Publications by authors named "Mark P Purdue"

266 Publications

Cholesterol auxotrophy as a targetable vulnerability in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by large intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) containing free and esterified cholesterol; however, the functional significance of cholesterol accumulation in ccRCC cells is unknown. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes are repressed in ccRCC, suggesting a dependency on exogenous cholesterol. Mendelian randomization analyses performed on 31,000 individuals indicate a causal link between elevated circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ccRCC risk. Depriving ccRCC cells of either cholesterol or HDL compromises proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo; in contrast, elevated dietary cholesterol promotes tumor growth. Scavenger Receptor B1 (SCARB1) is uniquely required for cholesterol import, and inhibiting SCARB1 is sufficient to cause ccRCC cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and decreased PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, we reveal a cholesterol dependency in ccRCC and implicate SCARB1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating kidney cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-21-0211DOI Listing
July 2021

Differences in risk factors for molecular subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The ccA and ccB molecular subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have well-characterized prognostic relevance. However, it is not known whether they possess distinct etiologies. We investigated the relationships between these subtypes and RCC risk factors within a case-control study conducted in Eastern Europe. We analyzed risk factor data for ccA (n = 144) and ccB (n = 106) cases and 1476 controls through case-only and case-control comparisons to assess risk factor differences across subtypes using logistic and polytomous regression models. We also performed a meta-analysis summarizing case-only results from our study and three patient cohorts. Patients with ccB tumors had poorer survival than those with ccA tumors and were more likely to be male (case-only odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-5.03). In case-control analyses, body mass index was significantly associated with ccA tumors (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18-5.10 for ≥35 vs <25 kg/m ) but not with ccB tumors (1.52, 0.56-4.12), while trichloroethylene was associated with ccB but not ccA (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.11-8.65 and 1.25, 0.36-4.39 respectively for ≥1.58 ppm-years vs unexposed). A polygenic risk score of genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies was associated with both ccA and, in particular, ccB (OR 1.82, 1.11-2.99 and 2.87, 95% CI 1.64-5.01 respectively for 90th vs 10th percentile). In a meta-analysis of case-only results including three patient cohorts, we still observed the ccB excess for male sex and the ccA excess for obesity. In conclusion, our findings suggest the existence of etiologic heterogeneity across ccRCC molecular subtypes for several risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33701DOI Listing
May 2021

Aspirin, ibuprofen, and reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenoma incidence and recurrence and colorectal cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Studying the differential impact of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs across the stages of colorectal neoplasia from early adenoma to cancer is critical for understanding the benefits of these widely used drugs.

Methods: With 13 years of follow-up, the authors prospectively evaluated the association between aspirin and ibuprofen use and incident distal adenoma (1221 cases), recurrent adenoma (862 cases), and incident colorectal cancer (CRC; 2826 cases) among men and women in the population-based Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. With multivariable-adjusted models, odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for adenoma incidence and recurrence and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for incident CRC were determined.

Results: The authors observed a significantly reduced risk of incident adenoma with ibuprofen use (≥30 vs <4 pills per month: OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.60-0.95]; P = .04), particularly advanced adenoma (OR, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.28-0.83]; P = .005). Among those with a previous adenoma detected through screening, aspirin use was associated with a decreased risk of advanced recurrent adenoma (≥30 vs <4 pills per month: OR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.36-0.87]; P = 0.006). Both aspirin (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.81-0.96]; P <.0001) and ibuprofen use (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.70-0.93); P = 0.003) ≥30 versus <4 pills per month were significantly associated with reduced CRC risk.

