Publications by authors named "Maëlenn Guerchet"

51 Publications

Vision Impairment and Adverse Health Conditions in Congolese Older People: A Population-Based Study.

Gerontology 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

INSERM, IRD, U1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, many older people experience vision impairment (VI) and its adverse health outcomes. In this study, we examined separately the association between VI and each adverse health conditions (cognitive disorders, vision-related quality of life [VRQoL], and daily functioning interference [DFI]) among Congolese older people. We also explored whether VI had a significant effect on VRQoL components in our population.

Method: We performed cross-sectional analyses on data from 660 Congolese people aged ≥65 years who participated in the 2013 survey of the EPIDEMCA population-based cohort study. VI was defined as having a near visual acuity <20/40 (assessed at 30 cm using a Parinaud chart). Cognitive disorders were assessed using neuropsychological tests and neurological examinations. VRQoL was assessed using a reduced version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-22) and DFI using 11 items of participation restrictions and activity limitations. Regarding our main objective, each association was explored separately using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Additionally, the effects of VI on each VRQoL components were explored using univariable linear regression models.

Results: VI was not associated with cognitive disorders after adjustment for residence area (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6; 4.7), but it was associated with a low VRQoL score (adjusted β = -12.4; 95% CI: -17.5; -7.3) even after controlling for several covariates. An interaction between VI and age (p = 0.007) was identified, and VI was associated with DFI only among people aged >73 years (adjusted β = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2; 0.8). Our exploratory analysis showed that all components of VRQoL decreased with a decrease in visual acuity (corrected p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion: VI was associated with poor VRQoL and high DFI. Residence area seems to play a confounding role in the association between VI and cognitive disorders. Our findings suggest that targeting interventions on vision could reduce DFI among older people and improve their well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517044DOI Listing
July 2021

Apolipoprotein E ϵ4 allele and neuropsychiatric symptoms among older adults in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA study).

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 03 15;33(3):295-306. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Inserm UMR1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele among older people in Central African Republic (CAR) and the Republic of Congo (ROC).

Design: Multicenter population-based study following a two-phase design.

Setting: From 2011 to 2012, rural and urban areas of CAR and ROC.

Participants: People aged 65 and over.

Measurements: Following screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, participants with low cognitive scores (CSI-D ≤ 24.5) underwent clinical assessment. Dementia diagnosis followed the DSM-IV criteria and Peterson's criteria were considered for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated through the brief version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q). Blood samples were taken from all consenting participants before APOE genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the APOE ϵ4 allele and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Results: Overall, 322 participants had complete information on both neuropsychiatric symptoms and APOE status. Median age was 75.0 years and 81.1% were female. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were reported by 192 participants (59.8%) and at least 1 APOE ϵ4 allele was present in 135 (41.9%). APOE ϵ4 allele was not significantly associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms but showed a trend toward a protective effect in some models.

Conclusion: This study is the first one investigating the association between APOE ϵ4 and neuropsychiatric symptoms among older people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Preliminary findings indicate that the APOE ϵ4 allele was not associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Further research seems, however, needed to investigate the protective trend found in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220003993DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardiovascular Health and Near Visual Impairment Among Older Adults in the Republic of Congo: A Population-Based Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 04;76(5):842-850

INSERM, Univ. Limoges, IRD, U1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, Limoges, France.

Background: Visual impairment (VI) and determinants of poor cardiovascular health are very common in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, we do not know whether these determinants are associated with VI among older adults in this region. This study aimed at investigating the association between the determinants of poor cardiovascular health and near VI among older adults living in Congo.

Methods: Participants were Congolese adults aged 65 or older included in Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa-Follow-up population-based cohort. Near VI was defined as visual acuity less than 20/40 measured at 30 cm. Associations between determinants of poor cardiovascular health collected at baseline and near visual acuity measured at first follow-up were investigated using multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: Among the 549 participants included, 378 (68.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.9%-72.7%]) had near VI. Of the determinants of poor cardiovascular health explored, we found that having high body mass index of at least 25 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.25-3.68), diabetes (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.06-4.25) and hypertension (OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.02-2.64) were independently associated with near VI.

Conclusions: Several determinants of poor cardiovascular health were associated with near VI in this population. This study suggests that promoting good cardiovascular health could represent a target for VI prevention among older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa304DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations Between Systolic Interarm Differences in Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes and Mortality: Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis, Development and Validation of a Prognostic Algorithm: The INTERPRESS-IPD Collaboration.

Hypertension 2021 02 21;77(2):650-661. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital and University of Exeter College of Medicine & Health, England (A.C.S.).

