Publications by authors named "M Aalto"

128 Publications

Withdrawal from Long-Term Use of Unusually High-Dose Oxazepam.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 5;2021:2140723. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Central Hospital of Southern Ostrobothnia, Hanneksenrinne 7, FI-60220 Seinäjoki, Finland.

Benzodiazepine (BZD) misuse is a worldwide problem that healthcare professionals encounter in daily practice. High-dose BZD withdrawal is usually a long process that may require referral to an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Relapses after withdrawal are common. BZD withdrawal can cause complications including seizures, suicidal behavior, anxiety, and depression. Guidelines describe tapering protocols for modest doses; however, protocols for exceptionally high-dose BZD withdrawal are not well described. Herein, we describe a BZD tapering protocol for a patient with daily use of high-dose (1800 mg) oxazepam (OXP). The BZD tapering was administered in an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the outcome was evaluated monthly after discharge for three months. This report describes a unique case of high-dose OXP withdrawal and also outlines an optional protocol to apply when clinicians encounter these unusual cases.
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November 2021

Combined effects of lifestyle risk factors on fatty liver index.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Apr 15;20(1):109. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Research Unit, Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Tampere University, Hanneksenrinne 7, 60220, Seinäjoki, Finland.

Background: Factors of lifestyle may have a major impact on liver-related morbidity and mortality. We examined independent and joint effects of lifestyle risk factors on fatty liver index (FLI), a biomarker of hepatic steatosis, in a population-based cross-sectional national health survey.

Methods: The study included 12,368 participants (5784 men, 6584 women) aged 25-74 years. Quantitative estimates of alcohol use, smoking, adiposity and physical activity were used to establish a total score of risk factors, with higher scores indicating an unhealthier lifestyle. FLI was calculated based on an algorithm including body mass index, waist circumference, serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides.

Results: The occurrence of FLI ≥ 60% indicating fatty liver increased from 2.4% in men with zero risk factors to 81.9% in those with a total risk score of 7-8 (p <  0.0005 for linear trend) and in women from 0 to 73.5% (p <  0.0005). The most striking individual impacts on the likelihood for FLI above 60% were observed for physical inactivity (p <  0.0005 for both genders) and alcohol consumption (p <  0.0005 for men). Interestingly, coffee consumption was also found to increase with increasing risk factor scores (p <  0.0005 for linear trend in both genders).

Conclusions: The data indicates that unfavorable combinations of lifestyle risk factors lead to a high likelihood of hepatic steatosis. Use of FLI as a diagnostic tool may benefit the assessment of interventions aimed at maintaining a healthy lifestyle and prevention of liver-related morbidity.
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April 2020

Genome-wide analyses disclose the distinctive HLA architecture and the pharmacogenetic landscape of the Somali population.

Sci Rep 2020 03 27;10(1):5652. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

African populations are underrepresented in medical genomics studies. For the Somali population, there is virtually no information on genomic markers with significance to precision medicine. Here, we analyzed nearly 900,000 genomic markers in samples collected from 95 unrelated individuals in the North Eastern Somalia. ADMIXTURE program for estimation of individual ancestries revealed a homogenous Somali population. Principal component analysis with PLINK software showed approximately 60% East African and 40% West Eurasian genes in the Somali population, with a close relation to the Cushitic and Semitic speaking Ethiopian populations. We report the unique features of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in the Somali population, which seem to differentiate from all other neighboring regions compared. Current study identified high prevalence of the diabetes type 1 (T1D) predisposing HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in Somalia. This finding may explain the increased T1D risk observed among Somali children. In addition, ethnic Somalis were found to host the highest frequencies observed thus far for several pharmacogenetic variants, including UGT1A4*2. In conclusion, we report that the Somali population displays genetic traits of significance to health and disease. The Somali dataset is publicly available and will add more information to the few genomic datasets available for African populations.
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March 2020

Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 01;26(1):153-154

We identified visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in a previously unknown focus in northern Somalia. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 118 cases during 2013-2019 in Bosaso, the region's commercial capital, have raised suspicion of visceral leishmaniasis endemicity status there.
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January 2020

Impacts of unfavourable lifestyle factors on biomarkers of liver function, inflammation and lipid status.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(6):e0218463. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Research Unit, Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Tampere University, Seinäjoki, Finland.

Background: Adopting a healthy lifestyle is associated with prolonged life expectancy. The main modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors are hazardous alcohol drinking, smoking, excess body weight and lack of physical activity. Our aim was to estimate the impact of unfavourable lifestyle factors on abnormalities in laboratory tests reflecting liver status, inflammation and lipid metabolism in a population-based cross-sectional study.

Methods: The study included 22,273 participants (10,561 men, 11,712 women) aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK Study. Data on alcohol use, smoking, body weight, and physical activity were recorded from structured interviews. The risk scores for the various life style factors were established on a 0-8 scale and used to stratify the population in classes to allow estimates of their joint effects. Serum liver enzymes (GGT, ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles were measured using standard laboratory techniques.

Results: Consistent dose-response relationships were observed between the number of unfavourable risk factors and serum levels of GGT, ALT, CRP, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides (p < 0.0005 for linear trend in all comparisons). When compared with those with zero risk factors, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for abnormalities in all biomarkers were significantly higher in those with a sum of risk score two or more. The most striking increases in ORs in the group with the highest numbers of risk factors were observed among men in serum GGT: 26.6 (12.4-57.0), ALT: 40.3 (5.3-307.8), CRP: 16.2 (7.8-33.7) and serum triglycerides: 14.4 (8.6-24.0).

Conclusions: The data support the view that the presence of unfavourable life style risk factors is associated with distinct abnormalities in laboratory tests for liver function, inflammation and lipid status. Such biomarkers may prove to be of value in the assessment of interventions aimed at reducing unfavourable risk factors and in helping individuals in long-term maintenance of lifestyle modifications.
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February 2020