Dr. Mabrouk A El-Sharkawy, PhD - Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) - Senior scientist

Dr. Mabrouk A El-Sharkawy

PhD

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)

Senior scientist

Cali, Valley | Colombia

Main Specialties: Biology

Additional Specialties: Plant breeding and crop physiology


Top Author

Dr. Mabrouk A El-Sharkawy, PhD - Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) - Senior scientist

Dr. Mabrouk A El-Sharkawy

PhD
Introduction

Retired senor scientist, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical(CIAT), Cali, Colombia

Primary Affiliation: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) - Cali, Valley , Colombia

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Dr. Mabrouk A El-Sharkawy’s Resume / CV
Metrics

7

Publications

156

Profile Views

16

Reads

45

PubMed Central Citations

Education
Jul 2018
Crop physiologist 1966-1968
Principal scientist
Jul 2018
Associate Plant Physiology , University of California, Davis, 165-1966
Postdoc
Jul 2018
Bsc 1958 (Honor)
Agronomy
Jul 2018
Msc
Agronomy
Feb 2018
PhD
Agronomy
Experience
Jul 2018
Peer Reviewer, various scientific natiomal
Publication reviews
Jul 2018
Research Advisor, CENIPALMa, 1998-
Research
Jul 2018
Leader, Cassava agroecosystems, CIAT 1990-1998
Research Leader
Jul 2018
Co-founder Agricultural Studies Office, 1975-1980, Tripoli, Libya
Research consultant
Jul 2018
Head, Plant Production, Arab Organization for Agricultural Development, 1978-1980, Tripoli, Libya
Research, consultancy
Jul 2018
Director agricultural development, Tripoli , Libya, 1975-1978
Evaluation consulant
Jul 2018
Professor Tripoli University , Libya 1968-1978
Teaching, research
Jul 2018
Professor Tripoli University , Libya 1968-1978
Teaching, research
Jul 2018
Professor Tripoli University , Libya 1968-1978
Teaching, research
Jul 2018
Professor Tripoli University , Libya 1968-1978
Teaching, research
Jul 2018
Professor Tripoli University , Libya 1968-1978
Teaching, research
Jul 2018
Reconocimiento Universidad Nacional Sede Palmira, Colombia 2005
Homenajr
Jul 2018
Reconocimiento Universidad del Valle 2005 , Colombia
Homenaje
Jul 2018
Reconocimiento 205 CORPOICA, Colombia
Homenaje
Jul 2018
Visiting scientist
American University at Beirute 1970
Feb 2018
award for desert farming systems, Libya, 1975
awarded a research excellence for the pioneering crop/soil research in the al-Kufra Oasis, Libya, 1971-1975
Feb 2018
Visiting Scientist, American University in Beirut, Lebanon, 1971
awarded visiting scientist in agronomy and research adviser
Feb 2018
ISI
awarded a Citation Classic by ISI in 1986 for the many dscoveries in C3/C4plant photosynthetic characteristics
Feb 2018
Egyptian Scholar
awarded a scholarship for excellence 1955-158 university of alexandria Egyp
Feb 2018
Research grants
Australia,UDAID,Germany, Switzerland, IFAD, Colombia

Publications

7Publications

16Reads

45PubMed Central Citations

Prospects of photosynthetic research for increasing agricultural productivity, with emphasis on the photosynthesis of the tropical C4 Amaranthus and the cassava C3-C4 cro

Photosynthetica

Productivity of most improved major food crops showed stagnation in the past decades, after their high yielding capacity saved millions from famine. As human population is projected to reach 9-10 billion, agricultural productivity must be increased to ensure these demands. Photosynthetic capacity is the basic process underlying primary biological productivity in green plants, and enhancing it might lead to increasing potential crop yield. There are several approaches to improve the photosynthetic capacity, including integrated systems management, to close the wide gaps between actual farmer’s and the optimum obtainable yield. Conventional and molecular genetic improvement to increase leaf PN is a viable approach, which has been recently shown in few crops. Bioengineering the more efficient C4 into C3 system, is another ambitious approach, and is currently being applied to the C3 rice crop. Two under-researched, yet old important crops native to the tropic Americas (i.e., the C4 amaranths and the C3-C4 intermediate cassava), have shown high potential PN, high productivity, high water use efficiency, and tolerance to heat and drought stresses. These physiological traits make them suitable for future agricultural systems, particularly in a globally warming climate. Exciting contributions to the C3:C4 photosynthetic phenomenon were made at Tucson AZ, and Davis CA, USA, and at Cali, Colombia, S.A., along with the work at the Hawaiian and Australian Sugar Planter Associations. Work on crop canopy photosynthesis included that on flowering genes, that control formation and decline of the canopy photosynthetic activity, have contributed to the climate change research effort. Associated drought effects on crop canopy photosynthetic behavior were studied by scientists at Stoneville and Starkville MS,USA, where the first cotton models were developed. In other words, the so-called photosynthetic establishment became dispersed world-wide among agricultural scientists. The plant breeders need to select for higher PN to enhance yield and crop tolerance to environmental stresses, as anticipated in global warming climate. The plant science instructors, and researchers, for various reasons, need to focus more on tropical species and to use the research, highlighted here, as an example of how to increase their yields.