Systolic interarm differences in blood pressure have been associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. We undertook individual participant data meta-analyses to (1) quantify independent associations of systolic interarm difference with mortality and cardiovascular events; (2) develop and validate prognostic models incorporating interarm difference, and (3) determine whether interarm difference remains associated with risk after adjustment for common cardiovascular risk scores. We searched for studies recording bilateral blood pressure and outcomes, established agreements with collaborating authors, and created a single international dataset: the Inter-arm Blood Pressure Difference - Individual Participant Data (INTERPRESS-IPD) Collaboration. Data were merged from 24 studies (53 827 participants). Systolic interarm difference was associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: continuous hazard ratios 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02-1.08) and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.11), respectively, per 5 mm Hg systolic interarm difference. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality increased with interarm difference magnitude from a ≥5 mm Hg threshold (hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.14]). Systolic interarm differences per 5 mm Hg were associated with cardiovascular events in people without preexisting disease, after adjustment for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (hazard ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.08]), Framingham (hazard ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.08]), or QRISK cardiovascular disease risk algorithm version 2 (QRISK2) (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.06-1.18]) cardiovascular risk scores. Our findings confirm that systolic interarm difference is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events. Blood pressure should be measured in both arms during cardiovascular assessment. A systolic interarm difference of 10 mm Hg is proposed as the upper limit of normal. Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42015031227.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803446PMC
February 2021

Estimating prevalence of subjective cognitive decline in and across international cohort studies of aging: a COSMIC study.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 12 18;12(1):167. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is recognized as a risk stage for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, but its prevalence is not well known. We aimed to use uniform criteria to better estimate SCD prevalence across international cohorts.

Methods: We combined individual participant data for 16 cohorts from 15 countries (members of the COSMIC consortium) and used qualitative and quantitative (Item Response Theory/IRT) harmonization techniques to estimate SCD prevalence.

Results: The sample comprised 39,387 cognitively unimpaired individuals above age 60. The prevalence of SCD across studies was around one quarter with both qualitative harmonization/QH (23.8%, 95%CI = 23.3-24.4%) and IRT (25.6%, 95%CI = 25.1-26.1%); however, prevalence estimates varied largely between studies (QH 6.1%, 95%CI = 5.1-7.0%, to 52.7%, 95%CI = 47.4-58.0%; IRT: 7.8%, 95%CI = 6.8-8.9%, to 52.7%, 95%CI = 47.4-58.0%). Across studies, SCD prevalence was higher in men than women, in lower levels of education, in Asian and Black African people compared to White people, in lower- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries, and in studies conducted in later decades.

Conclusions: SCD is frequent in old age. Having a quarter of older individuals with SCD warrants further investigation of its significance, as a risk stage for AD and other dementias, and of ways to help individuals with SCD who seek medical advice. Moreover, a standardized instrument to measure SCD is needed to overcome the measurement variability currently dominant in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00734-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749505PMC
December 2020

Depression in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Prevalence of symptoms of depression in Peruvian women with early breast cancer and related sociodemographic factors.

Semin Oncol 2020 10 4;47(5):293-301. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Departamento de Oncología Medica, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima, Peru.

We sought to review literature on the prevalence of symptoms of depression in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) and in the Peruvian population determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and to describe the association with sociodemographic characteristics. Descriptive cross-sectional analytical study of 254 patients from the National Cancer Institute of Peru (Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas) with a diagnosis of clinical stage I or II BC. The patients included women aged between 26 and 67 years old. Symptoms of depression were monitored by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moreover, clinical features and patient sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed and their association with depression was assessed by logistic regression. The average age of the patients was 47.8 ± 9.2 years; 5.4% of the patients were postmenopausal at the time of the questionnaire. About 55% of women were from Lima, 58.3% had completed secondary education (11 ± 3.2 years), 45.7% were not working, and 46.5% were single. The prevalence of depression was 25.6% at the time of BC diagnosis. Of those patients with symptoms of depression, 16.9% showed symptoms of mild depression, 6.3% moderate, and 2.4% severe. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that in Peruvian women with a diagnosis of BC being married or employed significantly decreased the odds of presenting depressive symptoms (P = 0.029 and 0.017, respectively). Our main limitation was the lack of evaluation of depressive symptoms before the diagnosis, during or at the end of treatment. Another limitation was that the Beck Depression Inventory-II test could only identify depressive symptoms, but not depression as a disease. We have reviewed relevant literature on depression in women with a diagnosis of BC. The data presented suggests an association between both employment and marital status with depressive symptoms among Peruvian women with a diagnosis of BC. Pre-emptive support for women at risk could influence resilience and/or motivation for compliance with antineoplastic treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2020.08.003DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between visual impairment and cognitive disorders in low-and-middle income countries: a systematic review.

Aging Ment Health 2020 Sep 8:1-10. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

INSERM U 1094 Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Objectives: Visual impairment and cognitive disorders are common among older people in Low-and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). Several recent studies performed in High-Income Countries suggested that visual impairment is associated with cognitive disorders. However, no synthesis of current knowledge exists for LMIC.

Methods: We have conducted an extensive literature search combining six databases and two grey literature databases. We searched for studies assessing the link between visual and cognitive impairments carried out in LMIC. The systematic search was performed up to 14th February 2019.

Results: Overall, eight studies were included in this review. Among them, five studies were performed in Asia and seven studies had a cross-sectional design. Mean age of the participants varied from 64.2 to 76.2 years. Participants were most often females. Only three studies were specifically focused on the association between visual impairment and cognitive disorders. Out of the eight studies included, four reported a significant association; two showed a possible association and two did not retrieve any statistically significant effect. Heterogeneity in assessments of visual and cognitive impairments was high.

Conclusion: In LMIC, very few studies explored the association between visual and cognitive impairments among older people. The current review seems to suggest that visual impairment is associated with cognitive disorders in LMIC. However, further studies are required to improve the knowledge on this relationship. Improving vision, in particular through optical correction and cataract surgery, could potentially be easy pathways to reduce cognitive disorders incidence and to improve quality of life of people affected by this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2020.1808878DOI Listing
September 2020

Prevalence of Dementia among Well-Educated Old-Age Pensioners in Parakou (Benin) in 2014.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2020 14;49(2):210-218. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Institut Régional de Santé Publique, Ouidah, Benin.

