Publications by authors named "Mehrnaz Mesdaghi"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Autoimmune Manifestations among Patients with Monogenic Inborn Errors of Immunity.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are a group of heterogeneous disorders mainly characterized by severe and recurrent infections besides other complications including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we aim to evaluate clinical, immunological, and molecular data of monogenic IEI patients with and without autoimmune manifestations.

Methods: We have retrospectively screened cases of monogenic IEI in the Iranian PID registry for the occurrence of autoimmunity and immune dysregulation. A questionnaire was filled for all qualified patients with monogenic defects to evaluate demographic, laboratory, clinical, and molecular data.

Results: A total of 461 monogenic IEI patients (290 male and 171 female) with a median (IQR) age of 11.0 (6.0-20.0) years were enrolled in this study. Overall, 331 patients (72.1%) were born to consanguineous parents. At the time of the study, 330 individuals (75.7%) were alive and 106 (24.3%) were deceased. Autoimmunity was reported in 92 (20.0%) patients with a median (IQR) age at autoimmune diagnosis of 4.0 (2.0-7.0) years. Sixteen patients (3.5%) showed autoimmune complications (mostly autoimmune cytopenia) as the first presentation of the disease. Most of the patients with autoimmunity were diagnosed clinically with common variable immunodeficiency (42.4%). The frequency of sinusitis and splenomegaly was significantly higher in patients with autoimmunity than patients without autoimmunity. In patients with autoimmunity, the most common pathogenic variants were identified in LRBA (in 21 patients, 23.0%), ATM (in 13 patients, 14.0%), and BTK (in 9 patients, 10.0%) genes. In the evaluation of autoimmunity by different genes, 4 of 4 IL10RB (100%), 3 of 3 AIRE (100%), 21 of 30 LRBA (70.0%) mutated genes had the highest prevalence of autoimmunity.

Conclusions: Autoimmune phenomena are common features among patients with monogenic IEI and are associated with a more complicated course of the disease. Therefore, when encountering autoimmune disorders especially in the setting of dysgammaglobulinemia, it would be appropriate to conduct next generation sequencing (due to phenocopies of IEI genes) to discover responsible genes for the immune dysregulation at an early stage of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13510DOI Listing
March 2021

The Prevalence of Selective and Partial Immunoglobulin A Deficiency in Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy.

Immunol Invest 2021 Jan 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences , Karaj, Iran.

: Autoimmune disorders are reported as presenting signs in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. Herein, we aim to evaluate serum IgA among patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy. : Patients with two or more autoimmune endocrinopathies were selected and the serum IgA levels were measured. Patients with an isolated low serum IgA (<7 mg/dL) after exclusion of other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were considered as selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD), while partial IgA deficiency (PIgAD) was defined as IgA levels below lower limits of IgA normal range for age but higher than 7 mg/dL. : Fifty-three patients (19 [35.8%] male and 34 [64.2%] female) with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy enrolled in the study. Parental consanguinity and positive family history of autoimmunity were reported in 38.0% and 52.9% of patients, respectively. Overall, IgA deficiency was observed in 5 (9.4%) patients including PIgAD in 3 (5.7%) and SIgAD in 2 (3.8%) patients. Among IgA deficient patients, the first autoimmune disorder was developed at earlier ages ( = .002), and the prevalence of infection ( = .002), lymphoproliferation ( = .021), and overlap between insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis ( = .032) were significantly higher than patients with normal IgA. Also, the number of autoimmune comorbidities was closely correlated with the occurrence of IgA deficiency ( = .008). : The prevalence of IgA deficiency in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy is higher than that in the general population. In these patients, immunologic workup may lead to early diagnosis of inborn error of immunity, which can positively impact the evolution of complications and even management of the autoimmune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1872615DOI Listing
January 2021

Monogenic Primary Immunodeficiency Disorder Associated with Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Autoimmunity.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2020 2;181(9):706-714. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran,

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency disorder mainly characterized by recurrent bacterial infections besides other immunological defects including loss of or dysfunction of B cells and decreased immunoglobulin levels. In this study, our aim is to evaluate clinical, immunological, and molecular data of patients with a primary clinical diagnosis of CVID and autoimmune phenotype with a confirmed genetic diagnosis.

Methods: Among 297 patients with CVID, who were registered in the Iranian Primary Immunodeficiency Registry at Children's Medical Center Hospital in Iran, 83 patients have been genetically examined and 27 patients with autoimmunity and confirmed genetic mutations were selected for analysis. Whole-exome sequencing and confirmatory Sanger sequencing methods were used for the study population. A questionnaire was retrospectively filled for all patients to evaluate demographic, laboratory, clinical, and genetic data.

