Publications by authors named "Marc S Sabatine"

400 Publications

Effect of evolocumab on acute arterial events across all vascular territories : results from the FOURIER trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 60 Fenwood Road, Suite 7022, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Aims: We assessed the impact of the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab on acute arterial events across all vascular territories, including coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular beds, in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

Methods And Results: In the FOURIER trial, 27 564 patients with stable ASCVD on statin therapy were randomly assigned to evolocumab or placebo. Acute arterial events were a composite of acute coronary (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, or urgent coronary revascularization), cerebrovascular (ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack, or urgent cerebral revascularization), or peripheral vascular (acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, or urgent peripheral revascularization) events. Of the 2210 first acute arterial events, 74% were coronary, 22% were cerebrovascular, and 4% were peripheral vascular. Evolocumab reduced first acute arterial events by 19% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81 [95% confidence interval 0.74-0.88]; P < 0.001), with significant individual reductions in acute coronary (HR 0.83 [0.75-0.91]), cerebrovascular (HR 0.77 [0.65-0.92]), and peripheral vascular (HR 0.58 [0.38-0.88]) events. There were 3437 total events (first plus recurrent), with evolocumab reducing total events by 24% (incidence rate ratio 0.76 [0.69-0.85]). The magnitude of reduction in acute arterial events with evolocumab numerically increased over time, with a 16% reduction (HR 0.84 [0.75-0.95]) in the first year followed by a 24% reduction (HR 0.76 [0.67-0.85]) thereafter.

Conclusion: The addition of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab to statin therapy reduced acute arterial events across all vascular territories with a robust effect over time, indicating a pan-vascular impact of aggressive lipid-lowering therapy on these acute and clinically meaningful events.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01764633.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab604DOI Listing
September 2021

A Biomarker-Based Score for Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure in Patients With Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: Heart failure (HF) is an impactful complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to develop and validate a risk score for hospitalization for HF (HHF) incorporating biomarkers and clinical factor(s) in patients with T2DM.

Research Design And Methods: We derived a risk score for HHF using clinical data, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), and N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) from 6,106 placebo-treated patients with T2DM in SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53). Candidate variables were assessed using Cox regression. The strongest indicators of HHF risk were included in the score using integer weights. The score was externally validated in 7,251 placebo-treated patients in DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on CardiovascuLAR Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58). The effect of dapagliflozin on HHF was assessed by risk category in DECLARE-TIMI 58.

Results: The strongest indicators of HHF risk were NT-proBNP, prior HF, and hsTnT (each  < 0.001). A risk score using these three variables identified a gradient of HHF risk (-trend <0.001) in the derivation and validation cohorts, with C-indices of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89) and 0.84 (0.81-0.86), respectively. Whereas there was no significant effect of dapagliflozin versus placebo on HHF in the low-risk group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98 [95% CI 0.50-1.92]), dapagliflozin significantly reduced HHF in the intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk groups (HR 0.64 [0.43-0.95], 0.63 [0.43-0.94], and 0.72 [0.54-0.96], respectively). Correspondingly, absolute risk reductions (95% CI) increased across these latter 3 groups: 1.0% (0.0-1.9), 3.0% (0.7-5.3), and 4.4% (-0.2 to 8.9) (-trend <0.001).

Conclusions: We developed and validated a risk score for HHF in T2DM that incorporated NT-proBNP, prior HF, and hsTnT. The risk score identifies patients at higher risk of HHF who derive greater absolute benefit from dapagliflozin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-1170DOI Listing
September 2021

Inhibition of p38 MAP Kinase in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction - Findings from the LATITUDE TIMI 60 Trial.

Am Heart J 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; TIMI Study Group, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: p38 mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) mediates the response to pro-inflammatory cytokines following myocardial infarction (MI) and is inhibited by losmapimod.

Methods: LATITUDE-TIMI 60 (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02145468) randomized patients with MI to losmapimod or placebo for 12 weeks (24 weeks total follow-up). In this pre-specified analysis, we examined outcomes based on MI type [ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) (865, 25%) and non-STEMI (2624, 75%)].

Results: In patients with STEMI, inflammation, measured by hs-CRP, was significantly attenuated with losmapimod at 48 hours (p<0.001) and week 12 (p=0.01). Losmapimod lowered NT-proBNP in patients with STEMI at 48 hours (p=0.04) and week 12 (p=0.02). The effects of losmapimod on CV death (CVD), MI, or severe recurrent ischemia requiring urgent coronary artery revascularization at 24 weeks [MACE] differed in patients with STEMI (7.0% vs. 10.8%; HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.41-1.03; p=0.06) and NSTEMI (11.4% vs. 8.5%; HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.02-1.66; p=0.04; p[int]=0.009). CVD or HHF among patients with STEMI were 5.6% (losmapimod) and 8.3% (placebo) (HR 0.66; 95%CI 0.40-1.11; p=0.12) and in NSTEMI were 4.8% (losmapimod) and 4.4% (placebo) (HR 1.09; 95%CI 0.76-1.56) in patients with NSTEMI.