Introduction: The number of people living with dementia is growing worldwide and most rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about dementia in Benin. We estimated the prevalence of dementia among retired people in Parakou, a northern city in Benin, and then assessed associated factors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Parakou from July to August 2014. Participants were recruited at 2 centers, the National Center of Social Security and the Public Treasury of Benin. Participants with cognitive impairment were defined as having a low cognitive score (<7) for the brief version of the Community Screening Interview for Dementia and were invited to neurological examination. DSM-IV-TR criteria were used to diagnose dementia and the HACHINSKI score was used to differentiate dementia subtypes. A logistic regression model was performed to identify factors associated with dementia.

Results: Overall, 440 retired people were included in the study. They were mainly male (92.3%) and their mean age was 64.9 ± 6.0 years. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 7.7% (95% CI 5.2-10.2). Fourteen participants were diagnosed with dementia, representing a prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI 1.5-4.8). Alzheimer disease was the most frequent subtype (64.3%), followed by vascular dementia (21.4%). Retired people diagnosed with dementia were all men and were aged between 61 and 71 years. Most of them were living alone. The main factors associated with dementia were older age, low fruit and vegetables consumption, and living alone.

Discussion: This study showed a low prevalence of dementia among retired older people in Benin. Despite this, greater attention must be given to the potential burden dementia places on families for better care, before the expected aging of the population becomes more significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508623DOI Listing
July 2021

Predictive formulas for estimation of height in sub-Saharan African older people: A new formula (EPIDEMCA study).

Nutrition 2020 05 17;73:110725. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges, France; INSERM, U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France; Univ. Limoges, U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, Limoges, France; IRD, Associated Unit, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France.

Objectives: Chumlea's formulas are a way of predicting height from knee height (KHt), including among individuals >60 y of age who cannot stand upright. However, the formulas were developed with white and African American people and have not yet been validated in native Africans >60 y of age. The aims of the study were to assess Chumlea's formulas in older people in central Africa and to propose a new validated formula for the same population.

Methods: Height (MHt) and KHt were measured in a population of individuals >65 y of age from the Republic of Congo and the central African Republic. Predicted height (PHt) was calculated using Chumlea's formulas for the American black population (CBP) and for whites (CC). The percentages of accurate predictions (±5 cm) were compared between MHt and PHt. A new formula was estimated after randomization in a derivation sample (n = 877) and assessed for accuracy in a validation sample (n = 877).

Results: The study included 1754 individuals. Prediction was accurate (±5 cm) in 66.8% and 63.2% of CBP and CC, respectively. Overestimation was as high as 24.1% and 29%, respectively. Because an overestimation is unacceptable in clinical practice and population surveys, a new formula was proposed: height (cm) = 72.75 + (1.86 × KHt [cm]) - (0.13 × age [y]) + 3.41 × sex (0: women; 1: men). This new formula significantly increases accuracy (71.3%) and decreases overestimation (14.7%). The nutritional status based on body mass index did not differ with the MHt and the PHt by the new formula.

Conclusion: Chumlea's formulas provided a poor estimate of height in this population sample. The proposed formula more accurately estimates height in older native Africans. This formula should be tested in other sub-Saharan African countries to extend its use in clinical practice and in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110725DOI Listing
May 2020

A Standard Framework for Population-Based Neuroepidemiological Studies in Tropical Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Neuroepidemiology 2020 19;54(2):96-105. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

INSERM, U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France,

Methodologies of population-based studies on neurological diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been standardized. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the numerous challenges occurring in this context and propose a standard framework for population-based studies in LMICs. We relied on our expertise on few diseases, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. The proposed framework is the result of extensive field experience in tropical LMICs. It ensures that important steps are not forgotten when setting up a study plan. It must remain flexible and be adapted to each situation, to the disease studied, in particular its prevalence, but also to the geography of the study area and the availability of survey technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503235DOI Listing
February 2021

Severity of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Distress in Dementia among Older People in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA Study).

J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 01 4;68(1):180-185. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

INSERM UMR1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Objectives: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in dementia. Limited data are available concerning their association with dementia in developing countries. Our aim was to describe the severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms among older people, evaluate the distress experienced by caregivers, and assess which neuropsychiatric symptoms were specifically associated with dementia among older adults in Central Africa.

Design: This study is part of the EPIDEMCA program, a cross-sectional multicenter population-based study.

Setting: The EPIDEMCA program was conducted from November 2011 to December 2012 in urban and rural areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of the Congo.

Participants: Participants were older people (≥65 y) included in the EPIDEMCA program who underwent a neuropsychiatric evaluation. The sample included overall 532 participants, of whom 130 participants had dementia.