Conclusions: In this large prospective study with long-term follow-up, a beneficial role for not only aspirin, but also ibuprofen, in preventing advanced adenoma and curbing progression to recurrence and cancer among older adults was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33623DOI Listing
May 2021

Blood lead levels and lung cancer mortality: An updated analysis of NHANES II and III.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 7;10(12):4066-4074. Epub 2021 May 7.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Previous analyses within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II and III cycles suggested an association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and lung cancer mortality, although the evidence was limited by small case numbers. To clarify this relationship, we conducted updated analyses of 4,182 and 15,629 participants in NHANES II and III, respectively, (extending follow-up 20 and 8 years) aged ≥20 with BLL measurements and mortality follow-up through 2014. We fit multivariable Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating BLLs and lung cancer with adjustment for smoking and other factors. We did not observe an overall association between BLLs and lung cancer after adjustment for smoking (both surveys) and serum cotinine and environmental tobacco smoke exposure (NHANES III), although suggestive associations were observed among women (NHANES II: HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.7, 10.0 for ≥20.0 µg/dl vs. <10.0 µg/dl, P = 0.07; NHANES III: HR 11.2, 95% CI 2.1, 59.4 for ≥10.0 µg/dl vs. <2.5 µg/dl, P = 0.04). After stratifying on smoking status, an association with elevated BLLs was observed in NHANES II only among former smokers (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.0 for ≥15 vs. <15 µg/dl) and in NHANES III only among current smokers (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1, 2.8 for ≥5 vs. <5 µg/dl). In summary, we found elevated BLLs to be associated with lung cancer mortality among women in both NHANES II and III. Given the absence of an association among non-smokers, we cannot rule out residual confounding as an explanation for our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209588PMC
June 2021

Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of some cancers, but the evidence for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is inconclusive. We investigated the relationship between coffee and RCC within a large cohort.

Methods: Coffee intake was assessed at baseline in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Among 420 118 participants eligible for analysis, 2674 incident cases were identified. We fitted Cox-regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee consumption vs non-drinkers.

Results: We observed HRs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.81, 1.09), 0.94 (0.81, 1.09), 0.80 (0.70, 0.92) and 0.77 (0.66, 0.90) for usual coffee intake of <1, 1, 2-3 and ≥4 cups/day, respectively (Ptrend = 0.00003). This relationship was observed among never-smokers (≥4 cups/day: HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46, 0.83; Ptrend = 0.000003) but not ever-smokers (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70, 1.05; Ptrend = 0.35; Pinteraction = 0.0009) and remained in analyses restricted to cases diagnosed >10 years after baseline (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51, 0.82; Ptrend = 0.0005). Associations were similar between subgroups who drank predominately caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee (Pinteraction = 0.74).

Conclusion: In this investigation of coffee and RCC, to our knowledge the largest to date, we observed a 20% reduced risk for intake of ≥2 cups/day vs not drinking. Our findings add RCC to the growing list of cancers for which coffee consumption may be protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab011DOI Listing
February 2021

A Prospective Study of Circulating Chemokines and Angiogenesis Markers and Risk of Multiple Myeloma and Its Precursor.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Apr 16;4(2):pkz104. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Experimental and clinical studies have implicated certain chemokines and angiogenic cytokines in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis. To investigate whether systemic concentrations of these markers are associated with future MM risk and progression from its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), we conducted a prospective study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

Methods: We measured concentrations of 45 immunologic and pro-angiogenic markers in sera from 241 MM case patients, 441 participants with nonprogressing MGUS, and 258 MGUS-free control participants using Luminex-based multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. We also evaluated absolute risk of progression using weighted Kaplan-Meier estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Prediagnostic levels of six markers were statistically significantly elevated among MM case patients compared with MGUS-free control participants using a false discovery rate of 10% (EGF, HGF, Ang-2, CXCL12, CCL8, and BMP-9). Of these, three angiogenesis markers were associated with future progression from MGUS to MM: EGF (fourth vs first quartile: OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.61 to 5.63, = .00028), HGF (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.03, = .015), and Ang-2 (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.98, = .07). A composite angiogenesis biomarker score substantially stratified risk of MGUS progression to MM beyond established risk factors for progression, particularly during the first 5 years of follow-up (areas under the curve of 0.71 and 0.64 with and without the angiogenesis marker score, respectively).