Results: In the 27 studied patients, 11 different genetic defects were identified, and the most common mutated gene was LRBA, reported in 17 (63.0%) patients. Two patients (7.7%) showed autoimmune complications as the first presentation of immunodeficiency. Eleven patients (40.7%) developed one type of autoimmunity, and 16 patients (59.3%) progressed to poly-autoimmunity. Most of the patients with mono-autoimmunity (n = 9, 90.0%) primarily developed infectious complications, while in patients with poly-autoimmunity, the most common first presentation was enteropathy (n = 6, 37.6%). In 13 patients (61.9%), the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders preceded the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency. The most frequent autoimmune manifestations were hematologic (40.7%), gastrointestinal (48.1%), rheumatologic (25.9%), and dermatologic (22.2%) disorders. Patients with poly-autoimmunity had lower regulatory T cells than patients with mono-autoimmunity.

Conclusion: In our cohort, the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders preceded the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency in most patients. This association highlights the fact that patients referring with autoimmune manifestations should be evaluated for humoral immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508817DOI Listing
February 2021

Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD): Clinical and Genetic Features of 32 Iranian Patients.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 30;40(6):872-882. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare congenital condition characterized by a selective predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria and other types of intra-macrophagic pathogens. The 16 genes associated with MSMD display a considerable level of allelic heterogeneity, accounting for 31 distinct disorders with variable clinical presentations and prognosis. Most of MSMD deficiencies are isolated, referred to as selective susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. However, other deficiencies are syndromic MSMD, defined by the combination of the mycobacterial infection with another, equally common, infectious, specific phenotypes. Herein, we described a series of 32 Iranian MSMD cases identified with seven distinct types of molecular defects, all of which are involved in the interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity, including interleukin IL-12 receptor-β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency (fifteen cases), IL-12p40 deficiency (ten cases), and IL-23R deficiency (three cases), as well as IFNγ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) deficiency, IFNγ receptor 2 (IFNγR2) deficiency, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deficiency, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency each in one case. Since the first report of two MSMD patients in our center, we identified 30 other affected patients with similar clinical manifestations. As the number of reported Iranian cases with MSMD diagnosis has increased in recent years and according to the national vaccination protocol, all Iranian newborns receive BCG vaccination at birth, early diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention which are required for a better outcome and also prevention of similar birth defects. Therefore, we investigated the clinical and molecular features of these 32 patients. The current report also defined novel classes of pathological mutations, further expanding our knowledge of the MSMD molecular basis and associated clinical manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00813-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Identifying Novel Mutations in Iranian Patients with LPS-responsive Beige-like Anchor Protein (LRBA) Deficiency.

Immunol Invest 2020 Jun 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Immunology and Allergy Department, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science , Tehran, Iran.

LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a monogenic primary immunodeficiency characterized by a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with immune dysregulation. In this study, we reported clinical, immunologic, and genetic evaluation of two Iranian patients from unrelated families, both suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections, failure to thrive, interstitial lung disease, autoimmune cytopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Pulmonary abscess in one patient and persistent enteropathy in another were also observed. Further investigations revealed causative mutations in the exon (c.2166_2766del) and intron (c.4730-3 T > G) of the gene. These results may provide further elucidation of the clinical phenotypes and responsible genetic factors of LRBA deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1770784DOI Listing
June 2020

Rapid Desensitization for Hypersensitivity Reactions to Chemotherapeutic Drugs; A Case Series.

Iran J Pharm Res 2019 ;18(2):1047-1051

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Usage of cancer chemotherapeutics drugs can be associated with adverse drug reactions. When IgE-mediated drug reactions are formed following administration of a chemotherapeutics drug that is a drug of choice, drug desensitization protocols can be helpful. HSR can be allergic or nonallergic, but the clinical manifestations are similar. RDD is effective when used appropriately, however it is often over utilized instead of performing a drug challenge. RDD is both an acceptable approach and a high-risk treatment modality in patients, in whom the offending agent is the first choice in chemotherapy. The safety of this modality has been acceptable in large studies. The side effects are often less frequent and less severe by repeating the protocol. We present 4 cases of successful desensitization in cancer patients, who have developed IgE- mediated reactions to their major chemotherapy drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.1999.1100664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706720PMC
January 2019

Fourth Update on the Iranian National Registry of Primary Immunodeficiencies: Integration of Molecular Diagnosis.

J Clin Immunol 2018 10 9;38(7):816-832. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The number of inherited diseases and the spectrum of clinical manifestations of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are ever-expanding. Molecular diagnosis using genomic approaches should be performed for all PID patients since it provides a resource to improve the management and to estimate the prognosis of patients with these rare immune disorders.

Method: The current update of Iranian PID registry (IPIDR) contains the clinical phenotype of newly registered patients during last 5 years (2013-2018) and the result of molecular diagnosis in patients enrolled for targeted and next-generation sequencing.

Results: Considering the newly diagnosed patients (n = 1395), the total number of registered PID patients reached 3056 (1852 male and 1204 female) from 31 medical centers. The predominantly antibody deficiency was the most common subcategory of PID (29.5%). The putative causative genetic defect was identified in 1014 patients (33.1%) and an autosomal recessive pattern was found in 79.3% of these patients. Among the genetically different categories of PID patients, the diagnostic rate was highest in defects in immune dysregulation and lowest in predominantly antibody deficiencies and mutations in the MEFV gene were the most frequent genetic disorder in our cohort.