Measurements: Neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed with the brief version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory including the evaluation of severity and associated distress. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision, criteria were followed to diagnose dementia. A logistic regression model was used to identify associated neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Results: The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms was 89.9% (95% confidence interval = 84.6-95.1) among people living with dementia. The overall median severity score for neuropsychiatric symptoms was 9 [interquartile range [IQR] = 6-12], and the overall median distress score was 7 [IQR = 4-10]. Overall median scores of both severity and distress were significantly increased with the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms, the presence of dementia, and dementia severity. Depression, delusions, apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior were associated with dementia after multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: This report is one of the few population-based studies on neuropsychiatric symptoms among older people with dementia in Sub-Saharan Africa and the first one evaluating the severity of those symptoms and distress experienced by caregivers. Individual neuropsychiatric symptoms were strongly associated with dementia in older people and require great attention considering their burden on populations. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:180-185, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16234DOI Listing
January 2020

Body mass index and peripheral arterial disease, a "U-shaped" relationship in elderly African population - the EPIDEMCA study.

Vasa 2020 Jan 17;49(1):50-56. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

INSERM UMR 1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France.

There is no study available concerning specifically the role of underweight in PAD prevalence. Individuals ≥ 65 years living in urban and rural areas of two countries in Central Africa (Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo) were invited. Demographic, clinical and biological data were collected, and ankle-brachial index measured. BMI was calculated as weight/height and participants were categorized according to the World Health Organization as with underweight (< 18.5 kg/m), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m). Among the 1815 participants (age 73.0 years, 61.8 % females), the prevalence of underweight was 34.1 %, higher in subjects with PAD than in PAD free subjects (37.1 % vs. 33.5 %,  = 0.0333). The overall prevalence of PAD was 14.3 %. Underweight and obesity were still significantly associated with PAD after adjustment to all potential confounding factors (OR: 2.09,  = 0.0009 respectively OR: 1.90,  = 0.0336) while overweight was no more significantly associated with PAD after multivariate analysis. While obesity is a well-known PAD associated marker, low BMI provides novel independent and incremental information on African subject's susceptibility to present PAD, suggesting a "U-shaped" relationship between BMI and PAD in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000825DOI Listing
January 2020

Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) predicts 2-year mortality risk among older adults in the Republic of Congo: The EPIDEMCA-FU study.

Atherosclerosis 2019 07 17;286:121-127. Epub 2019 May 17.

INSERM, U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France; Univ. Limoges, UMR_S 1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology, CNRS FR 3503 GEIST, F-87000, Limoges, France; Department of Vascular Medicine, Limoges University Hospital, Limoges, France.

Background And Aims: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is known to be associated with mortality in high income countries but no data regarding Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) populations are documented. This study aimed at assessing the prognostic value of the Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) among older adults in the Republic of Congo.

Methods: Congolese subjects ≥65 years were included in a longitudinal population-based survey (EPIDEMCA-FU). Demographic, biological, and clinical data were collected at baseline. PAD was defined by an ABI≤0.90. Information on mortality was collected from key informants in participants' households. Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for traditional and cardiovascular risk factors, were fitted to evaluate the association between an ABI≤0.90 and death.

Results: 1029 participants were recruited at baseline. ABI measurement was obtained from 927 participants, of whom 17.4% presented an ABI≤0.90. During a 2-year follow-up, a total of 83 (9.1%) deaths were recorded. Mortality was higher in the low-ABI group with 23 deaths (14.7%) vs. 57 (7.8%) and 3 (12.0%), respectively among those with 0.90 < ABI<1.4 and ABI≥1.40 (p = 0.039). After adjustment, an ABI≤0.90 was associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.86; 95%CI 1.04-3.87). Mortality was also independently associated with increasing age (HR = 1.05; 95%CI 1.02-1.09), dementia (HR = 2.73; 95% CI 1.15-8.05), alcohol use (HR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.29-0.88) and female sex (HR = 0.37; 95%CI 0.19-0.72).

Conclusions: In this study, a low ABI predicted an increased mortality risk among older people. ABI may represent a simple and inexpensive tool to identify older people at high risk of death in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.05.013DOI Listing
July 2019

People with Dementia in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Support to Abuse by Caregivers: Results of EPIDEMCA-FU Program in Congo.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 2019 Jan-Apr;9(1):163-175. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

INSERM, U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France.

Background/aims: Dementia is an emerging public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In SSA, the stigma suffered by people with dementia (PWD) can be strongly linked to pejorative social representations, interfering in social relationships with informal caregivers. The objective of the study was to analyze the consequences of social representations of PWD in social interactions with informal caregivers.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in Republic of Congo among 93 interviewees. Nondirectional interviews were conducted in local languages and complemented by participating observations. The collected data were transcribed literally, synthesized, and then coded to allow extraction and organization of text segments.

Results: Informal caregivers, daughters-in-laws, were considered as abusers and granddaughters as benevolent. The leaders of syncretic churches and traditional healers were the first therapeutic itineraries of PWD, due to pejorative social representations of disease. Of these, some PWD have appeared at front of a customary jurisdiction for accusations of witchcraft. Dementia, perceived as a mysterious disease by informal caregivers, wasn't medicalized by leaders of syncretic churches, traditional healers, nurses, or general practitioners. Conclusion: Stigma, generated by social representations, can change the patient's behavior and the one of informal caregivers, leading to time delay in the search for appropriate help.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000489846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489057PMC
April 2019

"When someone becomes old then every part of the body too becomes old": Experiences of living with dementia in Kintampo, rural Ghana.

Transcult Psychiatry 2019 10 2;56(5):895-917. Epub 2019 May 2.

King's College London.