Conclusions: Our prospective findings provide new insights into mechanisms involved in MM development and suggest that systemic angiogenesis markers could potentially improve risk stratification models for MGUS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkz104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083234PMC
April 2020

Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May;113(5):580-587

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are highly persistent chemicals that have been detected in the serum of over 98% of the US population. Studies among highly exposed individuals suggest an association with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and kidney cancer. It remains unclear whether PFOA or other PFAS are renal carcinogens or if they influence risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at concentrations observed in the general population.

Methods: We measured prediagnostic serum concentrations of PFOA and 7 additional PFAS in 324 RCC cases and 324 individually matched controls within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating serum PFAS concentrations and RCC risk. Individual PFAS were modeled continuously (log2-transformed) and categorically, with adjustment for kidney function and additional potential confounders. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: We observed a positive association with RCC risk for PFOA (doubling in serum concentration, ORcontinuous = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.37, P = .002) and a greater than twofold increased risk among those in the highest quartile vs the lowest (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.20, Ptrend = .007). The association with PFOA was similar after adjustment for other PFAS (ORcontinuous = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.63, P = .02) and remained apparent in analyses restricted to individuals without evidence of diminished kidney function and in cases diagnosed 8 or more years after phlebotomy.

Conclusions: Our findings add substantially to the weight of evidence that PFOA is a renal carcinogen and may have important public health implications for the many individuals exposed to this ubiquitous and highly persistent chemical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096365PMC
May 2021

Alcohol drinking and head and neck cancer risk: the joint effect of intensity and duration.

Br J Cancer 2020 10 24;123(9):1456-1463. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, Havana, Cuba.

Background: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk.

Methods: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking.

Results: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx).

Conclusions: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01031-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592048PMC
October 2020

An approach for normalization and quality control for NanoString RNA expression data.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May;22(3)

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

The NanoString RNA counting assay for formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples is unique in its sensitivity, technical reproducibility and robustness for analysis of clinical and archival samples. While commercial normalization methods are provided by NanoString, they are not optimal for all settings, particularly when samples exhibit strong technical or biological variation or where housekeeping genes have variable performance across the cohort. Here, we develop and evaluate a more comprehensive normalization procedure for NanoString data with steps for quality control, selection of housekeeping targets, normalization and iterative data visualization and biological validation. The approach was evaluated using a large cohort ($N=\kern0.5em 1649$) from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, two cohorts of moderate sample size ($N=359$ and$130$) and a small published dataset ($N=12$). The iterative process developed here eliminates technical variation (e.g. from different study phases or sites) more reliably than the three other methods, including NanoString's commercial package, without diminishing biological variation, especially in long-term longitudinal multiphase or multisite cohorts. We also find that probe sets validated for nCounter, such as the PAM50 gene signature, are impervious to batch issues. This work emphasizes that systematic quality control, normalization and visualization of NanoString nCounter data are an imperative component of study design that influences results in downstream analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138885PMC
May 2021

Pathway Analysis of Renal Cell Carcinoma Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Associations.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 10 30;29(10):2065-2069. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: Much of the heritable risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with common genetic variation is unexplained. New analytic approaches have been developed to increase the discovery of risk variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including multi-locus testing through pathway analysis.

Methods: We conducted a pathway analysis using GWAS summary data from six previous scans (10,784 cases and 20,406 controls) and evaluated 3,678 pathways and gene sets drawn from the Molecular Signatures Database. To replicate findings, we analyzed GWAS summary data from the UK Biobank (903 cases and 451,361 controls) and the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (317 cases and 50,511 controls).

Results: We identified 14 pathways/gene sets associated with RCC in both the discovery ( < 1.36 × 10, the Bonferroni correction threshold) and replication ( < 0.05) sets, 10 of which include components of the PI3K/AKT pathway. In tests across 2,035 genes in these pathways, associations (Bonferroni corrected < 2.46 × 10 in discovery and replication sets combined) were observed for , and . The strongest SNP signal was for rs12124078 ( = 2.6 × 10; = 1.5 × 10; = 6.9 × 10), a expression quantitative trait locus.