Conclusions: During a 20-year registration of Iranian PID patients, significant changes have been observed by increasing the awareness of the medical community, national PID network establishment, improving therapeutic facilities, and recently by inclusion of the molecular diagnosis. The current collective study of PID phenotypes and genotypes provides a major source for ethnic surveillance, newborn screening, and genetic consultation for prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-018-0556-1DOI Listing
October 2018

Comparison of Common Monogenic Defects in a Large Predominantly Antibody Deficiency Cohort.

Authors:
Reza Yazdani Hassan Abolhassani Fatemeh Kiaee Sima Habibi Gholamreza Azizi Marzieh Tavakol Zahra Chavoshzadeh Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani Tooba Momen Mohammad Gharagozlou Masoud Movahedi Amir Ali Hamidieh Nasrin Behniafard Mohammamd Nabavi Mohammad Hassan Bemanian Saba Arshi Rasol Molatefi Roya Sherkat Afshin Shirkani Reza Amin Soheila Aleyasin Reza Faridhosseini Farahzad Jabbari-Azad Iraj Mohammadzadeh Javad Ghaffari Alireza Shafiei Arash Kalantari Mahboubeh Mansouri Mehrnaz Mesdaghi Delara Babaie Hamid Ahanchian Maryam Khoshkhui Habib Soheili Mohammad Hossein Eslamian Taher Cheraghi Abbas Dabbaghzadeh Mahmoud Tavassoli Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi Seyed Hamidreza Mortazavi Sara Kashef Hossein Esmaeilzadeh Javad Tafaroji Abbas Khalili Fariborz Zandieh Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shabestari Sepideh Darougar Fatemeh Behmanesh Hedayat Akbari Mohammadreza Zandkarimi Farhad Abolnezhadian Abbas Fayezi Mojgan Moghtaderi Akefeh Ahmadiafshar Behzad Shakerian Vahid Sajedi Behrang Taghvaei Mojgan Safari Marzieh Heidarzadeh Babak Ghalebaghi Seyed Mohammad Fathi Behzad Darabi Saeed Bazregari Nasrin Bazargan Morteza Fallahpour Alireza Khayatzadeh Naser Javahertrash Bahram Bashardoust Mohammadali Zamani Azam Mohsenzadeh Sarehsadat Ebrahimi Samin Sharafian Ahmad Vosughimotlagh Mitra Tafakoridelbari Maziar Rahim Parisa Ashournia Anahita Razaghian Arezou Rezaei Ashraf Samavat Setareh Mamishi Hossein Ali Khazaei Javad Mohammadi Babak Negahdari Nima Parvaneh Nima Rezaei Vassilios Lougaris Silvia Giliani Alessandro Plebani Hans D Ochs Lennart Hammarström Asghar Aghamohammadi

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 03 19;7(3):864-878.e9. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian Primary Immunodeficiencies Network (IPIN), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most common primary immunodeficiencies, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and inability to generate effective antibody responses.

Objective: We intended to report most common monogenic PADs and to investigate how patients with PAD who were primarily diagnosed as suffering from agammaglobulinemia, hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome, and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have different clinical and immunological findings.

Methods: Stepwise next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed for confirmation of the mutations in the patients clinically diagnosed as suffering from agammaglobulinemia, HIgM syndrome, and CVID.

Results: Among 550 registered patients, the predominant genetic defects associated with agammaglobulinemia (48 Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and 6 μ heavy chain deficiencies), HIgM syndrome (21 CD40 ligand and 7 activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiencies), and CVID (17 lipopolysaccharides-responsive beige-like anchor deficiency and 12 atypical Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, and Facial dysmorphism syndromes) were identified. Clinical disease severity was significantly higher in patients with μ heavy chain and CD40 ligand mutations compared with patients with BTK (P = .003) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (P = .009) mutations. Paralysis following live polio vaccination was considerably higher in patients with μ heavy chain deficiency compared with BTK deficiency (P < .001). We found a genotype-phenotype correlation among patients with BTK mutations regarding clinical manifestation of meningitis and chronic diarrhea. Surprisingly, we noticed that first presentations in most patients with Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, and Facial dysmorphism were respiratory complications (P = .008), whereas first presentations in patients with lipopolysaccharides-responsive beige-like anchor deficiency were nonrespiratory complications (P = .008).

Conclusions: This study highlights similarities and differences in the clinical and genetic spectrum of the most common PAD-associated gene defects. This comprehensive comparison will facilitate clinical decision making, and improve prognosis and targeted treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.09.004DOI Listing
March 2019

A Variety of Alu-Mediated Copy Number Variations Can Underlie IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2018 07 11;38(5):617-627. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France.

Purpose: Inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Autosomal recessive complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is the most frequent genetic etiology of MSMD. Only two of the 84 known mutations are copy number variations (CNVs), identified in two of the 213 IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients and two of the 164 kindreds reported. These two CNVs are large deletions found in the heterozygous or homozygous state. We searched for novel families with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency due to CNVs.