View Article
February 2018
4 Reads

Global Warming: causes and impacts on agro-ecosystems productivity and food security with emphasis on cassava comparative advantage in the tropics/subtropics

Photosynthetica

Earth’s climate has experienced notable changes during the past 50–70 years when global surface temperature has risen by 0.8ºC during the 20th century that made this period the warmest in 1000 years. This was a consequence of the rise in the concentration of biogenic gases [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) , and ozone ( O3)] in the atmosphere that contribute, along with water vapor, to the so-called ‘greenhouse effect’. Most of the emissions of greenhouse gases have been, and still are, the product of human activities, namely, the excessive use of fossil energy, deforestations in the humid tropics with associated poor land use- management, and wide-scale degradation of soils under crop cultivation and animal/pasture ecosystems. General Circulation Models predict that atmospheric [CO2] will probably top 700 µmol(CO2) mol-1 resulting in extra rise in Earth’s temperature from 1.5 to over 5ºC by the end of this century. This may instigate 0.60–1.00 m rise in sea level, with impacts on coastal lowlands across continents. Crop modeling predicts significant changes in agricultural ecosystems, with the mid-and high-latitude regions might reap the benefits of warming and CO2 fertilization effects via increasing total production and yield of C3 plant systems coupled with greater water use efficiencies. The tropical/subtropical regions, will probably suffer the worst impacts of global climate changes. These impacts include wide-scale socioeconomic changes such as degradation and losses of natural resources, low agricultural production and lower crop yields, increased risks of hunger, and above all waves of human migration and dislocation. Due to cassava’s inherent tolerance to heat, water stress and poor soils, it is highly adaptable to warming climate, a trait that would enhance its role in food security in the tropics and subtropics.

View Article
February 2018
1 Read

Prospects of photosynthetic research for increasing agricultural productivity, with emphasis on the photosynthesis of the tropical C4 Amaranthus and the cassava C3-C4 crop

Photosynthetica

Productivity of most improved major food crops showed stagnation in the past decades, after their high yielding capacity saved millions from famine. As human population is projected to reach 9-10 billion, agricultural productivity must be increased to ensure these demands. Photosynthetic capacity is the basic process underlying primary biological productivity in green plants, and enhancing it might lead to increasing potential crop yield. There are several approaches to improve the photosynthetic capacity, including integrated systems management, to close the wide gaps between actual farmer’s and the optimum obtainable yield. Conventional and molecular genetic improvement to increase leaf PN is a viable approach, which has been recently shown in few crops. Bioengineering the more efficient C4 into C3 system, is another ambitious approach, and is currently being applied to the C3 rice crop. Two under-researched, yet old important crops native to the tropic Americas (i.e., the C4 amaranths and the C3-C4 intermediate cassava), have shown high potential PN, high productivity, high water use efficiency, and tolerance to heat and drought stresses. These physiological traits make them suitable for future agricultural systems, particularly in a globally warming climate. Exciting contributions to the C3:C4 photosynthetic phenomenon were made at Tucson AZ, and Davis CA, USA, and at Cali, Colombia, S.A., along with the work at the Hawaiian and Australian Sugar Planter Associations. Work on crop canopy photosynthesis included that on flowering genes, that control formation and decline of the canopy photosynthetic activity, have contributed to the climate change research effort. Associated drought effects on crop canopy photosynthetic behavior were studied by scientists at Stoneville and Starkville MS,USA, where the first cotton models were developed. In other words, the so-called photosynthetic establishment became dispersed world-wide among agricultural scientists. The plant breeders need to select for higher PN to enhance yield and crop tolerance to environmental stresses, as anticipated in global warming climate. The plant science instructors, and researchers, for various reasons, need to focus more on tropical species and to use the research, highlighted here, as an example of how to increase their yields.

View Article
February 2018
1 Read

Pioneering research on C4

Photosynthetica

The review is done to summarise the history of the discoveries of the many anatomical, agronomical, and physiological aspects of C4 photosynthesis (where the first chemical products of CO2 fixation in illuminated leaves are four-carbon dicarboxylic acids) and to document correctly the scientists at the University of Arizona and the University of California, Davis, who made these early discoveries. The findings were milestones in plant science that occurred shortly after the biochemical pathway of C3 photosynthesis in green algae (where the first chemical product is a three-carbon compound) was elucidated at the University of California, Berkeley, and earned a Nobel Prize in chemistry. These remarkable achievements were the result of ground-breaking pioneering research efforts carried out by many agronomists, plant physiologists and biochemists in several laboratories, particularly in the USA. Numerous reviews and books written in the past four decades on the history of C4 photosynthesis have focused on the biochemical aspects and give an unbalanced history of the multidisciplinary/multinstitutional nature of the achievements made by agronomists, who published much of their work in Crop Science. Most notable among the characteristics of the C4 species that differentiated them from the C3 ones are: (I) high optimum temperature and high irradiance saturation for maximum leaf photosynthetic rates; (II) apparent lack of CO2 release in a rapid stream of CO2-free air in illuminated leaves in varying temperatures and high irradiances; (III) a very low CO2 compensation point; (IV) lower mesophyll resistances to CO2 diffusion coupled with higher stomatal resistances, and, hence, higher instantaneous leaf water use efficiency; (V) the existence of the so-called “Kranz leaf anatomy” and the higher internal exposed mesophyll surface area per cell volume; and (VI) the ability to recycle respiratory CO2 by illuminated leaves.

View Article
February 2018
3 Reads

Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

Biosystems 2011 Feb 6;103(2):205-11. Epub 2010 Sep 6.

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

View Article
February 2011
8 Reads
2 PubMed Central Citations(source)
1.55 Impact Factor

Cassava biology and physiology.

Plant Mol Biol 2004 Nov;56(4):481-501

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Valle, Columbia.

View Article
November 2004
8 Reads
43 PubMed Central Citations(source)
4.26 Impact Factor

1 Read