Studies have suggested that in African countries, symptoms of cognitive decline are commonly seen as part of "normal ageing" or attributed to supernatural causes. The impact of folk beliefs about causality upon help-seeking is unclear. Likewise, there is a lack of evidence relating to how families cope with living with an older resident with dementia. Our study's aim was to explore the sociocultural beliefs, understandings, perceptions and behaviours relating to living with dementia in Kintampo, Ghana. We conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 28 people, using a series of case studies among 10 older people living with dementia and their families. Results revealed that symptoms of cognitive impairment were generally linked to inexorable bodily decline understood to be characteristic of "normal" ageing. Stigma was therefore perceived to be non-existent. Whilst managing the costs of care was often a challenge, care-giving was largely accepted as a filial duty, commonly shared among female residents of large compound households. Families experimented with biomedical and traditional medicine for chronic conditions they perceived to be treatable. Our findings suggest that whilst families offer a holistic approach to the needs of older people living with chronic conditions including dementia, health and social policies offer inadequate scaffolding to support this work. In the future, it will be important to develop policy frameworks that acknowledge the continued social and economic potential of older people and strengthen the existing approach of families, optimising the management of non-communicable diseases within primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461519847054DOI Listing
October 2019

Cardiovascular health and dementia incidence among older adults in Latin America: Results from the 10/66 study.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2019 07 23;34(7):1041-1049. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Clinical and Translational Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objectives: Growing evidence shows that cardiovascular health (CVH) is associated with brain health. Little is known about this topic among older adults in Latin America, where the number of people living with dementia is rising. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between CVH and dementia in six Latin American countries.

Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data from the 10/66 study that included nondementia residents at baseline aged 65+ in six Latin American countries (n = 6447) and were followed up for 3 years. An index of modifiable CVH factors (ranging from 0 to 14) was calculated. Incident dementia was modeled using competing risk regression to adjust for risk of death.

Results: The sample included 6.2% participants with poor (0-5), 81.0% with moderate (6-10), and 12.8% with ideal CVH (11-14). At follow-up, 9.4% had developed dementia and 13.1% had died. Compared with those with poor CVH, participants with moderate and ideal levels of CVH had a significantly lower risk of dementia in both the unadjusted (subhazard ratio for moderate, 0.77; ideal, 0.59) and adjusted models (moderate, 0.73; ideal, 0.66).

Conclusion: Moderate and ideal levels of CVH in old age may protect against dementia incidence. These findings may inform health promotion efforts within dementia national plans adopted recently in some Latin American countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579616PMC
July 2019

Development of the Central Africa Daily Functioning Interference Scale for Dementia Diagnosis in Older Adults: The EPIDEMCA Study.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2019 10;47(1-2):29-41. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

University Limoges, School of Medicine, Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology, CNRS FR 3503 GEIST, Limoges, France.

Background: There are a few validated tools capable of assessing the dimensions essential for the diagnosis of dementia and cognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa.

Objectives: Our aim was to develop an adapted tool, the Central African - Daily Functioning Interference (DFI) scale.

Methods: An initial 16-item scale of activity limitations and participation restrictions was completed by 301 participants with low cognitive performances to assess their level of DFI. A psychometric evaluation was performed using Item Response Theory.

Results: A unidimensional 10-item scale emerged with a reasonable coverage of DFI (thresholds range: -1.067 to 1.587) with good item discrimination properties (1.397-4.076) and a high reliability (Cronbach's al pha = 0.92). The cutoff for detecting 96% of those with dementia was with a latent score ≥0.035 that corresponds to the LAUNDRY limitation.

Conclusions: These results provide valuable support for the reliability and internal validity of an operational 10-item scale for DFI assessment used in Central Africa for the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492782DOI Listing
December 2019

Prevalence of toxoplasmosis and its association with dementia in older adults in Central Africa: a result from the EPIDEMCA programme.

Trop Med Int Health 2018 12 28;23(12):1304-1313. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

INSERM UMR1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France.

Objective: We aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in older adults living in Central Africa and investigating its association with dementia using data from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA) programme.

Methods: A cross-sectional multicentre population-based study was carried out among participants aged 73 (±7) years on average, living in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo between November 2011 and December 2012. Blood samples were collected from each consenting participant. The detection of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies was performed in 2014 in France using a commercially available ELISA kit. Participants were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. DSM-IV criteria were required for a diagnosis of dementia. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to assess the association between toxoplasmosis infection and dementia.

Results: Among 1662 participants, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 63.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.7-65.3) overall, 66.6% (95%CI: 63.4-69.8) in Central African Republic and 59.4% (95%CI: 56.1-62.7) in the Republic of Congo. In multivariate analyses, toxoplasmosis status was significantly associated with increasing age (P = 0.006), Republic of Congo (P = 0.002), urban area (P = 0.001) and previous occupation (P = 0.002). No associations between dementia and toxoplasmosis status or anti-T. gondii IgG titres were found.

Conclusion: Toxoplasma gondii infection was not associated with dementia among older adults in Central Africa. Our findings are consistent with previous studies and add to the knowledge on the relationship between T. gondii infection and neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13151DOI Listing
December 2018

Neuropsychiatric symptoms among older adults living in two countries in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA study).

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2019 01 9;34(1):169-178. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

INSERM UMR1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Objectives: Our study aimed at estimating the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and investigating associated factors among older adults living in two countries in Central Africa (Central African Republic [CAR] and Republic of Congo [ROC]).