Conclusions: Patients with STEMI treated with losmapimod had an attenuated inflammatory response. Our collective findings raise the hypothesis that mitigating the inflammatory response may result in different outcomes in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. While the difference in outcomes is exploratory, these findings do support separate examination of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI and increased emphasis on heart failure in future investigation of modulators of inflammation in MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.08.022DOI Listing
September 2021

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

Cardiovascular Benefit of Lowering LDL Cholesterol Below 40 mg/dl.

Circulation 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056536DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin on ventricular arrhythmias, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death in DAPA-HF.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep;42(36):3727-3738

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dapagliflozin on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods And Results: In a post hoc analysis of DAPA-HF, we examined serious adverse event reports related to ventricular arrhythmias or cardiac arrest, in addition to adjudicated sudden death. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the composite of the first occurrence of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. A serious ventricular arrhythmia was reported in 115 (2.4%) of the 4744 patients in DAPA-HF (ventricular fibrillation in 15 patients, ventricular tachycardia in 86, 'other' ventricular arrhythmia/tachyarrhythmia in 12, and torsade de pointes in 2 patients). A total of 206 (41%) of the 500 cardiovascular deaths occurred suddenly. Eight patients survived resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Independent predictors of the composite outcome (first occurrence of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest or sudden death), ranked by chi-square value, were log-transformed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, history of ventricular arrhythmia, left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, history of myocardial infarction, male sex, body mass index, serum sodium concentration, non-white race, treatment with dapagliflozin, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Of participants assigned to dapagliflozin, 140/2373 patients (5.9%) experienced the composite outcome compared with 175/2371 patients (7.4%) in the placebo group [hazard ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.63-0.99), P = 0.037], and the effect was consistent across each of the components of the composite outcome.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, or sudden death when added to conventional therapy in patients with HFrEF.

Clinical Trial Registration:  ClinicalTrials.gov unique identifier: NCT03036124 (DAPA-HF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455345PMC
September 2021

Assessment of the Change of a Continuous Variable as a Function of its Initial Value-Reply.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.3028DOI Listing
August 2021

Obesity and effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 60 Fenwood Road, Suite 7022, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Aims : We investigated the associations between obesity, cardiorenal events, and benefits of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods And Results : DECLARE-TIMI 58 randomized patients with T2DM and either atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease or multiple risk factors to dapagliflozin vs. placebo. Patients were stratified by body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): normal (18.5 to <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderately obese (30 to <35), severely obese (35 to <40), and very-severely obese (≥40). Outcomes analysed were CV death, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), renal-specific composite outcome, and atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF/AFL). Of 17 134 patients, 9.0% had a normal BMI, 31.5% were overweight, 32.4% were moderately, 17.2% severely, and 9.8% were very-severely obese. Higher BMI was associated with a higher adjusted risk of HHF and AF/AFL (hazard ratio 1.30 and 1.28, respectively, per 5 kg/m2; P < 0.001 for all). Dapagliflozin reduced body weight by similar relative amounts consistently across BMI categories (percent difference: -1.9 to -2.4%). Although relative risk reductions in CV and renal-specific composite outcomes with dapagliflozin did not significantly differ across the range of BMI (P for interaction ≥0.20 for all outcomes), obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) tended to derive greater absolute risk reduction in HHF and AF/AFL (P for interaction 0.02 and 0.09, respectively) than non-obese patients.

Conclusions : In DECLARE-TIMI 58, patients with T2DM and higher BMI were more likely to have HHF and AF/AFL. Whereas relative risk reductions in CV and renal outcomes with dapagliflozin were generally consistent across the range of BMI, absolute risk reduction in obesity-related outcomes including HHF and AF/AFL tended to be larger in obese patients with T2DM.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01730534.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab530DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-Term Ticagrelor in Patients With Prior Coronary Stenting in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 21;10(17):e020446. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

TIMI Study Group Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine Brigham and Women's HospitalHarvard Medical School Boston MA.

Background Coronary stent type and risk of stent thrombosis remain important factors affecting recommended duration of dual antiplatelet therapy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of long-term ticagrelor in patients with prior coronary stenting enrolled in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54) trial. Methods and Results Patients in PEGASUS-TIMI 54 had a myocardial infarction 1 to 3 year prior and were randomized 1:1:1 to ticagrelor 60 or 90 mg BID or placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (major adverse cardiovascular events). Stent thrombosis was prospectively adjudicated (Academic Research Consortium definition). Baseline characteristics were compared by most recent stent type (bare metal versus drug-eluting stent and first- versus later-generation drug-eluting stent). Treatment arms were compared using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 21 162 patients randomized, 80% (n=16 891) had prior coronary stenting. Following randomization, myocardial infarction was the most frequent ischemic event in patients with prior stenting in the placebo arm, occurring in 5.2% of patients (Type 1: 4.1%), followed by cardiovascular death (2.3%), stroke (1.7%), and stent thrombosis (0.9%). Ticagrelor reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (7.0% versus 8.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-96) regardless of stent type (bare metal stent versus drug-eluting stent: p=0.767; first versus later generation: p=0.940). The rate of any stent thrombosis was numerically lower with ticagrelor (0.7% versus 0.9%; HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.05) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding was increased (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.90-3.68). Conclusions Long-term ticagrelor reduces major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with prior myocardial infarction and coronary stenting regardless of stent type, with the benefit driven predominantly by reduction in de novo events. Nonfatal major bleeding is increased with ticagrelor. Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01225562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020446DOI Listing
September 2021

Extrapolating Long-term Event-Free and Overall Survival With Dapagliflozin in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Exploratory Analysis of a Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Importance: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinicians may find estimates of the projected long-term benefits of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors a helpful addition to clinical trial results when communicating the benefits of this class of drug to patients.

