Publications by authors named "Markus Raudkivi"

4 Publications

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Mainstream-sidestream wastewater switching promotes anammox nitrogen removal rate in organic-rich, low-temperature streams.

Environ Technol 2020 Feb 9:1-10. Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

The main issues with mainstream anammox application are loss of bacterial activity by low temperatures and by a high organic content of wastewater. We demonstrate a novel switching method between sidestream and mainstream wastewater. The wastewater flow was switched between sidestream (reject water at >22°C) and mainstream (municipal wastewater at 16.5°C), so that the anammox biomass activity and biomass growth could benefit from sidestream conditions. Real sidestream wastewater (biogas plant effluent) (≈1000 mg NH-N L) and synthetic mainstream (municipal wastewater-like source) (≈100 mg NH-N) wastewater were used for 20 L biofilm reactor feeding. The highest total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) of 527 g N m d (average TNRR 180 (±140) g N m d) was achieved with sidestream wastewater at a low chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 1.1/1. For reactor feeding with mainstream, the highest TNRR achieved was 61 g N m d. Average TNRR for mainstream of 20 (±15) g N m d was low due to a higher COD/N ratio of 3.2/1. The highest TNRR in a batch test was achieved at the COD concentration of 480 mg L, reflecting a TNRR of ≈5 mg N g TSS h. With a high COD concentration of 2600 mg L (TOC/TN = 8/1), TNRR decreased similarly in both feeds to 1.6 mg N g TSS h. The anammox microorganism's genus enrichment in deammonification biofilm reactor was higher in the mainstream operation (7.6% of all bacteria) than in sidestream operation period (<0.7% of all bacteria).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1721566DOI Listing
February 2020

Nitrite inhibition and limitation - the effect of nitrite spiking on anammox biofilm, suspended and granular biomass.

Water Sci Technol 2017 Jan;75(2):313-321

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St, 50411 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been studied extensively while no widely accepted optimum values for nitrite (both a substance and inhibitor) has been determined. In the current paper, nitrite spiking (abruptly increasing nitrite concentration in reactor over 20 mg NO-NL) effect on anammox process was studied on three systems: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). The inhibition thresholds and concentrations causing 50% of biomass activity decrease (IC) were determined in batch tests. The results showed spiked biomass to be less susceptible to nitrite inhibition. Although the values of inhibition threshold and IC concentrations were similar for non-spiked biomass (81 and 98 mg NO-NL, respectively, for SBR), nitrite spiking increased IC considerably (83 and 240 mg NO-NL, respectively, for UASB). As the highest total nitrogen removal rate was also measured at the aforementioned thresholds, there is basis to suggest stronger limiting effect of nitrite on anammox process than previously reported. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed similar number of anammox 16S rRNA copies in all reactors, with the lowest quantity in SBR and the highest in MBBR (3.98 × 10 and 1.04 × 10 copies g TSS, respectively).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.456DOI Listing
January 2017

Nitric oxide for anammox recovery in a nitrite-inhibited deammonification system.

Environ Technol 2015 27;36(19):2477-87. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

a Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu , 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu , Estonia.

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. In the current research the deammonification reactor in a reverse order (first anammox, then the nitrifying biofilm cultivation) was started up with a high maximum N removal rate (1.4 g N m(-2) d(-1)) in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Cultivated biofilm total nitrogen removal rates were accelerated the most by anammox intermediate - nitric oxide (optimum 58 mg NO-N L(-1)) addition. Furthermore, NO was added in order to eliminate inhibition caused by nitrite concentrations (>50 mg [Formula: see text]) increasing [Formula: see text] (2/1, respectively) along with a higher ratio of [Formula: see text] (0.6/1, respectively) than stoichiometrical for this optimal NO amount added during batch tests. Planctomycetales clone P4 sequences, which was the closest (98% and 99% similarity, respectively) relative to Candidatus Brocadia fulgida sequences quantities increase to 1 × 10(6) anammox gene copies g(-1) total suspended solids to till day 650 were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1034791DOI Listing
September 2016

Start-up of low-temperature anammox in UASB from mesophilic yeast factory anaerobic tank inoculum.

Environ Technol 2015 Jan-Feb;36(1-4):214-25. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

a Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu , 14a Ravila Rd., Tartu 50411 , Estonia.

Robust start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from non-anammox-specific seeding material was achieved by using an inoculation with sludge-treating industrial [Formula: see text]-, organics- and N-rich yeast factory wastewater. N-rich reject water was treated at 20°C, which is significantly lower than optimum treatment temperature. Increasing the frequency of biomass fluidization (from 1-2 times per day to 4-5 times per day) through feeding the reactor with higher flow rate resulted in an improved total nitrogen removal rate (from 100 to 500 g m(-3)d(-1)) and increased anammox bacteria activity. As a result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, uncultured planctomycetes clone 07260064(4)-2-M13-_A01 (GenBank: JX852965) was identified from the biomass taken from the reactor. The presence of anammox bacteria after cultivation in the reactor was confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR); an increase in quantity up to ∼2×10(6) copies g VSS(-1) during operation could be seen in qPCR. Statistical modelling of chemical parameters revealed the roles of several optimized parameters needed for a stable process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2014.941946DOI Listing
September 2015