Methods: We studied six MSMD patients from five unrelated kindreds displaying adverse reactions to BCG vaccination. Three of the patients also presented systemic salmonellosis, two had mucocutaneous candidiasis, and one had disseminated histoplasmosis. We searched for CNVs and other variations by IL12RB1-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Results: We identified six new IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients with a complete loss of IL-12Rβ1 expression on phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells and/or EBV-transformed B cells. The cells of these patients did not respond to IL-12 and IL-23. Five different CNVs encompassing IL12RB1 (four deletions and one duplication) were identified in these patients by NGS coverage analysis, either in the homozygous state (n = 1) or in trans (n = 4) with a single-nucleotide variation (n = 3) or a small indel (n = 1). Seven of the nine mutations are novel. Interestingly, four of the five CNVs were predicted to be driven by nearby Alu elements, as well as the two previously reported large deletions. The IL12RB1 locus is actually enriched in Alu elements (44.7%), when compared with the rest of the genome (10.5%).

Conclusion: The IL12RB1 locus is Alu-enriched and therefore prone to rearrangements at various positions. CNVs should be considered in the genetic diagnosis of IL-12Rβ1 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-018-0527-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329663PMC
July 2018

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: A Case Series and Review from a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Apr;17(2):201-207

Pediatric Infectious Research Center, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Allergy and Immunology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) is a life-threatening condition leading to early infant death as a result of severe infection, due to impaired cellular and humoral immune systems. Various forms of SCID are classified based on the presence or absence of T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. Patients usually present with recurrent infections and failure to thrive. Definitive treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To achieve the best outcome, it should be performed prior to the development of severe infection. In This study, we described 10 patients (6 male and 4 female) with SCID who were admitted to Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2013. We reviewed patients' clinical manifestation, laboratory data, family history and outcome. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 131.8 days. One patient had non-consanguineous parents. Seven patients received BCG vaccine before the diagnosis of SCID, three of them showed disseminated BCG infection. One patient presented with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed T⁻B⁺NK⁻ in three patients, T⁻B⁻NK⁺ in five patients, T⁻B⁻NK⁻ in one patient, and T⁻B⁺NK⁺ in one patient. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and patient referral before the occurrence of serious infection.
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April 2018

Is the Atopy Patch Test Reliable in the Evaluation of Food Allergy-Related Atopic Dermatitis?

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 13;175(1-2):85-90. Epub 2018 Jan 13.

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Mofid Children Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Aeroallergens and food allergens are found to be relevant in atopic dermatitis. The atopy patch test (APT) can help to detect food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis. This study evaluates if the APT is a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of children with food allergy-related atopic dermatitis.

Methods: 42 children between 6 months and 12 years of age were selected at the Mofid Children Hospital. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed, and the severity of the disease was determined. At the test visit, the patients underwent a skin prick test (SPT), APT, and serum IgE level measurement for cow's milk, egg yolk, egg white, wheat, and soy.

Results: We found a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 72.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80%, and an accuracy of 85.7% for APT performed for cow's milk. APT performed for egg yolk had a sensitivity and a NPV of 100%, while the same parameters obtained with egg white were 84.2 and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of the APT for wheat were 100, 75, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity, PPV, and NPV of the APT for soy were 87.5, 70, and 87.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the APT is a reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate suspected food allergy-related skin symptoms in childhood and infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485126DOI Listing
April 2018

Targeted Gene Panel Sequencing for Early-onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Chronic Diarrhea.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017 12;23(12):2109-2120

1Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany; 2Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), DZIF Satellite Center, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Germany; 3Paediatric Gastroenterology, Klinikum Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany; 4Laboratory of Applied Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of Abou-Bekr Belkaïd, Tlemcen, Algeria; 5Department of Pediatrics, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Clinic of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom; 8Department of Paediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 9Department of Immunology, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 10Primary Immunodeficiencies Unit, Hospital Dona Estefania, Pediatric University Hospital, and CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Center, NOVA Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal; 11Department of Pediatric Gasteroentrology and Hepatology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 12Helios Kliniken, Childrens Hospital, Krefeld, Germany; 13Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 14Paediatric Gastroenterology/Hepatology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 15Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 16Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 17Department of Medicine II, University Hospital and Medical Faculty, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 18Department of Paediatrics, Centre for Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Immunodeficiencies, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Commenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia; 19Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 20Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 21Pediatric Immunology Division, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Bursa, Turkey; 22Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Munich, Germany; 23Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; 24Center for Pediatrics, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; 25Department of Paediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 26Department of Immunology, Mofid Children Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 27Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St. George's Healthcare NHS Trust and University of London, London, United Kingdom; 28Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 29Service of Clinical Laboratory, Division of Immunology, San Pedro De Alcántara Hospital, Cáceres, Spain; 30Bone Marrow Failure Group, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Freiburg, Germany; 31Children's Hospital, University of Bonn, Germany; 32University College London Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom; 33Department of Paediatrics, St. George's Hospital, University of London, London, United Kingdom; 34Department of Pediatrics, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; 35Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Department of Immunology, Charité University Medicine Labor Berlin Charité Vivantes GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 36Department of Medicine I, University Medical Center Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 37Center for Regenerative Therapies, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; and 38Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Brandenburg Hospital, Brandenburg Medical School, Brandenburg/Havel, Germany.