Objective: To estimate the projected long-term treatment effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF over the duration of a patient's lifetime.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Exploratory analysis was performed of Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF), a phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% in New York Heart Association functional classification II to IV and elevated plasma levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Mean (SD) duration of follow-up was 17.6 (5.2) months.

Interventions: Dapagliflozin, 10 mg, once daily vs placebo in addition to standard therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary composite outcome was time to first hospitalization for heart failure, urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous therapy, or cardiovascular death. The trial results were extrapolated to estimate the projected long-term treatment effects of dapagliflozin over the duration of a patient's lifetime for the primary outcome and the secondary outcome of death from any cause.

Results: A total of 4744 patients (1109 women [23.4%]; 3635 men [76.6%]) were randomized in DAPA-HF, with a mean (SD) age of 66.3 (10.9) years. The extrapolated mean event-free survival for an individual aged 65 years from a primary composite end point event was 6.2 years for placebo and 8.3 years for dapagliflozin, representing an event-free survival time gain of 2.1 years (95% CI, 0.8-3.3 years; P = .002). When considering death from any cause, mean extrapolated life expectancy for an individual aged 65 years was 9.1 years for placebo and 10.8 years for dapagliflozin, with a gain in survival of 1.7 years (95% CI, 0.1-3.3; P = .03) with dapagliflozin. Similar results were seen when extrapolated across the age range studied. In analyses of subgroups of patients in DAPA-HF, consistent benefits were seen with dapagliflozin on both event-free and overall survival.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings indicate that dapagliflozin provides clinically meaningful gains in extrapolated event-free and overall survival. These findings may be helpful in communicating the benefits of this treatment to patients with HFrEF.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2632DOI Listing
July 2021

LDL-cholesterol lowering with evolocumab, and outcomes according to age and sex in patients in the FOURIER Trial.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Jul;28(8):805-812

TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, USA.

Aims: Some trials have reported diminished efficacy for statins in the elderly, and in women compared with men. We examined the efficacy and safety of evolocumab by patient age and sex in the FOURIER trial, the first major cardiovascular outcome trial of a PCSK9 inhibitor.

Methods And Results: FOURIER was a randomised, double blind trial, comparing evolocumab with placebo in 27,564 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease receiving statin therapy (median follow-up 2.2 years). The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalisation for unstable angina or coronary revascularisation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the efficacy of evolocumab versus placebo stratified by quartiles of patient age and by sex. There were small variations in the cardiovascular event rate across the age range (for the primary endpoint, Kaplan-Meier at 3 years 15.6%, >69 years, vs. 15.1%, ≤56 years, P = 0.45); however, the relative efficacy of evolocumab was consistent regardless of patient age (for the primary endpoint (Q1 hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) 0.83, 0.72-0.96, Q2 0.88, 0.76-1.01, Q3 0.82, 0.71-0.95, Q4 0.86, 0.74-1.00; Pinteraction = 0.91), and the key secondary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) (Q1 0.74 (0.61-0.89), Q2 0.83 (0.69-1.00), Q3 0.78 (0.65-0.94), Q4 0.82 (0.69-0.98)); Pinteraction = 0.81). Women had a lower primary endpoint rate than men (Kaplan-Meier at 3 years 12.5 vs. 15.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). Relative risk reductions in the primary endpoint and key secondary endpoint were similar in women (0.81 (0.69-0.95) and 0.74 (0.61-0.90), respectively) compared with men (0.86 (0.80-0.94) and 0.81 (0.73-0.90), respectively), Pinteraction = 0.48 and 0.44, respectively. Adverse events were more common in women and with increasing age but, with the exception of injection site reactions, there were no important significant differences reported by those assigned evolocumab versus placebo.

Conclusions: The efficacy and safety of evolocumab are similar throughout a broad range of ages and in both men and women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320902750DOI Listing
July 2021

Combining High-Sensitivity Troponin With the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Cholesterol Guidelines to Guide Evolocumab Therapy.