Conclusions: Our pathway analysis implicates genetic variation within the PI3K/AKT pathway as a source of RCC heritability and identifies several promising novel susceptibility genes, including , which warrant further investigation.

Impact: Our findings illustrate the value of pathway analysis as a complementary approach to analyzing GWAS data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0472DOI Listing
October 2020

Assessment of polygenic architecture and risk prediction based on common variants across fourteen cancers.

Nat Commun 2020 07 3;11(1):3353. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16483-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335068PMC
July 2020

Associations between reproductive factors and biliary tract cancers in women from the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project.

J Hepatol 2020 10 11;73(4):863-872. Epub 2020 May 11.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear.

Methods: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study.

Results: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only.

Conclusion: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography.

Lay Summary: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.04.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901003PMC
October 2020

Exogenous hormone use, reproductive factors and risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma among women: results from cohort studies in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project and the UK Biobank.

Br J Cancer 2020 07 7;123(2):316-324. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -β, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC.

Methods: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases).

Results: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors.

Conclusions: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0835-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374167PMC
July 2020

Lipid Trait Variants and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 27;29(5):1074-1078. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

Methods: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated ( < 5 × 10) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, = 137), total cholesterol (TC, = 161), and triglycerides (TG, = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance ( < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes.

Impact: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196490PMC
May 2020

Genetically Determined Height and Risk of Non-hodgkin Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:1539. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999122PMC
January 2020

Associations Between Prediagnostic Concentrations of Circulating Sex Steroid Hormones and Liver Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women.

Hepatology 2020 08;72(2):535-547

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Background And Aims: In almost all countries, incidence rates of liver cancer (LC) are 100%-200% higher in males than in females. However, this difference is predominantly driven by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75% of LC cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) accounts for 12% of cases and has rates only 30% higher in males. Hormones are hypothesized to underlie observed sex differences. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with LC risk, overall and by histology, by leveraging resources from five prospective cohorts.

Approach And Results: Seven sex steroid hormones and SHBG were quantitated using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, from baseline serum/plasma samples of 191 postmenopausal female LC cases (HCC, n = 83; ICC, n = 56) and 426 controls, matched on sex, cohort, age, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between a one-unit increase in log hormone value (approximate doubling of circulating concentration) and LC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. A doubling in the concentration of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) was associated with a 50% decreased LC risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.82), whereas SHBG was associated with a 31% increased risk (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.05-1.63). Examining histology, a doubling of estradiol was associated with a 40% increased risk of ICC (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), but not HCC (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.81-1.54).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that higher levels of 4-dione may be associated with lower, and SHBG with higher, LC risk in women. However, this study does not support the hypothesis that higher estrogen levels decrease LC risk. Indeed, estradiol may be associated with an increased ICC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391790PMC
August 2020

Understanding racial disparities in renal cell carcinoma incidence: estimates of population attributable risk in two US populations.

Cancer Causes Control 2020 Jan 28;31(1):85-93. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.

Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among black than white Americans. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear.

Methods: We calculated race- and sex-specific population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among black and white subjects ≥  50 years of age from the US Kidney Cancer Study (USKC; 965 cases, 953 controls), a case-control study in Chicago and Detroit, and a nested case-control study in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care network (KPNC; 2,162 cases, 21,484 controls). We also estimated PAR% for other modifiable RCC risk factors (cigarette smoking, obesity) in USKC.