Background: In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients.

Methods: We selected 28 genes of interest associated with monogenic IBD and performed targeted panel sequencing in 71 patients diagnosed with eoIBD or early-onset chronic diarrhea to detect causative variants. We compared these results to whole-exome sequencing (WES) data available for 25 of these patients.

Results: Target coverage was significantly higher in the targeted gene panel approach compared with WES, whereas the cost of the panel was considerably lower (approximately 25% of WES). Disease-causing variants affecting protein function were identified in 5 patients (7%), located in genes of the IL10 signaling pathway (3), WAS (1), and DKC1 (1). The functional effects of 8 candidate variants in 5 additional patients (7%) are under further investigation. WES did not identify additional causative mutations in 25 patients.

Conclusions: Targeted gene panel sequencing is a fast and effective screening method for monogenic causes of eoIBD that should be routinely established in national referral centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000001235DOI Listing
December 2017

Clinical, immunologic, and genetic spectrum of 696 patients with combined immunodeficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 04 12;141(4):1450-1458. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran, and the University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Network (PIDNet), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) are diseases of defective adaptive immunity with diverse clinical phenotypes. Although CIDs are more prevalent in the Middle East than Western countries, the resources for genetic diagnosis are limited.

Objectives: This study aims to characterize the categories of patients with CIDs in Iran clinically and genetically.

Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 696 patients with CIDs. Patients were subdivided into those with syndromic (344 patients) and nonsyndromic (352 patients) CIDs. Targeted DNA sequencing was performed on 243 (34.9%) patients.

Results: The overall diagnostic yield of the 243 sequenced patients was 77.8% (189 patients). The clinical diagnosis of hyper-IgE syndrome (P < .001), onset of disease at greater than 5 years (P = .02), and absence of multiple affected family members (P = .04) were significantly more frequent in the patients without a genetic diagnosis. An autosomal recessive disease was found in 62.9% of patients, reflecting the high rate of consanguinity in this cohort. Mutations impairing VDJ recombination and DNA repair were the most common underlying causes of CIDs. However, in patients with syndromic CIDs, autosomal recessive mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), autosomal dominant mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and microdeletions in 22q11.21 were the most commonly affected genomic loci. Patients with syndromic CIDs had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate rather than those with nonsyndromic CIDs.

Conclusions: This study provides proof of principle for the application of targeted next-generation sequencing panels in countries with limited diagnostic resources. The effect of genetic diagnosis on clinical care requires continued improvements in therapeutic resources for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.06.049DOI Listing
April 2018

HLA-B*1502 in Iranian Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs-Induced Skin Reactions.

Iran J Child Neurol 2017 ;11(2):26-30

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Anticonvulsant drugs can cause various forms of skin drug reactions, ranging from exanthema to severe blistering reactions. An association between HLA-B*1502 allele and severe skin reactions have been reported.

Materials & Methods: Fifteen patients with severe skin reactions following treatment with anticonvulsant drugs (Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, primidone) and 15 controls (age-matched epileptic patients taking similar anticonvulsants without drug eruption) were included. They were referred to Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between Jan 2012 to Jan 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of all patients and HLA- B*1502 genotype was detected by real-time PCR.

Results: None of the patients was positive for HLA- B*1502, but two patients in control group had positive HLA- B*1502.

Conclusion: The HLA- B*1502 is not correlated with severe anticonvulsant drugs -induced skin reactions in Iranian children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493826PMC
January 2017

A gain-of-function mutation of STAT1: A novel genetic factor contributing to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2017 Jun 9;64(2):191-201. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

1 Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have increasingly been identified as a genetic cause of autosomal-dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In this article, we describe a 33-year-old man who experienced chronic refractory candidiasis, recurrent otitis media, and pneumonia resulting in bronchiectasis, severe oral and esophageal candidiases with strictures associated with hypothyroidism and immune hemolytic anemia. His son also suffered from persistent candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, poor weight gain, and pneumonia that resulted in his demise because of sepsis. The immunological workup showed that an inverse CD4/CD8 ratio and serum immunoglobulins were all within normal ranges. The laboratory data revealed failure in response to Candida lymphocyte transformation test. In addition, by Sanger sequencing method, we found a heterozygous mutation, Thr385Met (T385M), located in the DNA-binding domain of STAT1, which was previously shown to be GOF. These findings illustrate the broad and variable clinical phenotype of heterozygous STAT1 GOF mutations. However, more clinical information and phenotype-genotype studies are required to define the clinical phenotype caused by AD STAT1 GOF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/030.64.2017.014DOI Listing
June 2017

Cow's Milk Desensitization in Anaphylactic Patients: A New Personalized-dose Method.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 Feb;16(1):45-52