Circulation 2021 Jul 19;144(3):249-251. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (N.A.M., K.O., M.T., R.P.G., M.S.S., D.A.M.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442603PMC
July 2021

Efficacy of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction according to body mass index.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there is an 'obesity paradox', where survival is better in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) and weight loss is associated with worse outcomes. We examined the effect of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor according to baseline BMI in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Methods And Results: Body mass index was examined using standard categories, i.e. underweight (<18.5 kg/m ); normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m ); obesity class I (30.0-34.9 kg/m ); obesity class II (35.0-39.9 kg/m ); and obesity class III (≥40 kg/m ). The primary outcome in DAPA-HF was the composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. Overall, 1348 patients (28.4%) were under/normal-weight, 1722 (36.3%) overweight, 1013 (21.4%) obesity class I and 659 (13.9%) obesity class II/III. The unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the primary outcome with obesity class 1, the lowest risk group, as reference was: under/normal-weight 1.41 (1.16-1.71), overweight 1.18 (0.97-1.42), obesity class II/III 1.37 (1.10-1.72). Patients with class I obesity were also at lowest risk of death. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome and other outcomes did not vary by baseline BMI, e.g. hazard ratio for primary outcome: under/normal-weight 0.74 (0.58-0.94), overweight 0.81 (0.65-1.02), obesity class I 0.68 (0.50-0.92), obesity class II/III 0.71 (0.51-1.00) (P-value for interaction = 0.79). The mean decrease in weight at 8 months with dapagliflozin was 0.9 (0.7-1.1) kg (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: We confirmed an 'obesity survival paradox' in HFrEF. We showed that dapagliflozin was beneficial across the wide range of BMI studied.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2308DOI Listing
July 2021

The Effect of Dapagliflozin on Albuminuria in DECLARE-TIMI 58.

Diabetes Care 2021 Aug 7;44(8):1805-1815. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Diabetes Unit, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objective: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve albuminuria in patients with high cardiorenal risk. We report albuminuria change in the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE-TIMI 58) cardiovascular outcome trial, which included populations with lower cardiorenal risk.

Research Design And Methods: DECLARE-TIMI 58 randomized 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes, creatinine clearance >60 mL/min, and either atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD; 40.6%) or risk-factors for CVD (59.4%) to dapagliflozin or placebo. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was tested at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. The change in UACR over time was measured as a continuous and categorical variable (≤15, >15 to <30, ≥30 to ≤300, and >300 mg/g) by treatment arm. The composite cardiorenal outcome was a ≥40% sustained decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 mL/min/1.73 m, end-stage kidney disease, and cardiovascular or renal death; specific renal outcome included all except cardiovascular death.

Results: Baseline UACR was available for 16,843 (98.15%) participants: 9,067 (53.83%) with ≤15 mg/g, 2,577 (15.30%) with >15 to <30 mg/g, 4,030 (23.93%) with 30-300 mg/g, and 1,169 (6.94%) with >300 mg/g. Measured as a continuous variable, UACR improved from baseline to 4.0 years with dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, across all UACR and eGFR categories (all < 0.0001). Sustained confirmed ≥1 category improvement in UACR was more common in dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.35-1.56], < 0.0001). Cardiorenal outcome was reduced with dapagliflozin for subgroups of UACR ≥30 mg/g ( < 0.0125, = 0.033), and the renal-specific outcome was reduced for all UACR subgroups ( < 0.05, = 0.480).

Conclusions: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, dapagliflozin demonstrated a favorable effect on UACR and renal-specific outcome across baseline UACR categories, including patients with normal albumin excretion. The results suggest a role for SGLT2i also in the primary prevention of diabetic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385472PMC
August 2021

Myocardial Infarction and Evolocumab-Reply.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2000DOI Listing
June 2021

Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group: JACC Focus Seminar 2/8.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(22):2822-2845

TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In 1984, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) decided to study the efficacy and safety of the treatment of acute myocardial infarction with an emerging therapy, coronary thrombolysis, and thus the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) Study Group was born. Following completion of 3 clinical trials of thrombolytic therapy supported by the NHLBI, TIMI became an academic research organization headquartered at Brigham and Women's Hospital and subsequently branched out to study a wide range of patients, including those with stable coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease; dyslipidemia; heart failure; atrial fibrillation; diabetes; and obesity. TIMI also began to study a wide range of interventions including thrombolytic, antithrombotic, lipid-modifying, anti-inflammatory, heart failure, glucose-lowering, and weight loss agents. TIMI, now in its 37th year, has completed >70 trials. This review describes the origins of the TIMI Study Group, summarizes several of its completed trials and the major lessons learned from them, and discusses ongoing trials and future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.01.060DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Evolocumab Use Among Asian Subjects - A Subgroup Analysis of the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) Trial.

Circ J 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

Background: There are concerns that Asian patients respond differently to some medications. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab among Asian vs. other subjects in the FOURIER trial, which randomized stable atherosclerosis patients to receive either evolocumab or placebo.Methods and Results:Effects of adding evolocumab vs. placebo to background statin therapy on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reductions, cardiovascular outcomes, and adverse events were compared among 27,564 participants with atherosclerotic disease, according to self-reported Asian (n=2,723) vs. other (n=24,841) races followed for a median of 2.2 years in the FOURIER trial. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. At randomization, Asians had slightly lower LDL-C (median 89 [IQR 78-104] mg/dL vs. 92 [80-109] mg/dL; P<0.001) and were much less likely to be on a high-intensity statin (33.3% vs. 73.3%; P<0.001). Evolocumab lowered LDL-C more in Asians than in others (66% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The effect of evolocumab on the primary endpoint was similar in Asians (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.03) and others (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P interaction=0.55). There was no excess of serious adverse events with evolocumab among Asians over others.

