Publications by authors named "Martine A Aardoom"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolisms in paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease; a prospective international cohort study based on the PIBD-SETQuality Safety Registry.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Oct 2. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Paediatric Gastroenterology, Centre for Immunobiology, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Background & Aims: Guidelines regarding thromboprophylaxis for venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are based on limited paediatric evidence. We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence of VTE in paediatric-onset IBD (PIBD), characterize PIBD patients with VTE, and identify potential IBD-related risk factors.

Methods: From October 2016 till September 2020, paediatric gastroenterologists prospectively replied to the international Safety Registry, monthly indicating whether they had observed a VTE case in a patient <19 years with IBD. IBD details (type, Paris classification, clinical and biochemical disease activity, treatment) and VTE details (type, location, treatment, outcome) were collected. To estimate the VTE incidence, participants annually reported the number of PIBD patients, data source and catchment area of their center. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed to calculate the VTE incidence in the general paediatric population.

Results: Participation of 129 PIBD centers resulted in coverage of 24,802 PIBD patients. Twenty cases of VTE were identified (30% Crohn's disease). The VTE incidence was 3.72 [95%CI 2.27 - 5.74] per 10,000 person-years, 14-fold higher than in the general paediatric population (0.27 [95%CI 0.18-0.38], p<0.001). Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis was most frequently reported (50%). All but one patient had active IBD, 45% were using steroids and 45% hospitalized. No patient received thromboprophylaxis, whereas according to current PIBD guidelines, this was recommended in 4/20 patients.

Conclusion: There is an increased risk of VTE in the PIBD population compared to the general paediatric population. Awareness of VTE occurrence and prevention should be extended to all PIBD patients with active disease, especially those hospitalized.
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October 2021

First-line treatment with infliximab versus conventional treatment in children with newly diagnosed moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease: an open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Gut 2020 Dec 31. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Paediatric Gastroenterology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Objective: In newly diagnosed paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (CD), infliximab (IFX) is initiated once exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), corticosteroid and immunomodulator therapies have failed. We aimed to investigate whether starting first-line IFX (FL-IFX) is more effective to achieve and maintain remission than conventional treatment.

Design: In this multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial, untreated patients with a new diagnosis of CD (3-17 years old, weighted Paediatric CD Activity Index score (wPCDAI) >40) were assigned to groups that received five infusions of 5 mg/kg IFX at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14 and 22 (FL-IFX), or EEN or oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg, maximum 40 mg) (conventional). The primary outcome was clinical remission on azathioprine, defined as a wPCDAI <12.5 at week 52, without need for treatment escalation, using intention-to-treat analysis.

Results: 100 patients were included, 50 in the FL-IFX group and 50 in the conventional group. Four patients did not receive treatment as per protocol. At week 10, a higher proportion of patients in the FL-IFX group than in the conventional group achieved clinical (59% vs 34%, respectively, p=0.021) and endoscopic remission (59% vs 17%, respectively, p=0.001). At week 52, the proportion of patients in clinical remission was not significantly different (p=0.421). However, 19/46 (41%) patients in the FL-IFX group were in clinical remission on azathioprine monotherapy without need for treatment escalation vs 7/48 (15%) in the conventional group (p=0.004).

Conclusions: FL-IFX was superior to conventional treatment in achieving short-term clinical and endoscopic remission, and had greater likelihood of maintaining clinical remission at week 52 on azathioprine monotherapy.

Trial Registration Number: Registry (NCT02517684).
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December 2020

Vedolizumab Trough Levels in Children With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Refractory Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 10;71(4):501-507

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam.

Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be successfully treated with vedolizumab. Studies in adult IBD patients have shown that differences in response to vedolizumab may be related to variability in vedolizumab trough levels, but in children with pediatric-onset IBD data regarding vedolizumab trough levels are not available. Thus far, the role of trough levels in pediatric-onset IBD treatment remains unclear. We aimed to investigate predictors of vedolizumab trough levels in pediatric-onset IBD patients.

Methods: Data from anti-tumor necrosis factor refractory pediatric-onset IBD patients who received vedolizumab were collected retrospectively. Vedolizumab trough levels were measured in serum samples collected before each infusion. A linear mixed model was conducted to analyze factors that influence trough levels.

Results: Twenty-six pediatric-onset IBD patients (14 ulcerative colitis [UC]), 9 Crohn Disease [CD], 3 IBD-unclassified [IBD-U]) received 258 vedolizumab infusions. Mean vedolizumab trough level at week 6 was 29.9 μg/mL (SD 17.8), and 11.5 μg/mL (SD 4.9) during maintenance therapy. CD patients had significantly lower trough levels than IBD-U patients (β 15.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.1 to 29.2; P = 0.036). Higher fecal calprotectin (β -0.009; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.003; P = 0.007) and C-reactive protein levels (β -0.4; 95% CI -0.72 to -0.04; P = 0.027) were associated with lower trough levels, whereas shortening of time between infusions led to higher trough levels (β -0.77; 95% CI -0.9 to 0.64; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In this group of pediatric-onset IBD patients, trough levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared with UC/IBD-U patients. Higher levels of inflammatory markers were associated with lower vedolizumab trough levels.
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October 2020

International prospective observational study investigating the disease course and heterogeneity of paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease: the protocol of the PIBD-SETQuality inception cohort study.

BMJ Open 2020 07 1;10(7):e035538. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Erasmus University Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Introduction: Patients with paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) may develop a complicated disease course, including growth failure, bowel resection at young age and treatment-related adverse events, all of which can have significant and lasting effects on the patient's development and quality of life. Unfortunately, we are still not able to fully explain the heterogeneity between patients and their disease course and predict which patients will respond to certain therapies or are most at risk of developing a more complicated disease course. To investigate this, large prospective studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Currently, no such European or Asian international cohorts exist. In this international cohort, we aim to evaluate disease course and which patients are most at risk of therapy non-response or development of complicated disease based on patient and disease characteristics, immune pathology and environmental and socioeconomic factors.