Methods: The EPIDEMCA multicentre population-based study was carried out in rural and urban areas of CAR and ROC between 2011 and 2012 among people aged 65 and over. After cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, participants with low performances underwent neurological examination including the brief version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in this population.

Results: NPI-Q data were available for 532 participants. Overall, 333 elderly people (63.7%) reported at least one neuropsychiatric symptom. The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms was 89.9% (95% CI, 84.6-95.1) in participants with dementia, 73.4% (95% CI, 65.1-81.7) in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 48.7% (95% CI, 42.9-54.6) in participants with no MCI nor dementia after neurological examination (P < 0.0001). The most common symptoms were depression, anxiety, and irritability. Participants living in Gamboma, with normal hearing and with friends in the community, were less likely to present neuropsychiatric symptoms. Physical disability, difficulties in eating, female sex, and dementia were significantly associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common among older people with neurocognitive disorders in CAR and ROC. Our results confirm those from previous studies in Nigeria and Tanzania. Nevertheless, knowledge of these symptoms remains limited in sub-Saharan Africa, hampering their appropriate management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5006DOI Listing
January 2019

Undernutrition and obesity among elderly people living in two cities of developing countries: Prevalence and associated factors in the EDAC study.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2017 10 13;21:40-50. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

INSERM UMR1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, School of Medicine of Limoges, Limoges, France; Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology, CNRS FR 3503 GEIST, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; Nutrition Unit, Centre for Severe Obesity and Expert Centre for Home Parenteral Nutrition, Dupuytren University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Background: Nutritional status among elderly people living in Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly studied, even though undernutrition and obesity are known to cause many complications and are risk factors for progression and death in several diseases. The aims of this study were to assess the nutritional status of the elderly in Central Africa and to study the factors associated with nutritional disorders (undernutrition and obesity).

Methods: Two cross-sectional population-based studies were carried out in the capitals of Central African Republic (CAR) and Republic of Congo (ROC) between 2008 and 2009. Participants were aged ≥65 years old and underwent nutritional assessment including the following measurements: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC). Diet was also investigated. Nutritional status was defined according to the WHO BMI classification (<18.5 = undernutrition; ≥30 = obesity). Multinomial regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors associated with nutritional status.

Results: 990 elderly people underwent nutritional assessment (482 in CAR and 508 in ROC). Mean BMI was 22.7 ± 4.8 kg/m. The prevalence of undernutrition was 19.2% and was lower in ROC than in CAR (9.5% vs. 29.5%; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of obesity was 8.8% and was higher in ROC than in CAR (14.6% vs. 2.7%; p < 0.0001). The mean WC was 85.3 ± 28.4 cm. Adjusted on study site, increasing age (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.1-2.3] for 75-84 years, OR = 2.6 [95% CI: 1.4-4.8] for 85+ years), occupation as farmer/breeder (OR = 2.2 [95% CI: 1.1-4.2]), smoking (OR = 1.71 [95% CI: 1.14-2.56]) and low sugar consumption (OR = 1.7 [95% CI: 1.1-2.7]) were positively associated with undernutrition whereas only female sex was positively associated with obesity (OR = 5.0 [95% CI: 2.2-11.0]).

Conclusions: The prevalence of undernutrition is high in the elderly population of these countries, in contrast to obesity. Undernutrition and obesity are associated with different socio-economic factors and food consumption. Simple nutritional advice could contribute to improving the nutritional status of elderly people in Central Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2017.05.007DOI Listing
October 2017

A cohort study of the effects of older adult care dependence upon household economic functioning, in Peru, Mexico and China.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(4):e0195567. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Health Service and Population Research Department, London, United Kingdom.

Background: While links between disability and poverty are well established, there have been few longitudinal studies to clarify direction of causality, particularly among older adults in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study the effect of care dependence among older adult residents on the economic functioning of their households, in catchment area survey sites in Peru, Mexico and China.

Methods: Households were classified from the evolution of the needs for care of older residents, over two previous community surveys, as 'incident care', 'chronic care' or 'no care', and followed up three years later to ascertain economic outcomes (household income, consumption, economic strain, satisfaction with economic circumstances, healthcare expenditure and residents giving up work or education to care).

Results: Household income did not differ between household groups. However, income from paid work (Pooled Count Ratio pCR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00) and government transfers (pCR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93) were lower in care households. Consumption was 12% lower in chronic care households (pCR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). Household healthcare expenditure was higher (pCR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.90), and catastrophic healthcare spending more common (pRR 1.64, 95% CI 1.64-2.22) in care households.

Conclusions: While endogeneity cannot be confidently excluded as an explanation for the findings, this study indicates that older people's needs for care have a discernable impact on household economics, controlling for baseline indicators of long-term economic status. Although living, typically, in multigenerational family units, older people have not featured prominently in global health and development agendas. Population ageing will rapidly increase the number of households where older people live, and their societal significance. Building sustainable long-term care systems for the future will require some combination of improved income security in old age; incentivisation of informal care through compensation for direct and opportunity costs; and development of community care services to support, and, where necessary, supplement or substitute the central role of informal caregivers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195567PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5898721PMC
July 2018

Leg length, skull circumference, and the incidence of dementia in Latin America and China: A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(4):e0195133. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. Cross-sectional studies indicate inverse associations with dementia risk, but there have been few prospective studies.