Conclusions: Use of evolocumab robustly lowers LDL-C and is equally efficacious in lowering the risk of cardiovascular events and safe in Asians as it is in others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1051DOI Listing
May 2021

Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Heart Failure Risk in Stable Patients With Atherothrombotic Disease: A Nested Biomarker Study From TRA 2°P-TIMI 50.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 05 22;10(9):e018673. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

TIMI Study Group Brigham and Women's HospitalHarvard Medical School Boston MA.

Background Patients with stable atherothrombotic disease vary in their risk of developing heart failure (HF). Circulating cardiovascular biomarkers may improve HF risk assessment and identify patients who may benefit from emerging HF preventive therapies. Methods and Results We measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) in 15 833 patients with prior myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral artery disease from the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50) trial, excluding patients with recent myocardial infarction (<30 days). Biomarkers were categorized using a priori cut points. Hospitalization for HF (HHF) end points were adjudicated with blinded structured review of serious adverse events. Associations between biomarkers and HHF outcomes were adjusted for sex and independent clinical risk predictors of HHF in our cohort (age ≥75, prior HF, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polyvascular disease, body mass index, anemia, chronic kidney disease, hypertension). Baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and BNP each identified a significant graded risk of HHF independent of clinical risk predictors, including in the subgroups of patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and with and without prior HF. Patients with both high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I ≥5 ng/L and BNP ≥100 pg/mL had the highest HHF event rates. When added to a multivariable Cox regression model with clinical risk predictors (C-index 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.90), BNP (C -index 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.93), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (C-index 0.90; 95% CI, 0.88-0.92) each significantly improved the prognostic performance of the model (both <0.001). Conclusions Biomarkers of myocardial injury and hemodynamic stress are independent predictors of HHF risk in patients with stable atherothrombotic disease, with and without prior HF and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00526474.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200769PMC
May 2021

Differentiating Type 1 and Type 2 Myocardial Infarction: Unfortunately, Still More Art Than Science.

Authors:
Marc S Sabatine

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jul;6(7):781

Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.0693DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Dapagliflozin on Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Baseline Kidney Function and Albuminuria Status in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prespecified Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jul;6(7):801-810

TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, promote renal glucose excretion and reduce cardiovascular (CV) deaths and hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF) among patients with type 2 diabetes. The relative CV efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to baseline kidney function and albuminuria status are unknown.

Objective: To assess the CV efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This secondary analysis of the randomized clinical trial Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58 compared dapagliflozin vs placebo in 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and a baseline creatinine clearance of 60 mL/min or higher. Patients were categorized according to prespecified subgroups of baseline eGFR (<60 vs ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2), urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR; <30 vs ≥30 mg/g), and of chronic kidney disease (CKD) markers using these subgroups (0, 1, or 2). The study was conducted from May 2013 to September 2018.

Interventions: Dapagliflozin vs placebo.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The dual primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and CV death) and the composite of CV death or HHF.

Results: At baseline, 1265 patients (7.4%) had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 5199 patients (30.9%) had albuminuria. Among patients having data for both eGFR and UACR, 10 958 patients (65.1%) had an eGFR equal to or higher than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and an UACR below 30 mg/g (mean [SD] age, 63.7 [6.7] years; 40.1% women), 5336 patients (31.7%) had either an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria (mean [SD] age, 64.1 [7.1] years; 32.6% women), and 548 patients (3.3%) had both (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [6.9] years; 30.5% women). In the placebo group, patients with more CKD markers had higher event rates at 4 years as assessed using the Kaplan-Meier approach for the composite of CV death or HHF (3.9% for 0 markers, 8.3% for 1 marker, and 17.4% for 2 markers) and major adverse cardiovascular events (7.5% for 0 markers, 11.6% for 1 marker, and 18.9% for 2 markers). Estimates for relative risk reductions for the composite of CV death or HHF and for major adverse cardiovascular events were generally consistent across subgroups (both P > .24 for interaction), although greater absolute risk reductions were observed with more markers of CKD. The absolute risk difference for the composite of CV death or HHF was greater for patients with more markers of CKD (0 markers, -0.5%; 1 marker, -1.0%; and 2 markers, -8.3%; P = .02 for interaction). The numbers of amputations, cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, fractures, and major hypoglycemic events were balanced or numerically lower with dapagliflozin compared with placebo for patients with an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and an UACR of 30 mg/g or higher.

Conclusions And Relevance: The effect of dapagliflozin on the relative risk for CV events was consistent across eGFR and UACR groups, with the greatest absolute benefit for the composite of CV death or HHF observed among patients with both reduced eGFR and albuminuria.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01730534.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.0660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047725PMC
July 2021

Plasma Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients After an Acute Coronary Syndrome in MERLIN-TIMI 36.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 12;10(8):e017401. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

TIMI Study Group Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston MA.