Results: In USKC, the PAR% for hypertension was 50% (95% CI 24-77%) and 44% (95% CI 25-64%) among black women and men, respectively, and 29% (95% CI 13-44%) and 27% (95% CI 14-39%) for white women and men, respectively. In KPNC, the hypertension PAR% was 40% (95% CI 18-62%) and 23% (95% CI 2-44%) among black women and men, and 27% (95% CI 20-35%) and 19% (95% CI 14-24%) among white women and men, respectively. The PAR% for CKD in both studies ranged from 7 to 10% for black women and men but was negligible (<1%) for white subjects. In USKC, the PAR% for current smoking was 20% and 8% among black and white men, respectively, and negligible and 8.6% for black and white women, respectively. The obesity PAR% ranged from 12 to 24% across all race/sex strata.

Conclusions: If the associations found are causal, interventions that prevent hypertension and CKD among black Americans could potentially eliminate the racial disparity in RCC incidence (hypothetical black:white RCC incidence ratio of 0.5).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-019-01248-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717618PMC
January 2020

Abdominal and gluteofemoral size and risk of liver cancer: The liver cancer pooling project.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 23;147(3):675-685. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that include data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n = 2,208, HCC n = 1,154, ICC n = 335). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5 to <25 kg/m ; HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391795PMC
August 2020

Inherited variants at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 are associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and implicate immune pathways.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 01;29(1):70-79

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001601PMC
January 2020

Age at start of using tobacco on the risk of head and neck cancer: Pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium (INHANCE).

Cancer Epidemiol 2019 12 3;63:101615. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk.

Methods: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects logistic regression models.

Results: Without adjusting for tobacco packyears, we observed that younger age at starting tobacco use was associated with an increased HNC risk for ever smokers (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.97). However, the observed association between age at starting tobacco use and HNC risk became null after adjusting for tobacco packyears (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.19). In the stratified analyses on HNC subsites by tobacco packyears or years since quitting, no difference in the association between age at start and HNC risk was observed.

Conclusions: Results from this pooled analysis suggest that increased HNC risks observed with earlier age at starting tobacco smoking are largely due to longer duration and higher cumulative tobacco exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2019.101615DOI Listing
December 2019

Prediagnostic serum sCD27 and sCD30 in serial samples and risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.

Int J Cancer 2020 06 11;146(12):3312-3319. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.

Elevated prediagnostic serum levels of the immune activation markers sCD27 and sCD30 have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, the use of a single sample per participant in these studies has limited etiologic inferences. We report findings, overall and by NHL subtype, from a case-control analysis (422 cases, 434 controls) within the Janus Serum Bank with two samples per subject collected on average 5 years apart. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was associated with elevated sCD27 in the later, but not earlier, prediagnostic sample (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-11.6 and 1.7, 0.7-4.7 per log increase, respectively) in analyses adjusting for both analytes, while follicular lymphoma (FL) was associated with elevated sCD30 in both the later and earlier samples (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-4.4 and 2.3, 1.2-4.4, respectively). CLL/SLL cases were significantly more likely than controls to have higher sCD27 in the later vs. earlier sample (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9 per standard deviation increase); no such difference in sCD30 was apparent for FL. In a joint analysis, NHL cases were more likely than controls to have below-median sCD27 in the earlier sample and above-median sCD27 in the later sample (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3). For sCD30, the association between sCD30 and FL was confined to subjects with above-median analyte levels in both samples (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.9). Our findings are compatible with elevated sCD27 representing a disease-induced effect and sCD30 representing a marker of increased FL susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32684DOI Listing
June 2020

Estimation of Source-Specific Occupational Benzene Exposure in a Population-Based Case-Control Study of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Ann Work Expo Health 2019 10;63(8):842-855

