Publications by authors named "Matthew Eady"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A low-cost and portable near-infrared spectrometer using open-source multivariate data analysis software for rapid discriminatory quality assessment of medroxyprogesterone acetate injectables.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 5;259:119917. Epub 2021 May 5.

Product Quality and Compliance, FHI 360, 2810 Meridian Parkway, Suite 160, Durham, NC 27713, USA.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) injectable suspensions are used by millions of women for family planning and hormonal therapy. Falsified or substandard medications may result in a health risk for consumers. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has previously been applied as a means of non-destructive and rapid screening of product quality compliance. These methods offer advantages but can be logistically and cost prohibitive for field use in resource limited areas. Here, a handheld spectrometer (900-1700 nm) with open-sourced software is used to evaluate vials of MPA from three suppliers (N = 227 vials) and verified by a benchtop UV-VIS-NIR (350-2500 nm) with licensed software. Multivariate data analysis assesses the spectral signatures of samples and builds a discriminant classification method based on Mahalanobis distances calculated from a principal component analysis scores. The handheld device paired with open-source software resulted in a product discrimination accuracy of 100% (verified by benchtop UV-VIS-NIR and chemical testing data) as well indicating that the low-cost field portable device is suitable for rapidly assessing samples in resource limited areas for consistency of manufacturing and sourcing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119917DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of Intervention on College Students' Vending Selections.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Apr 2:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, The University of Mississippi, University, Oxford, Mississippi, USA.

Objectives: To place in vending machines and determine if different sales strategies affect selection.

Participants: University students living in resident halls.

Methods: Vending machines included 50% and 50% non compliant snacks. Three sales strategies targeted student selection of : Reduced price, signage, and nutrition education activities. Three-way ANOVA was used for analysis.

Results: There was a statistically significant three-way interaction on snack selection between sales strategy, study period, and snack type, (4, 77) = 3.33, = .01. There were no statistically significant simple two-way interaction between study period and sales strategy for either , (1, 77) = 1.62,  = 0.18, or NC snack types, (1, 77) = 2.02,  = 0.07.

Conclusions: Sales strategies did not affect selections. Advocates for healthier snacks in vending machines can align with
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1909048DOI Listing
April 2021

Weight-Based Enoxaparin Achieves Adequate Anti-Xa Levels More Often in Trauma Patients: A Prospective Study.

Am Surg 2021 Jan 11;87(1):77-82. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

1228012279Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: Previous research demonstrates that twice-daily enoxaparin is inadequate for venous thromboembolic (VTE) prophylaxis in critically ill trauma patients prompting dose adjustment based on anti-Xa levels. Most studies evaluate peak anti-Xa levels; however, data suggest that trough levels are associated with decreased VTE. We evaluated trough anti-Xa levels in noncritically ill trauma patients receiving fixed or weight-based enoxaparin.

Methods: Peak and trough anti-Xa levels were prospectively collected from patients receiving at least 3 consecutive doses of enoxaparin (PRE). A performance improvement project prompted a change to weight-based dosing. Peak and trough levels were subsequently prospectively collected from the weight-based group (POST). Adequate peak was defined as ≥0.2 IU/mL and adequate trough as ≥0.1 IU/mL. PRE and POST groups were compared.

Results: 200 patients were evaluated (100 PRE, 100 POST). In the PRE group, only 34% of trough and 61% of peak anti-Xa levels were adequate compared with 82% and 97%, respectively, in the POST group ( < .01). Median trough improved from 0.07 IU/mL to 0.2 IU/mL ( < .01). Median peak improved from 0.22 IU/mL to 0.47 IU/mL ( < .01). More patients achieved adequate peak and trough levels in the POST group (79% vs 31%, < .01). 95% of patients with adequate troughs also had adequate peaks, whereas 75% with adequate peaks had adequate troughs.

Discussion: Traditional enoxaparin dosing in noncritically ill trauma patients results in suboptimal anti-Xa levels. Weight-based enoxaparin improves both trough and peak anti-Xa levels obviating dose adjustment. Furthermore, troughs better predict adequate anti-Xa levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820949519DOI Listing
January 2021

Rapid Identification of Campylobacter Strains Cultured Under Aerobic Incubation Using Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging.

J Food Prot 2020 Mar;83(3):405-411

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Poultry Microbiological Safety and Processing Research Unit, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30606, USA.