Methods: Population-based cohort studies in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken, with ascertainment of incident dementia, and mortality, three to five years later.

Results: Of the original at risk cohort of 13,587 persons aged 65 years and over, 2,443 (18.0%) were lost to follow-up; 10,540 persons with skull circumference assessments were followed up for 40,466 person years, and 10,400 with leg length assessments were followed up for 39,954 person years. There were 1,009 cases of incident dementia, and 1,605 dementia free deaths. The fixed effect pooled meta-analysed adjusted subhazard ratio (ASHR) for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.97) and for skull circumference was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25), with no heterogeneity of effect between sites (I2 = 0%). Leg length measurements tended to be shorter at follow-up, particularly for those with baseline cognitive impairment and dementia. However, leg length change was not associated with dementia incidence (ASHR, per cm 1.006, 95% CI 0.992-1.020), and the effect of leg length was little altered after adjusting for baseline frailty (ASHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). A priori hypotheses regarding effect modification by gender or educational level were not supported. However, the effect of skull circumference was modified by gender (M vs F ASHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98), but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized with a greater protective effect of larger skull dimensions in men.

Conclusions: Consistent findings across settings provide quite strong support for an association between adult leg length and dementia incidence in late-life. Leg length is a relatively stable marker of early life nutritional programming, which may confer brain reserve and protect against neurodegeneration in later life through mitigation of cardiometabolic risk. Further clarification of these associations could inform predictive models for future dementia incidence in the context of secular trends in adult height, and invigorate global efforts to improve childhood nutrition, growth and development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195133PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896923PMC
July 2018

Prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Jun;47(3):709-719

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset.

Methods: Twenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011-March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015-February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76). Meta-regression was used to investigate geographical variation and time trends, taking methodological factors and characteristics of study population into account, and to estimate prevalence and number of people with dementia by geographical area.

Results: Compared with northern China, the prevalence of dementia was lower in the central China [-1.0; 95% confidence interval (CI):-2.2, 0.3], south China (-1.7; 95% CI: -3.1, -0.3), Hong Kong and Taiwan (-3.0; 95% CI: -5.0, -1.0) but appeared to be higher in western China (2.8; 95% CI: 0.1, 5.5) after adjusting for methodological variation. The increasing trend from pre-1990 to post-2010 periods was considerably attenuated when taking into account methodological factors and geographical areas. The updated estimated number of people with dementia in all these areas is 9.5 million (5.3%; 95% CI: 4.3, 6.3) in the population aged 60 or above.

Conclusions: Geographical variation in dementia prevalence is confirmed in this update, whereas evidence on increasing trends is still insufficient. Differing societal development across areas provides an opportunity to investigate risk factors at the population level operating across diverse life course experiences. Such research could advance global primary prevention of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005065PMC
June 2018

Ankle-Brachial Index: An Ubiquitous Marker of Cognitive Impairment-The EPIDEMCA Study.

Angiology 2018 Jul 2;69(6):497-506. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

1 INSERM UMR 1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France.

Epidemiological research on the implication of atherosclerosis in the development of cognitive impairment is lacking in low- and middle-income countries, where two-thirds of the individuals affected by dementia live. Individuals aged ≥65 years living in urban and rural areas of 2 countries in Central Africa were invited. Demographic, clinical, and biological data were collected, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured. Cognitive impairment was defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. Among 1662 participants (age 72.9 years, 59.3% females), the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.6%, which is higher in individuals with ABI ≤ 0.90 and ABI ≥ 1.40 than those with 0.90 < ABI < 1.40 (20.1% and 17% vs 12%, P = .0024). Cognitive impairment was significantly associated with the factors such as age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.12, P < .0001), female gender (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.59-3.49, P < .0001), smoking (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06-2.23, P = .0026), and low ABI (≤0.90; OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.03-2.25, P = .0359). The ABI, a ubiquitous marker of atherosclerosis, provides independent and incremental information on susceptibility to present with cognitive disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319717736608DOI Listing
July 2018

Self-rated health and its association with mortality in older adults in China, India and Latin America-a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study.

Age Ageing 2017 11;46(6):932-939

Health Services and Population Research Department, Psychology and Neuroscience, Centre for Global Mental Health, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R2LS, UK.

Background: empirical evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH) is useful as a brief and simple outcome measure in public health research. However, in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) there is a lack of evaluation and the cross-cultural validity of SRH remains largely untested. This study aims to explore the prevalence of SRH and its association with mortality in older adults in LMIC in order to cross-culturally validate the construct of SRH.

Methods: population-based cohort studies including 16,940 persons aged ≥65 years in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico and Puerto Rico in 2003. SRH was assessed by asking 'how do you rate your overall health in the past 30 days' with responses ranging from excellent to poor. Covariates included socio-demographic characteristics, use of health services and health factors. Mortality was ascertained through a screening of all respondents until 2007.

Results: the prevalence of good SRH was higher in urban compared to rural sites, except in China. Men reported higher SRH than women, and depression had the largest negative impact on SRH in all sites. Without adjustment, those with poor SRH showed a 142% increase risk of dying within 4 years compared to those with moderate SRH. After adjusting for all covariates, those with poor SRH still showed a 43% increased risk.