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequent food allergy in children and oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising approach for treatment of patients. The most challenging cases are anaphylactic with coexisting asthma and proposing safe protocols is crucial especially in high risk groups. Considering that CMA varies among patients, an individualized OIT protocol would be beneficial to achieve a safer and more efficient method of desensitization. 18 children more than 3 years of age with IgE-mediated CMA were enrolled. CMA was confirmed by positive skin prick test (SPT) and positive oral food challenge (OFC) and 60% of individuals had a convincing history of persistent asthma. SPT with milk extracts, whole fresh milk and serially diluted milk concentrations were performed.  The dilution of milk that induced 3-5 mm of wheal in each individual was selected as the starting dilution for OIT. Desensitization began by 1 drop of the defined dilution and continued increasingly. Overall, 16 out of 18 children (88.8%) achieved the daily intake of 120 mL of milk. Four out of these 16 children accomplished the protocol without any adverse allergic reactions. 12 patients experienced mild to severe reactions. Wheal and erythema in SPT (p≤0.001), and sIgE (p≤0.003) to most milk allergens were significantly decreased following desensitization. We successfully desensitized 16 of 18 children with IgE-mediated CMA by individualized desensitization protocol. Individualizing the OIT protocol would be helpful to save time and perhaps to relieve the allergic symptoms after ingesting cow's milk intake.
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February 2017

Oral and Sublingual Immunotherapy: Potential Causes for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders?

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2017 23;172(2):89-98. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Department of Allergy and Immunology, Mofid Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Food allergy is a common health problem worldwide, with increasing prevalence during recent decades. The only approved treatments for food allergy are food avoidance and administration of emergency medications in case of accidental exposure, which negatively affects patients' quality of life, so new treatments are highly desirable. Different food immunotherapy modalities have recently been used, with variable success rates in the induction of desensitization and tolerance, and different numbers and types of adverse reactions. Adverse reactions, especially intolerable gastrointestinal symptoms, are the most important causes of immunotherapy withdrawal. Eosinophilic esophagitis has been reported as a complication of milk, egg, and peanut oral immunotherapies and sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergies, but not for food allergies. Eosinophilic gastritis and eosinophilic colitis also rarely happened following egg and milk oral immunotherapies. The patients undergoing oral and sublingual immunotherapies should be closely followed up for a long time, and those with gastrointestinal symptoms should be evaluated by endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract. These complications are usually reversible after early diagnosis and stopping the immunotherapy protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000457796DOI Listing
April 2017

Evaluation of Lymphocyte Transformation Test Results in Patients with Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions following the Use of Anticonvulsant Drugs.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 25;170(3):158-62. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background/aim: Administration of the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine and lamotrigine can be associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a method to determine which drug has caused the hypersensitivity reaction. This study was done to evaluate the results of LTT in patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of anticonvulsants.

Methods: Twenty-four patients with hypersensitivity reactions, e.g. drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug rash and eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), following the administration of anticonvulsant drugs, and 24 patients who had used anticonvulsant drugs but did not have hypersensitivity reactions (the control group) were included in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. The cells were stimulated with the drugs, phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen and Candida as an antigen (positive controls). Lymphocyte proliferation was measured using the BrdU proliferation assay kit (Roche, Germany). The stimulation index was calculated as the mean ratio of the OD of stimulated cells divided by the OD of unstimulated cells. The results in the case and control groups were compared.

Results: Of 24 patients in the test group, 14 (58.3%) had positive LTT results and 10 (41.7%) had negative results. Among patients in the control group, 1 (4.2%) had a positive LTT result and 23 (95.8%) had negative results. Among the patients who had received carbamazepine and phenytoin, there was a significant difference between the results of LTT in the case and control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.028, respectively). Although patients receiving lamotrigine and phenobarbital had more positive LTT results in the case group than in the control group, these differences were not statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of LTT were 58.4, 95.8, 93.3 and 69.9%, respectively.

Conclusions: Considering the significant difference in LTT results between the case and control groups in patients receiving carbamazepine and phenytoin, and not observing such a difference in patients receiving phenobarbital and lamotrigine, LTT results are more valuable for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of carbamazepine and phenytoin. The LTT has good specificity but low sensitivity for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000448284DOI Listing
February 2017

A Study on the Humoral and Complement Immune System of Patients with Organic Acidemia.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2015 Dec;14(6):638-41

Department of Immunology, Mofid Children Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with organic acidemia are prone to different infections, which lead to acidosis episodes. Some studies have evaluated the status of immune system in acidotic phase in these patients, but to the best of our knowledge no study has evaluated the immune system in non-acidotic phase of the disease. In this study, thirty-one patients with organic acidemia were enrolled. For evaluation of humoral immunity, serum IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM, isohemaggltuinin titer, anti tetanus and anti diphtheria IgG were measured. For screening of complement deficiencies, serum C3, C4, and CH50 were assessed. Eleven patients had Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), 10 had methylmalonic acidemia, 5 had isovaleric acidemia, 4 had glutaric aciduria, and 1 had propionic acidemia. Serum IgM level was less than normal in 2 patients. Serum isohemagglutinin titer was less than 1:8 in 2 other patients. IgA, IgE, and IgG were within normal range for all patients. Anti tetanus and anti diphtheria IgG levels were low in two patients with MSUD. No significant relationship was found between any of the measured parameters and history of recurrent admissions, recurrent infections and the type of their diseases. Five patients had high C3 level, 4 had high C4 level, and 5 had high CH50 percentage. Totally, 10 patients had high complement level, but no remarkable connection was noted between the type of the disease and complement level. Minor insignificant deficiencies in humoral immunity in non-acidotic phase of organic acidemia were found. Some components of complement system showed increase in some patients, which might be due to decreased pH in extracellular fluid.
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December 2015