Background Plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) have been shown to be inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular death in primary prevention. The risk relationship in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome is less well established. Methods and Results Baseline plasma ω3-PUFA composition (α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) was assessed through gas chromatography with flame ionization detection in a case-cohort study involving 203 patients with cardiovascular death, 325 with myocardial infarction, 271 with ventricular tachycardia, and 161 with atrial fibrillation, and a random sample of 1612 event-free subjects as controls from MERLIN-TIMI 36 (Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non-ST-Elevation-Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36), a trial of patients hospitalized with non-ST-segment-elevation -acute coronary syndrome. After inverse-probability-weighted multivariable adjustment including all traditional risk factors, a higher relative proportion of long-chain ω3-PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) were associated with 18% lower odds of cardiovascular death (adjusted [adj] odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98) that was primarily driven by 27% lower odds of sudden cardiac death (adj OR per 1 SD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.97). Long-chain ω3-PUFA levels in the top quartile were associated with 51% lower odds of cardiovascular death (adj OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and 63% lower odds of sudden cardiac death (adj OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.56). An attenuated relationship was seen for α-linolenic acid and subsequent odds of cardiovascular (adj OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74-1.14) and sudden cardiac death (adj OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.67-1.25). No significant relationship was observed between any ω3-PUFAs and the odds of cardiovascular death unrelated to sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or early post-acute coronary syndrome ventricular tachycardia. Conclusions In patients after non-ST-segment-elevation-acute coronary syndrome, plasma long-chain ω3-PUFAs are inversely associated with lower odds of sudden cardiac death, independent of traditional risk factors and lipids. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00099788.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174157PMC
April 2021

Dapagliflozin and Recurrent Heart Failure Hospitalizations in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis of DAPA-HF.

Circulation 2021 May 9;143(20):1962-1972. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (P.S.J., K.F.D., M.C.P., J.J.V.M.).

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction will experience multiple hospitalizations for heart failure during the course of their disease. We assessed the efficacy of dapagliflozin on reducing the rate of total (ie, first and repeat) hospitalizations for heart failure in the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure).

Methods: The total number of HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular deaths was examined by using the proportional-rates approach of Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying and a joint frailty model for each of recurrent HF hospitalizations and time to cardiovascular death. Variables associated with the risk of recurrent hospitalizations were explored in a multivariable Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying model.

Results: Of 2371 participants randomly assigned to placebo, 318 experienced 469 hospitalizations for HF; of 2373 assigned to dapagliflozin, 230 patients experienced 340 admissions. In a multivariable model, factors associated with a higher risk of recurrent HF hospitalizations included higher heart rate, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and New York Heart Association class. In the Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying model, the rate ratio for the effect of dapagliflozin on recurrent HF hospitalizations or cardiovascular death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), =0.0002. In the joint frailty model, the rate ratio for total HF hospitalizations was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.61-0.82), <0.0001, whereas, for cardiovascular death, the hazard ratio was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98), =0.0282.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of total (first and repeat) HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death. Time-to-first event analysis underestimated the benefit of dapagliflozin in HF and reduced ejection fraction. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126492PMC
May 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Men and Women With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Prespecified Analysis of the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jun;6(6):678-689

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: Women may respond differently to certain treatments for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) than men.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin compared with placebo in men and women with HFrEF enrolled in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prespecified subgroup analysis of a phase 3 randomized clinical trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class II through IV with an ejection fraction of 40% or less and elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were eligible. Data were analyzed between June 2020 and January 2021.

Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to guideline-recommended therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF (HF hospitalization or urgent HF visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death.

Results: A total of 4744 patients were randomized in DAPA-HF, of whom 1109 were women (23.4%). Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF events or cardiovascular death to a similar extent in both men and women (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.63-0.85] and 0.79 [95% CI, 0.59-1.06], respectively; P for interaction = .67). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome and all-cause mortality. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients with a meaningful improvement in symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score of ≥5 points; men, 59% vs 50%; women, 57% vs 54%; P for interaction = .14) and decreased the proportion with worsening symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score decrease of ≥5 points; men, 25% vs 34%; women, 27% vs 31%; P for interaction = .15), irrespective of sex. Results were consistent for the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire clinical summary score and overall summary score. Study drug discontinuation and serious adverse events were not more frequent in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group in either men or women.

Conclusions And Relevance: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death and improved symptoms, physical function, and health-related quality of life similarly in men and women with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In addition, dapagliflozin was safe and well-tolerated irrespective of sex.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.0379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014207PMC
June 2021

Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolic Outcomes of Dapagliflozin Versus Placebo in a Primary Cardiovascular Prevention Cohort: Analyses From DECLARE-TIMI 58.

Diabetes Care 2021 05 2;44(5):1159-1167. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: International guidelines propose prescribing sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as secondary prevention in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) for ASCVD. The current analyses expand on the cardiovascular renal and metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in MRF patients.

Research Design And Methods: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, 17,160 patients with T2D and MRF (59.4%) or established ASCVD (40.6%) were randomized to dapagliflozin versus placebo; patients were followed for a median of 4.2 years. The cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the MRF cohort were studied across clinically relevant subgroups for treatment effect and subgroup-based treatment interaction.