Abstract: Campylobacter is an organism of concern for food safety and is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. This pathogen can be found in broiler chickens, and the level of allowable contamination of processed poultry is regulated by federal agency guidelines. Traditional methods for detecting and isolating this pathogen from broiler chicken carcasses require time, expensive reagents, and artificially generated microaerophilic atmospheres. An aerobic medium that simplifies the procedure and reduces the expense of culturing Campylobacter has been recently described, and Campylobacter can be grown in this medium in containers that are incubated aerobically. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) has been proposed for early and rapid detection of pathogens at the cellular level. The objective of the present study was to utilize HMI to compare differences between Campylobacter cultures grown under artificially produced microaerobic atmospheres and cultures grown in aerobic medium. Hyperspectral microscopic images of three Campylobacter strains were collected cultures grown for 48 h microaerophilically and for 24 and 48 h aerobically, and a quadratic discriminant analysis was used to characterize the bacterial variability. Microaerobically cultured bacteria were detected with 98.7% accuracy, whereas detection accuracy of cultures grown in the novel medium was slightly reduced (-4.8 and -3.2% for 24 and 48 h, respectfully). The Mahalanobis distance multivariate metric was applied to quantify strain variability under all three treatment conditions. Across all strains and treatments, little cluster variation was present (4.22 to 4.42), indicating the consistency of the images collected from the three strains. The classification and spectral consistency was similar for cultures incubated in the aerobic medium for 24 h and cultures grown for 48 h under microaerobic conditions.

Highlights:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-311DOI Listing
March 2020

Classification of foodborne bacteria using hyperspectral microscope imaging technology coupled with convolutional neural networks.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Apr 12;104(7):3157-3166. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210031, Jiangsu, China.

Foodborne pathogens have become ongoing threats in the food industry, whereas their rapid detection and classification at an early stage are still challenging. To address early and rapid detection, hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) technology combined with convolutional neural networks (CNN) was proposed to classify foodborne bacterial species at the cellular level. HMI technology can simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral information of different live bacterial cells, while two CNN frameworks, U-Net and one-dimensional CNN (1D-CNN), were employed to accelerate the data analysis process. U-Net was used for automating cellular regions of interest (ROI) segmentation, which generated accurate cell-ROI masks in a shorter timeframe than the conventional Otsu or Watershed methods. The 1D-CNN was employed for classifying the spectral profiles extracted from cell-ROI and resulted in a higher accuracy (90%) than k-nearest neighbor (81%) and support vector machine (81%). Overall, the CNN-assisted HMI technology showed potential for foodborne bacteria detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10387-4DOI Listing
April 2020

Detection of Salmonella from chicken rinsate with visible/near-infrared hyperspectral microscope imaging compared against RT-PCR.

Talanta 2019 Apr 23;195:313-319. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Services, US National Poultry Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA. Electronic address:

Salmonella is an organism of importance to the poultry industry with increasingly stringent government regulatory standards. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and plating procedures on nutrient enriched growth media have been the standard detection methods of Salmonella from broiler chicken carcasses for years. These methods are proven, but offer disadvantages in the amount of time or reoccurring sample cost. Here, we propose the use of a hyperspectral microscope imaging system (HMI) for comparison to standard detection methods. Broiler chicken carcasses were rinsed and plated on Salmonella selective agar. Colonies from plates were picked and RT-PCR was used as a confirmation test to verify plating results, while HMI was collected from the same colonies. Spectral signatures of cells were extracted between 450 and 800 nm from HMI collected with 100x objective. A quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was used to classify cells as either Salmonella positive or negative (n = 341). Spectra preprocessing minimized the influence of cellular shape on the spectra, increasing the initial classification accuracy of 81.8-98.5%, yielding a sensitivity of 1.0, and a specificity of 0.963. Results showed the potential as an initial investigation of HMI as a microbial confirmation tool, compared to RT-PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.11.071DOI Listing
April 2019

Classifications in Brief: Rüedi-Allgöwer Classification of Tibial Plafond Fractures.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2017 07 4;475(7):1923-1928. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-016-5219-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449320PMC
July 2017

Rapid and early detection of Salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscopy and multivariate data analysis.

J Food Prot 2015 Apr;78(4):668-74

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA.

This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, and Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunable filter hyperspectral microscope imaging system with a metal halide light source measuring 89 contiguous wavelengths every 4 nm between 450 and 800 nm. Pearson correlation values were calculated for incubation times of 8, 10, and 12 h and compared with data for 24 h to evaluate the change in spectral signatures from bacterial cells over time. Regions of interest were analyzed at 30% of the pixels in an average cell size. Spectral data were preprocessed by applying a global data transformation algorithm and then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The Mahalanobis distance was calculated from PCA score plots for analyzing serotype cluster separation. Partial least-squares regression was applied for calibration and validation of the model, and soft independent modeling of class analogy was utilized to classify serotype clusters in the training set. Pearson correlation values indicate very similar spectral patterns for reduced incubation times ranging from 0.9869 to 0.9990. PCA score plots indicated cluster separation at all incubation times, with incubation time Mahalanobis distances of 2.146 to 27.071. Partial least-squares regression had a maximum root mean squared error of calibration of 0.0025 and a root mean squared error of validation of 0.0030. Soft independent modeling of class analogy correctly classified values at 8 h (98.32%), 10 h (96.67%), 12 h (88.33%), and 24 h (98.67%) with the optimal number of principal components (four or five). The results of this study suggest that Salmonella serotypes can be classified by applying a PCA to hyperspectral microscope imaging data from samples after only 8 h of incubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-366DOI Listing
April 2015
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