Increased expression of CD69 antigen on human peripheral blood natural killer cells in patients with allergic rhinitis.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Mar;12(1):68-74

Department of Immunology, Mofid Children Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa with high morbidity and prevalence. Natural killer (NK) cells might have a role in AR. We aimed to evaluate the changes of the markers and receptors on NK cells in AR patients compared to the non-atopic controls.Flow cytometric analysis was used with double staining of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) to examine the expression of CD25 and CD69 markers, and NKG2D and NKG2A receptors on NK cells of 20 patients with AR and 20 non-atopic controls. The serum total IgE level was measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.The expression of CD69 antigen on NK cells in AR patients was significantly higher than that of healthy group (p=0.03). No significant changes were observed between CD25, NKG2D and NKG2A expression on the surface of NK cells from healthy and AR subjects. Our study also showed that there was no significant correlation between the expression of CD69, CD25, NKG2D and NKG2A and level of serum total IgE in AR patients and normal subjects.These results indicated that the expression of CD69 antigen on NK cells of AR patients was increased. The high expression of CD69 on NK cells in AR patients suggested that these cells were activated, probably due to the cytokines secreted from allergen-stimulated T cells and activated monocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/012.01/ijaai.688874DOI Listing
March 2013

Langerin+ dermal dendritic cells are critical for CD8+ T cell activation and IgH γ-1 class switching in response to gene gun vaccines.

J Immunol 2011 Feb 27;186(3):1377-83. Epub 2010 Dec 27.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

The C-type lectin langerin/CD207 was originally discovered as a specific marker for epidermal Langerhans cells (LC). Recently, additional and distinct subsets of langerin(+) dendritic cells (DC) have been identified in lymph nodes and peripheral tissues of mice. Although the role of LC for immune activation or modulation is now being discussed controversially, other langerin(+) DC appear crucial for protective immunity in a growing set of infection and vaccination models. In knock-in mice that express the human diphtheria toxin receptor under control of the langerin promoter, injection of diphtheria toxin ablates LC for several weeks whereas other langerin(+) DC subsets are replenished within just a few days. Thus, by careful timing of diphtheria toxin injections selective states of deficiency in either LC only or all langerin(+) cells can be established. Taking advantage of this system, we found that, unlike selective LC deficiency, ablation of all langerin(+) DC abrogated the activation of IFN-γ-producing and cytolytic CD8(+) T cells after gene gun vaccination. Moreover, we identified migratory langerin(+) dermal DC as the subset that directly activated CD8(+) T cells in lymph nodes. Langerin(+) DC were also critical for IgG1 but not IgG2a Ab induction, suggesting differential polarization of CD4(+) T helper cells by langerin(+) or langerin-negative DC, respectively. In contrast, protein vaccines administered with various adjuvants induced IgG1 independently of langerin(+) DC. Taken together, these findings reflect a highly specialized division of labor between different DC subsets both with respect to Ag encounter as well as downstream processes of immune activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1002557DOI Listing
February 2011

Natural killer cells in allergic rhinitis patients and nonatopic controls.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2010 18;153(3):234-8. Epub 2010 May 18.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is currently considered to be a worldwide problem. The role of type 2 cytokines in this disease has been established, and natural killer (NK) cells are possibly the source of cytokine secretions. This study was performed to confirm the existence of type 2 cytokine-secreting NK cells in AR patients and to determine their characteristics.

Methods: Twenty AR patients and 20 healthy nonatopic controls were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated from heparinized blood by density gradient centrifugation. NK cells were enriched and cultured for 72 h. Cytokine secretion was measured by ELISA, and cytotoxicity assay was carried out using the PKH2-labeled K562 cell line. Intracytoplasmic cytokine staining and an analysis of surface markers of NK cells were performed on freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry.

Results: Patients with AR had a higher percentage of NK cells compared to nonatopic subjects. The mean percentage of IL-4+ NK cells was significantly higher and that of IFN-γ+ NK cells was nonsignificantly lower in AR patients compared to healthy nonatopic controls. IL-13 secretion was also significantly higher in AR patients compared to nonatopic controls. While there was no difference between the case and the control groups with regard to the surface expression of CD40, CD45RO, and CD95, the expression of CD178 was significantly higher in the cases when compared to the controls. NK cell cytotoxicity was also significantly higher in AR patients compared to healthy controls.