Results: Among patients with MRF, the reduction with dapagliflozin in risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (CVD/HHF) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and the renal-specific outcome (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37-0.69) did not differ from that for patients with ASCVD ( 0.99 and 0.72, respectively). The effect on CVD/HHF was entirely driven by a reduction in HHF (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88). The benefits of dapagliflozin on HHF and on the renal-specific outcome, among the subset with MRF, were directionally consistent across clinically relevant subgroups. At 48 months, HbA, weight, systolic blood pressure, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were lower with dapagliflozin versus placebo and estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: In patients with T2D and MRF, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of HHF and adverse renal outcomes regardless of baseline characteristics. These analyses support the benefit of dapagliflozin for important outcomes in a broad primary prevention population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2492DOI Listing
May 2021

Plasma ceramide and phospholipid-based risk score and the risk of cardiovascular death in patients after acute coronary syndrome.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: Ceramide (Cer) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids are associated with pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A previously derived and validated plasma Cer-PC risk score (CERT2) was associated with CV death risk in patients with stable disease, but its prognostic value has not been evaluated in patients early post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods And Results: Prespecified plasma Cer and PC species of CERT2 risk score were measured in 4871 subjects from SOLID-TIMI 52, which enrolled patients ≤30 days after ACS (median follow-up 2.5 years). The CERT2 score (scale 0-12 points) was calculated as previously defined. The primary outcome was CV death; CV death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause death were also analysed. Poisson models included baseline characteristics and established biomarkers. Patients with higher CERT2 risk scores were more likely to be older, female, current smokers, presenting with STEMI, and to have impaired renal function and higher LDL-C. After multivariable adjustment, patients in the highest risk score category remained at a nearly two-fold higher risk of CV death (adj relative risk [RR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.01-3.66, P = 0.047). Patients in the highest risk score category were also at higher risk of all-cause death (adj RR 2.01, 95% CI 1.21-3.35, P = 0.007), whereas the relationships with HF, MI, and stroke were attenuated with multivariable adjustment.

Conclusions: A plasma ceramide and phospholipid-based risk score are associated with the risk of CV death independent of established clinical risk factors and biomarkers in patients after ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa143DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of dapagliflozin on anaemia in DAPA-HF.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 22;23(4):617-628. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aim: Anaemia is common in heart failure and associated with worse outcomes. We examined the effect of dapagliflozin on correction of anaemia in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction in DAPA-HF. We also analysed the effect of dapagliflozin on outcomes, according to anaemia status at baseline.

Methods And Results: Anaemia was defined at baseline as a haematocrit <39% in men and <36% in women. Resolution of anaemia was defined as two consecutive haematocrit measurements above these thresholds at any time during follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening HF (hospitalization or urgent visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death. Of the 4744 patients randomized in DAPA-HF, 4691 had a haematocrit available at baseline, of which 1032 were anaemic (22.0%). The rate of the primary outcome was higher in patients with anaemia (16.1 per 100 person-years) compared with those without (12.9 per 100 person-years). Anaemia was corrected in 62.2% of patients in the dapagliflozin group, compared with 41.1% of patients in the placebo group. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in anaemic compared with non-anaemic patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.88 vs. HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.89; interaction P = 0.44]. Similar findings were observed for cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. Patients with resolution of anaemia had better outcomes than those in which anaemia persisted.

Conclusion: Patients with anaemia had worse outcomes in DAPA-HF. Dapagliflozin corrected anaemia more often than placebo and improved outcomes, irrespective of anaemia status at baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2132DOI Listing
April 2021

The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in women and men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 20;64(6):1226-1234. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: Women remain underrepresented in clinical trials and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin reduces the risk of CV death or heart failure hospitalisations in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed a pre-specified analysis to examine whether sex modifies these effects.

Methods: The DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial randomised 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes with or at risk for atherosclerotic disease to dapagliflozin or placebo (median follow-up 4.2 years). The dual efficacy outcomes were CV death or heart failure hospitalisations, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; CV death, myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke). The renal-specific composite outcome was a sustained ≥40% drop in eGFR to <60 ml min [1.73 m], new end-stage renal disease or renal death. Cox models were run separately by sex with treatment-by-sex interaction testing for each outcome.

Results: At baseline, women (n = 6422, 37.4%) had higher HbA, longer type 2 diabetes duration, and were on fewer glucose-lowering medications. There was no evidence of modification of the effect of dapagliflozin by sex for (1) CV death or heart failure hospitalisations: women (3.8% vs 4.5%; HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66, 1.07) and men (5.3% vs 6.4%; HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71, 0.96; p = 0.90); (2) MACE: women (6.3% vs 6.8%; HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77, 1.12) and men (10.0% vs 10.7%; HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.83, 1.05; p = 0.99); or (3) renal-specific composite: women (1.4% vs 2.8%; HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35, 0.70) and men (1.5% vs 2.5%; HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42, 0.73; p = 0.64). The overall safety profile of dapagliflozin was similar for women and men.

Conclusions/interpretation: Dapagliflozin offers comparable CV and renal benefits and a comparable safety profile in women and men.