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objectives: Occupational exposures in population-based case-control studies are increasingly being assessed using decision rules that link participants' responses to occupational questionnaires to exposure estimates. We used a hierarchical process that incorporated decision rules and job-by-job expert review to assign occupational benzene exposure estimates in a US population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: We conducted a literature review to identify scenarios in which occupational benzene exposure has occurred, which we grouped into 12 categories of benzene exposure sources. For each source category, we then developed decision rules for assessing probability (ordinal scale based on the likelihood of exposure > 0.02 ppm), frequency (proportion of work time exposed), and intensity of exposure (in ppm). The rules used the participants' occupational history responses and, for a subset of jobs, responses to job- and industry-specific modules. For probability and frequency, we used a hierarchical assignment procedure that prioritized subject-specific module information when available. Next, we derived job-group medians from the module responses to assign estimates to jobs with only occupational history responses. Last, we used job-by-job expert review to assign estimates when job-group medians were not available or when the decision rules identified possible heterogeneous or rare exposure scenarios. For intensity, we developed separate estimates for each benzene source category that were based on published measurement data whenever possible. Frequency and intensity annual source-specific estimates were assigned only for those jobs assigned ≥75% probability of exposure. Annual source-specific concentrations (intensity × frequency) were summed to obtain a total annual benzene concentration for each job.

Results: Of the 8827 jobs reported by participants, 8% required expert review for one or more source categories. Overall, 287 (3.3%) jobs were assigned ≥75% probability of exposure from any benzene source category. The source categories most commonly assigned ≥75% probability of exposure were gasoline and degreasing. The median total annual benzene concentration among jobs assigned ≥75% probability was 0.11 ppm (interquartile range: 0.06-0.55). The highest source-specific median annual concentrations were observed for ink and printing (2.3 and 1.2 ppm, respectively).

Conclusions: The applied framework captures some subject-specific variability in work tasks, provides transparency to the exposure decision process, and facilitates future sensitivity analyses. The developed decision rules can be used as a starting point by other researchers to assess occupational benzene exposure in future population-based studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788340PMC
October 2019

Genetic overlap between autoimmune diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.

Genet Epidemiol 2019 10 13;43(7):844-863. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Medicina Traslazionale, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Vercelli, Italy.

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6763347PMC
October 2019

Association of Immune Marker Changes With Progression of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance to Multiple Myeloma.

JAMA Oncol 2019 Sep;5(9):1293-1301

Myeloma Section, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Malmo, Malmo, Sweden.

Importance: Multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Risk models that estimate the risk of progression from MGUS to multiple myeloma use data from a single time point, usually the initial workup.

Objective: To longitudinally investigate the alterations of serum immune markers with stable vs progressive MGUS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cross-sectional cohort study included 77 469 adult participants aged 55 to 74 years in the screening arm of the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial who had a diagnosis of progressing MGUS (n = 187) or stable MGUS (n = 498), including light-chain subtype, from November 1993, through December 2011. For each participant, all available serially stored prediagnostic serum samples (N = 3266) were obtained. Data analysis was performed from April 2018, to December 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Serum protein and monoclonal immunoglobulin levels, serum free light chains, and serum light chains within each immunoglobulin class were measured.

Results: Of 685 individuals included in the study, 461 (67.3%) were men; the mean (SD) age was 69.1 (5.6) years. In cross-sectional modeling, risk factors associated with progressive MGUS were IgA isotype (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.03-3.13; P = .04), 15 g/L or more monoclonal spike (adjusted OR, 23.5; 95% CI, 8.9-61.9; P < .001), skewed (<0.1 or >10) serum free light chains ratio (adjusted OR, 46.4; 95% CI, 18.4-117.0; P < .001), and severe immunoparesis (≥2 suppressed uninvolved immunoglobulins) (adjusted OR, 19.1; 95% Cl, 7.5-48.3; P < .001). Risk factors associated with progressive light-chain MGUS were skewed serum free light chains ratio (adjusted OR, 44.0; 95% CI, 14.2-136.3; P < .001) and severe immunoparesis (adjusted OR, 48.6; 95% CI, 9.5-248.2; P < .001). In longitudinal analysis of participants with serial samples prior to progression, 23 of 43 participants (53%) had high-risk MGUS before progression; 16 of these 23 (70%) experienced conversion from low-risk or intermediate-risk MGUS within 5 years. Similar results were found for light-chain MGUS.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of evolving risk patterns support annual blood testing and risk assessment for patients with MGUS or light-chain MGUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.1568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6646992PMC
September 2019

Validity of retrospective occupational exposure estimates of lead and manganese in a case-control study.