Conclusion: our findings support the use of SRH as a simple measure in survey settings to identify vulnerable groups and evaluate health interventions in resource-scares settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afx126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5860352PMC
November 2017

A journey without maps-Understanding the costs of caring for dependent older people in Nigeria, China, Mexico and Peru.

PLoS One 2017 7;12(8):e0182360. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Health Service and Population Research Department, King's College London (Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience), London, United Kingdom.

Purpose Of The Study: Populations in Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are rapidly ageing. The extent to which traditional systems of family support and security can manage the care of increased numbers of older people with chronic health problems is unclear. Our aim was to explore the social and economic effects of caring for an older dependent person, including insight into pathways to economic vulnerability.

Design & Methods: We carried out a series of household case studies across urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and Nigeria (n = 24), as part of a cross-sectional study, nested within the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cohort. Case studies consisted of in-depth narrative style interviews (n = 60) with multiple family members, including the older dependent person.

Results: Governments were largely uninvolved in the care and support of older dependent people, leaving families to negotiate a 'journey without maps'. Women were de facto caregivers but the traditional role of female relative as caregiver was beginning to be contested. Household composition was flexible and responsive to changing needs of multiple generations but family finances were stretched.

Implications: Governments are lagging behind sociodemographic and social change. There is an urgent need for policy frameworks to support and supplement inputs from families. These should include community-based and residential care services, disability benefits and carers allowances. Further enhancement of health insurance schemes and scale-up of social pensions are an important component of bolstering the security of dependent older people and supporting their continued social and economic participation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0182360PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5546609PMC
October 2017

Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in older people in Central Africa: the EPIDEMCA study.

J Am Soc Hypertens 2017 Jul 9;11(7):449-460. Epub 2017 May 9.

UMR 1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, INSERM, Limoges, France; UMR 1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Centre for Global Mental Health, King's College London, London, UK.

Hypertension represents a major global health burden. While older individuals of African descent are at higher risk of hypertension in western countries, epidemiologic data on hypertension in older native Africans are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and the level of awareness and control of hypertension among older adults in Central Africa. A total of 1990 individuals aged 65 years and older from the Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic participated into a cross-sectional population-based survey. Hypertension was defined by self-reporting of ongoing treatment and/or systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure at rest being ≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg. Controlled hypertension was defined as treated hypertension with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 61.1%. Among hypertensive people, 46.7% were aware of their condition and 17.3% were treated. Among the latter, 23.8% had their hypertension controlled. Correlates of hypertension were increasing age and body mass index, living in the Republic of Congo, occupation other than employee, no tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, and ≥3 meals a day. Our findings indicate a need for the implementation of public health policies to reduce hypertension in older Africans and to prevent the subsequent burden of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.013DOI Listing
July 2017

The worldwide costs of dementia 2015 and comparisons with 2010.

Alzheimers Dement 2017 01 29;13(1):1-7. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

King's College London, The Global Observatory for Ageing and Dementia Care, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Health Service and Population Research Department, London, UK.

Introduction: In 2010, Alzheimer's Disease International presented estimates of the global cost of illness (COI) of dementia. Since then, new studies have been conducted, and the number of people with dementia has increased. Here, we present an update of the global cost estimates.

Methods: This is a societal, prevalence-based global COI study.

Results: The worldwide costs of dementia were estimated at United States (US) $818 billion in 2015, an increase of 35% since 2010; 86% of the costs occur in high-income countries. Costs of informal care and the direct costs of social care still contribute similar proportions of total costs, whereas the costs in the medical sector are much lower. The threshold of US $1 trillion will be crossed by 2018.

Discussion: Worldwide costs of dementia are enormous and still inequitably distributed. The increase in costs arises from increases in numbers of people with dementia and in increases in per person costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2016.07.150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5232417PMC
January 2017

Recent global trends in the prevalence and incidence of dementia, and survival with dementia.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2016 07 30;8(1):23. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Current projections of the scale of the coming dementia epidemic assume that the age- and sex-specific prevalence of dementia will not vary over time, and that population ageing alone (increasing the number of older people at risk) drives the projected increases. The basis for this assumption is doubtful, and secular trends (that is, gradual decreases or increases in prevalence over long-term periods) are perfectly plausible.

Methods: We carried out a systematic review of studies of trends in prevalence, incidence and mortality for people with dementia, conducted since 1980.

Results: We identified nine studies that had tracked dementia prevalence, eight that had tracked dementia incidence, and four that had tracked mortality among people with dementia. There was some moderately consistent evidence to suggest that the incidence of dementia may be declining in high-income countries. Evidence on trends in the prevalence of dementia were inconsistent across studies and did not suggest any clear overall effect. Declining incidence may be balanced by longer survival with dementia, although mortality trends have been little studied. There is some evidence to suggest increasing prevalence in East Asia, consistent with worsening cardiovascular risk factor profiles, although secular changes in diagnostic criteria may also have contributed.

Conclusions: We found no evidence to suggest that the current assumption of constant age-specific prevalence of dementia over time is ill-founded. However, there remains some uncertainty as to the future scale of the dementia epidemic. Population ageing seems destined to play the greatest role, and prudent policymakers should plan future service provision based upon current prevalence projections. Additional priorities should include investing in brain health promotion and dementia prevention programs, and monitoring the future course of the epidemic to chart the effectiveness of these measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-016-0188-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967299PMC
July 2016
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