Conclusions: This study confirms the existence of type 2 cytokine-secreting NK cells in AR and shows their increased number and enhanced cytotoxicity compared to normal individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000314363DOI Listing
November 2010

A study of malnutrition in Iranian patients with primary antibody deficiency.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004 Dec;3(4):189-96

Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children’s Medical Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nutrition is an important factor that influences immunity, and nutritional deficiencies can impair resistance to infections. Malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency worldwide. Trace elements such as zinc, selenium, iron, and copper can influence several components of immunity. Primary antibody deficiency disorders are a group of disorders characterized by an unusual susceptibility to infections and malnutrition. Impaired nutritional status has been reported in immunodeficient patients. The aim of this study was to determine anthropometric indices and trace elements status in these patients. Thirty-eight children (28 males, 10 females, aged 2-18 years) with primary antibody deficiency referring to Children's Medical Center of Tehran University of Medical Science were enrolled in this research. Primary immunodeficiency disorders consisting of CVID, XLA, IgA deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, and hyper IgM were assessed. Anthropometric indices, comprised of height, weight that were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) were determined according to Z-score to study mild, moderate and severe malnutrition. Serum copper, zinc, selenium and iron levels were measured by an atomic absorption spectrometer. The most common disorders were CVID 52.5% and X-linked agammaglobulinaemia 27.5%. Based on BMI measurements 21.1% of patients had malnutrition. According to HAZ, 13.2%, 13.2% and 36.8% had severe, moderate and mild malnutrition, respectively. According to WAZ, 10.5%, 18.4% and 28.6% had severe, moderate and mild malnutrition, respectively. Regarding to WHZ, 14.3% and 28.6% had moderate and mild malnutrition, respectively. Low selenium levels and high copper levels were observed in 37.5% and 70.3%, respectively. Anthropometric data showed that the frequency of malnutrition in these patients was higher than the CDC standard. Low serum selenium levels and high serum copper levels were observed, suggesting further research is needed on these parameters. Most of the patients had serum zinc and iron levels within the normal range. It is recommeded that clinical immunologists and nutritionists should make a collective effort to provide these patients with standard or specialized diets so as to decrease the risk of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/03.04/ijaai.189196DOI Listing
December 2004

Which cereal is a suitable substitute for wheat in children with wheat allergy?

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2005 May;16(3):262-6

Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Wheat is one of the main food allergens. It is among widely used cereals and there is an extensive cross-reaction between cereals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which cereals cross-react and to find the best substitute for wheat. Eighteen patients with definite diagnosis of type I hypersensitivity reactions to wheat enrolled in this study. Measurement of serum-specific IgE and skin prick test (SPT) for cereals flour (wheat, barley, oat, rye, rice and corn) and wheat bran was carried out. Also, open food challenge tests with available and conventional cereals in Iranian food culture (wheat, corn, rice and barley) were carried out. The SPTs were positive in 44.4% of patients for barley, 94.5% for wheat and 44-77% for other cereals. Positive serum-specific IgE was remarkable for wheat and barley and there was correlation between wheat and barley-specific IgE concentrations (r = 0.773 and p < 0.01). Corn serum-specific IgE was measured in 10 patients, which were positive in six of them. Of the patients, 55.5% had positive barley challenge tests, but all corn and rice challenge tests were negative. The best substitutes for wheat in wheat allergic patients are rice and corn. Regarding the correlation of wheat and barley serum-specific IgEs, there might be a high antigenic cross-reaction, therefore barley is not a good substitute for wheat and consuming barley needs a careful challenge test. Considering concordance of positive SPT to wheat flour and wheat bran, avoiding both of them is necessary in patients with wheat allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2005.00263.xDOI Listing
May 2005

Wheat allergy: clinical and laboratory findings.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004 Feb 5;133(2):168-73. Epub 2004 Feb 5.

Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Food allergy affects 6-8% of infants and wheat allergy is one of the common food allergies among children. The clinical and laboratory manifestations of wheat allergy were evaluated in this study.

Methods: Thirty-two children (< or =12 years old) with suspected wheat allergy were evaluated for wheat allergy. The patients underwent wheat skin prick test (SPT), measurement of wheat-specific IgE and wheat challenge test. The patients with a convincing history of anaphylaxis following ingestion of wheat or with a positive challenge test, and those with a history of immediate hypersensitivity reaction following ingestion of wheat in addition to a positive wheat SPT and/or positive wheat-specific IgE were considered wheat allergic. Then, the laboratory and clinical manifestations of their disease were studied.

Results: Among patients with suspected wheat allergy, 24 patients with definite wheat allergy were identified. Anaphylaxis was a dominant clinical feature, accounting for 54.1% of acute symptoms. Chronic allergy symptoms like asthma and eczema were noted in 50% of the patients. Wheat-specific IgE was higher in patients with anaphylaxis (p<0.02) and the risk of anaphylaxis was 14.4 times more in patients with wheat-specific IgE equal to or more than 3+.

Conclusions: Anaphylaxis had occurred in a remarkable number of patients repeatedly, which demonstrates the severity of the reactions, poor knowledge of the disease and probable existence of more patients with mild reactions. Regarding the higher level of wheat-specific IgE in patients with anaphylaxis, wheat-specific IgE could be used to predict the severity of symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000076623DOI Listing
February 2004