare resource utilization and costs, and exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who initiated long-acting mono bronchodilator therapy in real-world settings.

Methods: This retrospective study used US claims data from adult patients with COPD initiating long-acting mono bronchodilator therapy between 1 January 2008 and 31 January 2015. Patients were required to have continuous health plan enrollment 12 months prior to (baseline period) and 12 months following therapy initiation (follow-up period). Outcomes, including treatment patterns, rescue medication use, exacerbations, and healthcare utilization and costs, were measured until the earliest of treatment augmentation or discontinuation, death, health plan disenrollment, or the end of the study period. Results were analyzed descriptively for all measures. Baseline and follow-up measures of all-cause and COPD-related healthcare costs and exacerbations [per patient per month (PPPM)] were compared using paired t tests.

Results: Among 27,394 patients with a mean follow up of 6.3 months, 18.2% augmented, 74.2% discontinued, and 7.6% continued long-acting mono bronchodilator therapy. Rescue medication use was prevalent during the follow-up period, with an average of 1.0 short-acting β agonist (SABA) fills/month and 0.8 short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA) fills/month, among patients with at least one fill for the medication of interest. PPPM mean number of exacerbations was more than triple (0.17 versus 0.05, p < 0.001) and PPPM exacerbation-related costs were more than double over the follow-up period compared with baseline ($1070 versus $485). COPD-related costs accounted for 50% of all-cause costs during the follow-up period and were significantly higher compared with baseline ($1206 versus $592, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Patients initiating long-acting mono bronchodilator therapy had high rates of medication discontinuation or augmentation. Patients used more rescue medications and experienced significantly more COPD exacerbations with higher healthcare costs compared with baseline. Further research is warranted to determine whether more aggressive initial therapy would result in symptom improvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753466618772750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5961922PMC
January 2019

Inhalation device options for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Postgrad Med 2018 Jan 5;130(1):83-97. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

b Inhalation Product Development , AstraZeneca LP , Durham , NC , USA.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, resulting from abnormalities in the airway and/or damage to the alveoli. Primary care physicians manage the healthcare of a large proportion of patients with COPD. In addition to determining the most appropriate medication regimen, which usually includes inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids, physicians are charged with optimizing inhalation device selection to facilitate effective drug delivery and patient adherence. The large variety of inhalation devices currently available present numerous challenges for physicians that include: (1) gaining knowledge of and proficiency with operating different device classes; (2) identifying the most appropriate inhalation device for the patient; and (3) providing the necessary education and training for patients on device use. This review provides an overview of the inhalation device types currently available in the United States for delivery of COPD medications, including information on their successful operation and respective advantages and disadvantages, factors to consider in matching a device to an individual patient, the need for device training for patients and physicians, and guidance for improving treatment adherence. Finally, the review will discuss established and novel tools and technology that may aid physicians in improving education and promoting better adherence to therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2018.1399042DOI Listing
January 2018

Assessment of Consistency of Fixed Airflow Obstruction Status during Budesonide/Formoterol Treatment and Its Effects on Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016 Jul-Aug;4(4):705-12. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Capital Allergy and Respiratory Disease Center, Sacramento, Calif.

Background: The consistency of fixed airflow limitation status during treatment in patients with asthma is unknown.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the consistency of fixed airflow obstruction (FAO) status during treatment and effects on treatment response.

Methods: This post hoc analysis from a 12-week study (NCT00652002) assessed patients aged 12 years or more with moderate-to-severe asthma randomized to twice-daily budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FM) via pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) 320/9 μg, BUD pMDI 320 μg, FM 9 μg via dry-powder inhaler, or placebo. FAO status was assessed postbronchodilator at screening and after study drug administration at weeks 2, 6, and 12 via the forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio < lower limit of normal (LLN) (FAO+) or ≥ LLN (FAO-). Patients with persistent FAO- and FAO+ retained their screening FAO status at all visits. Patients with inconsistent FAO changed categories at least once during the study. Assessments included early withdrawal due to predefined worsening asthma events (PAEs), lung function, and symptoms.

Results: Of 386 patients, 29% had persistent FAO+, 31% inconsistent FAO, and 40% persistent FAO-. PAEs were lowest in the FAO- group overall and with BUD/FM treatment in patients with FAO+ and inconsistent FAO. Baseline demographics and treatment responses of the inconsistent FAO group were most similar to the FAO+ group. The greatest improvements in asthma control days and use of rescue medications were seen with BUD/FM treatment, regardless of FAO status.

Conclusions: Approximately one third of patients with moderate-to-severe asthma in this study had inconsistent FAO, and their treatment responses were most similar to patients with FAO+. Regardless of FAO status, patients treated with BUD/FM experienced the most improved treatment responses and fewest withdrawals due to PAEs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2016.02.014DOI Listing
October 2017

Efficacy and safety of budesonide administered by pressurized metered-dose inhaler in children with asthma.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2015 Dec 13;115(6):516-22. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

T-STAT, LLC Statistical Consulting and Contracting, Downingtown, Pennsylvania.

Background: Budesonide is approved for delivery using a nebulized solution and dry-powder inhaler, but its use through a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) in pediatric patients with asthma has not been determined.

Objective: To examine the efficacy and safety of 160 μg twice daily of budesonide through a pMDI vs placebo in children 6 to younger than 12 years with asthma and a demonstrated need for inhaled corticosteroids.

Methods: A 6-week, international, multicenter, double-blinded, parallel-group, phase 2 study randomized 304 pediatric patients (mean age, 9 years; 21.7% <8 years) 1:1 to 160 μg (80 μg × 2 inhalations) twice daily of budesonide through a pMDI or placebo after a 7- to 21-day run-in period. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF); safety end points included adverse events, vital signs, and discontinuations.

Results: Budesonide treatment significantly improved morning PEF vs placebo; mean treatment effect (budesonide vs placebo) was 13.6 L/min (P < .0001). Budesonide also showed significant improvements vs placebo for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, evening PEF, forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of pulmonary volume, reliever medication use, nighttime awakenings, awakenings with reliever use, and percentage of patients with at least 15- and at least 30-L/min increase in morning PEF from baseline. The numbers of patients experiencing adverse events and discontinuations were smaller in the budesonide than in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: Budesonide at 160 μg twice daily through a pMDI was generally well tolerated and significantly improved lung function, symptoms, rescue medication use, and nighttime awakenings vs placebo in children 6 to younger than 12 years with asthma and a demonstrated need for inhaled corticosteroids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2015.09.007DOI Listing
December 2015