Funding: AstraZeneca.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01730534.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05399-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients according to heart failure at admission: Insights from a large trial with systematic early invasive strategy.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Université de Paris, puis APHP, Hotel Dieu, Centre de diagnostic et de Thérapeutique; French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials (FACT); INSERM LVTS-U1148.

Background: Previous studies published before the era of systematic early invasive strategy have reported a higher mortality in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with heart failure. The aim of our study was to compare the clinical characteristics, outcomes and causes of death of patients according to their heart failure status at admission in a large non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction population with planned early invasive management.

Methods: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome with Otamixaban randomised trial which included non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with systematic coronary angiography within 72 h. Patients were categorised according to presence or absence of heart failure (Killip grade ≥2) at admission.

Results: A total of 13,172 patients were enrolled, of whom 944 (7.2%) had heart failure. At day 30, death occurred in 213 patients (1.6%) and cardiovascular death was the dominant cause of death in both groups ((with vs without heart failure) 78.8% vs 78.4%, p = 0.94). At six months, death occurred in 90/944 (9.5%) patients with heart failure and 258/12228 patients without heart failure (2.1%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment on Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, heart failure was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at day 30 (odds ratio: 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36, p = 0.02) and at day 180 (odds ratio: 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.42, p < 0.001) as well as of ischaemic complications (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis or stroke at day 30 (odds ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with heart failure at admission still have worse outcomes than those without heart failure, even with systematic early invasive strategy. Further efforts are needed to improve the prognosis of these high risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872619896205DOI Listing
October 2020

Time to Clinical Benefit of Dapagliflozin and Significance of Prior Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May;6(5):499-507

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Dapagliflozin has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure (HF) in patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, clinical inertia often underlies deferred initiation of effective therapies.

Objective: To examine timing of onset of clinical benefit with dapagliflozin and magnitude as a function of proximity to prior HF hospitalization.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a completed multinational trial. The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic HFrEF (n = 4744). From February 2017 to August 2018, the study enrolled patients in New York Heart Association classes II through IV and with left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less; the median (range) follow-up time was 18.2 (0-27.8) months. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for the primary efficacy outcome with dapagliflozin vs placebo by time following randomization. Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were assessed according to the timing of the most recent HF hospitalization prior to trial enrollment.

Exposures: None.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Composite of cardiovascular death or worsening HF.

Results: A total of 4744 patients were included (1109 women [23.4%]; mean [SD] age, 66.3 [10.9] years). The reduction in the primary outcome with dapagliflozin was rapidly apparent, with a sustained statistically significant benefit by 28 days after randomization (HR at 28 days, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28-0.94]; P = .03). A total of 2251 patients (47.4%) had been previously hospitalized for HF, and 1301 (27.4%) had been hospitalized within 12 months prior to enrollment. Among patients treated with placebo, there was a stepwise gradient of risk for the primary outcome according to timing of most recent HF hospitalization, with 2-year Kaplan-Meier rates of 21.1%, 25.3%, and 33.8% (adjusted P = .003) for patients with a prior HF hospitalization never, more than 12 months ago, and 12 or fewer months ago, respectively. Across these subgroups, dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of the primary outcome by 16% (HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.69-1.01]), 27% (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.54-0.99]), and 36% (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.51-0.80]), respectively (P = .07 for trend). Accordingly, patients with a more recent HF hospitalization tended to experience greater absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin at 2 years: 2.1% (95% CI, -1.9% to 6.1%), 4.1% (95% CI, -3.6% to 11.7%), and 9.9% (95% CI, 3.3%-16.5%), respectively (P = .05 for trend).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, treatment with dapagliflozin was associated with rapid reduction in the risk of cardiovascular death or worsening HF, with a sustained statistically significant benefit emerging very early after randomization. Patients with a more recent HF hospitalization were at particularly high risk and experienced greater relative and absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.7585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890451PMC
May 2021

Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to aetiology in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from the DAPA-HF trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 10;23(4):601-613. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: We examined the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, according to aetiology in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) enrolled in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Methods And Results: Aetiology was investigator-reported and categorized as ischaemic or non-ischaemic. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. A total of 4744 patients were randomized in DAPA-HF, of whom 2674 (56.4%) patients had an ischaemic aetiology. Participants with an ischaemic aetiology had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63], but lower risk of HF hospitalization (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98) than non-ischaemic patients. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or cardiovascular death to a similar extent in both patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic aetiology (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.92, and HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.87, respectively; P for interaction = 0.55). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome and all-cause mortality. Dapagliflozin, as compared with placebo, increased the proportion of patients with an improvement of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score (KCCQ-TSS) of ≥5 points (P for interaction = 0.32) and decreased the proportion with a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS of ≥5 points (P for interaction = 0.76), irrespective of aetiology. Study drug discontinuation and serious adverse events were similar according to treatment groups, irrespective of aetiology.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF and death, and improved symptoms, similarly in patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic aetiology. In addition, dapagliflozin was safe and well-tolerated, irrespective of aetiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2124DOI Listing
April 2021
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