Methods And Analysis: In this international prospective observational study, which is part of the PIBD Network for Safety, Efficacy, Treatment and Quality improvement of care (PIBD-SETQuality), children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease <18 years are included at diagnosis. The follow-up schedule is in line with standard PIBD care and is intended to continue up to 20 years. Patient and disease characteristics, as well as results of investigations, are collected at baseline and during follow-up. In addition, environmental factors are being assessed (eg, parent's smoking behaviour, dietary factors and antibiotic use). In specific centres with the ability to perform extensive immunological analyses, blood samples and intestinal biopsies are being collected and analysed (flow cytometry, plasma proteomics, mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry) in therapy-naïve patients and during follow-up.

Ethics And Dissemination: Medical ethical approval has been obtained prior to patient recruitment for all sites. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scientific publications.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03571373.
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July 2020

A Review on the Use of Anti-TNF in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 May 23;20(10). Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, The Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents with disabling symptoms and may lead to insufficient growth and late pubertal development in cases of disease onset during childhood or adolescence. During the last decade, the role of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the treatment of paediatric-onset IBD has gained more ground. The number of biologicals presently available for children and adolescents with IBD has increased, biosimilars have become available, and practices in adult gastroenterology with regards to anti-TNF have changed. The aim of this study is to review the current evidence on the indications, judicious use, effectiveness and safety of anti-TNF agents in paediatric IBD. A PubMed literature search was performed and included articles published after 2000 using the following terms: child or paediatric, Crohn, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, anti-TNF, TNF alpha inhibitor, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab and biological. Anti-TNF agents, specifically infliximab and adalimumab, have proven to be effective in moderate and severe paediatric IBD. Therapeutic drug monitoring increases therapy effectiveness and safety. Clinical predictors for anti-TNF response are currently of limited value because of the variation in outcome definitions and follow-ups. Future research should comprise large cohorts and clinical trials comparing groups according to their risk profile in order to provide personalized therapeutic strategies.
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May 2019

Malignancy and Mortality in Pediatric-onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 03;24(4):732-741

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Cancer and death are the most severe outcomes that affect patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These outcomes are even more severe if they occur at a young age but are rare, even in the general population. We conducted a systematic review to provide an overview of all reported pediatric (PIBD) patients with severe outcome.

Methods: A literature search identified publications that reported development of cancer or fatal outcome in PIBD patients. Studies were eligible for inclusion when (1) article written in English, (2) original data, (3) individual patient information, (4) full text available, (5) study population consisting of patients diagnosed with IBD under the age of 19 years, and (6) who developed malignancy or fatality at any point later in life.

Results: A total of 98 included studies comprised data of 271 PIBD patients who developed cancer and/or fatal outcome at any point later in life. Meta-analysis demonstrated an increased risk for cancer in PIBD patients (pooled standardized incidence ratio 2.23, 95% CI: 1.98-2.52). The most frequent type of non-fatal cancer was lymphoma, whereas colorectal carcinomas were the most frequently reported type of fatal cancer in PIBD patients and were particularly associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The majority of patients with noncancer-related fatal outcomes were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and most often died due to infectious complications or severe disease-associated complications.

Conclusions: The data in this review confirm that PIBD associated malignancy and mortality are rare and detailed clinical characteristics are limited. Prospective and international collaborations are needed to obtain more detailed patient-specific information, which is necessary to investigate the relationship between severe outcomes in PIBD patients and the currently used therapeutic strategies. 10.1093/ibd/izx104_video1izx104_Video5754026434001.
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March 2018

Fractionated 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy after partial debulking versus surgical excision for nodular basal cell carcinoma: a randomized controlled trial with at least 5-year follow-up.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 Aug 6;69(2):280-7. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Department of Dermatology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Although effective in superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the treatment effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in nodular BCC (nBCC) is still questionable. The relation between tumor thickness and PDT failure is unclear.

Objective: We sought to compare long-term effectiveness of fractionated 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT with prior partial debulking versus surgical excision in nBCC. The effect of tumor thickness on ALA-PDT failure was analyzed.

Methods: 173 primary, histologically proven nBCCs in 151 patients were randomized to fractionated ALA-PDT (n = 85) or surgical excision (n = 88). Two PDT illuminations were performed with a 1-hour interval. Follow-up was at least 5 years posttreatment. Clinical recurrences were confirmed histologically.

Results: A total of 171 nBCCs were treated and had a median follow-up of 67 months (range 0-106). At 60 months, 23 tumors had recurred in the ALA-PDT group and 2 tumors in the surgical excision group. Cumulative recurrence probabilities 5 years posttreatment were 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.5%-42.6%) for ALA-PDT and 2.3% (95% CI 0.6%-8.8%) for surgical excision (P < .0001). Two tumors in the ALA-PDT group recurred at 72 and 91 months posttreatment. Cumulative probability of recurrence-free survival post-PDT was 65.0% (95% CI 51%-76%) for nBCC measuring greater than 0.7 mm in thickness and 94.4% (95% CI 67%-99%, P = .018) for tumors less than or equal to 0.7 mm.

Limitations: Tumor thickness on punch biopsy specimen might differ from the total lesion thickness.

Conclusions: In nBCC, 5-year cumulative probability of recurrence after surgical excision is lower than after fractionated ALA-PDT with prior debulking. Although surgical excision remains the gold standard of treatment, PDT might be an alternative for inoperable patients with thin (≤0.7 mm) nBCC.
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August 2013