Occup Environ Med 2019 09 15;76(9):680-687. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: The validity of surrogate measures of retrospective occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies has rarely been evaluated. Using toenail samples as bioindicators of exposure, we assessed whether work tasks and expert assessments of occupational metal exposure obtained from personal interviews were associated with lead and manganese concentrations.

Methods: We selected 609 controls from a case-control study of bladder cancer in New England who had held a job for ≥1 year 8-24 months prior to toenail collection. We evaluated associations between toenail metal concentrations and five tasks extracted from occupational questionnaires (grinding, painting, soldering, welding, working near engines) using linear regression models. For 139 subjects, we also evaluated associations between the toenail concentrations and exposure estimates from three experts.

Results: We observed a 1.9-fold increase (95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) in toenail lead concentrations with painting and 1.4-fold increase (95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) in manganese concentrations with working around engines and handling fuel. We observed significant trends with increasing frequency of both activities. For lead, significant trends were observed with the ratings from all three experts. Their average ratings showed the strongest association, with subjects rated as possibly or probably exposed to lead having concentrations that were 2.0 and 2.5 times higher, respectively, than in unexposed subjects (p <0.001). Expert estimates were only weakly associated with manganese toenail concentrations.

Conclusions: Our findings support the ability of experts to identify broad contrasts in previous occupational exposure to lead. The stronger associations with task frequency and expert assessments support using refined exposure characterisation whenever possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2019-105744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6767614PMC
September 2019

Circulating markers of cellular immune activation in prediagnostic blood sample and lung cancer risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3).

Int J Cancer 2020 05 22;146(9):2394-2405. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN.

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all p < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960354PMC
May 2020

Sex specific associations in genome wide association analysis of renal cell carcinoma.

Eur J Hum Genet 2019 10 23;27(10):1589-1598. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Russian N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (OR) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], P = 1.71 × 10 compared with female odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], P = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, OR = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], P = 1.59 × 10 compared with OR = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], P = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0455-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777615PMC
October 2019

Association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and serum levels of microRNAs: a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2019 11 3;92(8):1077-1085. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a suspected lymphomagen, and serum levels of miRNAs in a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of TCE-exposed workers and comparable unexposed controls in China.

Methods: Serum levels of 40 miRNAs were compared in 74 workers exposed to TCE (median: 12 ppm) and 90 unexposed control workers. Linear regression models were used to test for differences in serum miRNA levels between exposed and unexposed workers and to evaluate exposure-response relationships across TCE exposure categories using a three-level ordinal variable [i.e., unexposed, < 12 ppm, the median value among workers exposed to TCE) and ≥ 12 ppm)]. Models were adjusted for sex, age, current smoking, current alcohol use, and recent infection.

Results: Seven miRNAs showed significant differences between exposed and unexposed workers at FDR (false discovery rate) < 0.20. miR-150-5p and let-7b-5p also showed significant inverse exposure-response associations with TCE exposure (P= 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). The % differences in serum levels of miR-150-5p relative to unexposed controls were - 13% and - 20% among workers exposed to < 12 ppm and ≥ 12 ppm TCE, respectively.

Conclusions: miR-150-5p is involved in B cell receptor pathways and let-7b-5p plays a role in the innate immune response processes that are potentially important in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to directly test the association between serum levels of these miRNAs and risk of NHL in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-019-01448-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953905PMC
November 2019

Smoking, Alcohol, and Biliary Tract Cancer Risk: A Pooling Project of 26 Prospective Studies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 12;111(12):1263-1278

Background: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear.

Methods: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers.

Conclusions: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910180PMC
December 2019

Anthropometric Risk Factors for Cancers of the Biliary Tract in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project.

Cancer Res 2019 08 21;79(15):3973-3982. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana.

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759233PMC
August 2019
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