Publications by authors named "Lihua Wang"

850 Publications

Dimethylamine enhances platelet hyperactivity in chronic kidney disease model.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Hemodialysis, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No.215 Heping Western Road, Shijiazhuang, 053000, Hebei, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major health threat worldwide which is associated with elevated blood level of dimethylamine (DMA) and unbalanced platelet functions. Dimethylamine, a simple aliphatic amine, is abundantly found in human urine as well as other body fluids like plasma. However, the relation between dimethylamine and platelet activation is unclear. This study aims to unravel the mechanism of DMA and platelet function in chronic kidney disease. Through in vitro platelet characterization assay and in vivo CKD mouse model, the level of DMA, platelet activity and renal function were assessed by established methods. PKCδ and its downstream kinase MEK1/2 were examined by immunoblotting analysis of human platelet extract. Rescue experiments with PKCδ inhibitor or choline deficient diet were also conducted. DMA level in plasma of mouse CKD model was elevated along with enhanced platelet activation and comprised renal function. DMA can activate platelet in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of PKCδ could antagonize the effect of DMA on platelet activation. When choline as the dietary source of DMA was deprived from CKD mouse, the level DMA was reduced and platelet activation was attenuated. Our results demonstrate that dimethylamine could enhance platelet activation in CKD model, potentially through activation of PKCδ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09913-4DOI Listing
July 2021

A modified urinary catheterisation technique to reduce urine leakage: A prospective randomised study.

Int J Older People Nurs 2021 Jul 29:e12405. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou, China.

Background: Long-term indwelling catheters assist people who are unable to use another bladder management method. However, urine leakage is a common problem with an indwelling urinary catheter. This study aims to determine whether a modified catheterisation technique would reduce urine leakage incidence.

Methods: Participants were randomly divided into conventional or modified catheterisation groups. In the modified technique group, the volume of fluid that needed to be injected into the balloon to obtain a suitable catheter front-end curvature (120-145°) was measured before catheterisation. Baseline characteristics and first-time success rates and procedure durations were similar between groups.

Results: There were 30 patients in each group. Compared with conventional catheterisation, the modified catheterisation group had smaller residual urine volume (median 11 mL Vs. 30.5 mL, p<0.001) and more leakage-free days (30 days Vs. 10 days, p<0.001). Leakage-free survival was longer in the modified catheterisation group (p<0.001). The residual urine volume (>17 vs ≤17 ml (median); incident rate ratio (IRR), 28.710; 95%CI, 4.114-200.331; p=0.001) was independently associated with urine leakage.

Conclusions: The modified catheterisation technique may reduce the incidence of urine leakage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opn.12405DOI Listing
July 2021

Use of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis with Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction, Real-World Experience From a Single Center.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2021 Jul;15(4):288-299

Department of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification Centre, 2nd Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, PR China.

Introduction: Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) has been recommended by major guidelines as the leading therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). But little is known about its safety and effectiveness among maintenance hemodialysis patients with HFrEF in real-word practice.

Methods: An observational study was conducted among maintenance hemodialysis patients who received ARNI at our dialysis center. Enrollment commenced on June 1, 2018; and follow-up was completed on May 31, 2019.

Results: A total of 110 patients included in the study (age: 54.2 ± 14.8 y, 59% males). After 12 months of treatment, the average ARNI daily dose increased from 135 mg to 308 mg. The mean NT-pro- BNP concentration at baseline was 14455 pg/mL and 6435 pg/ mL after 12 months of treatment (P < .001). The left ventricular ejection fraction improved (35.1 vs. 49.8%, P < .001) over the 12 months, while left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left atrial diameter also changed significantly (167.8 vs. 154.9 g/m, P < .001; 52.2 vs. 51.5 mm, P < .05; 35.9 vs. 36.9 mm, P < .001; 42.2 vs. 40.3 mm, P < .001). Furthermore, we found the quality of life and the NYHA symptom severity class improved significantly (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that higher dose of ARNI and less vintage of HD were associated with best survival.

Conclusion: In our study, ARNI appeared to be safe, relieved heart failure symptoms, and improved the scores of KCCQ physical and social activities in hemodialysis patients in real-world practice.
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July 2021

Preablative Stimulated Thyroglobulin and Thyroglobulin Reduction Index as Decision-Making Markers for Second Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Patients with Structural Incomplete Response.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 5;13:5351-5360. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of preablative stimulated thyroglobulin (presTg) and thyroglobulin reduction index (TRI) to predict the different responses to second radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with structural incomplete response (SIR).

Patients And Methods: A single-center retrospective study analyzed the different clinical outcomes after second RAI therapy in 206 patients with SIR. PresTg1 and presTg2 were measured before first and second RAI management and TRI was the reduction index of presTg1 and presTg2. Cut-off values of presTg and TRI were obtained using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to confirm these parameters as prognostic factors to predict different responses to second RAI therapy.

Results: Only ATA risk stratification, the post-therapy whole-body scanning (Rx-WBS) findings, presTg1, presTg2, TRI, were different in patients with SIR. After second RAI therapy, 28.2% (58/206) of patients with SIR initially were reclassified as excellent response (ER). PresTg1 <6.6 ng/mL, presTg2 <1.2ng/mL, and TRI >74.2% were excellent indications to predict ER from non-ER after second RAI treatment. PresTg1 >14.9 ng/mL, presTg2 >1.8ng/mL and TRI <66.5% were well markers to predict poor outcome (SIR). High risk and distant metastases could still be considered as risk factors.

Conclusion: DTC patients with SIR could benefit through second RAI treatment. PresTg before each RAI therapy and TRI could be considered as effective decision-making markers for second RAI therapy and as predictive indications for clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S314621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275041PMC
July 2021

Vitellogenin from planthopper oral secretion acts as a novel effector to impair plant defenses.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Ministry of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Vitellogenin (Vg) is a well-known nutritious protein involved in reproduction in nearly all oviparous animals, including insects. Recently, Vg has been detected in saliva proteomes of several piercing-sucking herbivorous arthropods, including the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH). Its function, however, remains unexplored. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying SBPH orally secreted Vg-mediated manipulation of plant-insect interaction by RNA interference, phytohormone and H O profiling, protein-protein interaction studies and herbivore bioassays. A C-terminal polypeptide of Vg (VgC) in SBPH, when secreted into rice plants, acted as a novel effector to attenuate host rice defenses, which in turn improved insect feeding performance. Silencing Vg reduced insect feeding and survival on rice. Vg-silenced SBPH nymphs consistently elicited higher H O production, a well-established defense mechanism in rice, whereas expression of VgC in planta significantly hindered H O accumulation and promoted insect performance. VgC directly interacted with the rice transcription factor OsWRKY71, a protein which is involved in induction of H O accumulation and plant resistance to SBPH. These findings indicate a novel effector function of Vg: When secreted into host rice plant, this protein effectively weakened H O -mediated plant defense through its association with a plant immunity regulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17620DOI Listing
July 2021

Sperm-Specific Glycolysis Enzyme Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulated by Transcription Factor SOX10 to Promote Uveal Melanoma Tumorigenesis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:610683. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Melanoma cells exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis, which represents a major biochemical alteration associated with malignant transformation; thus, glycolytic enzymes could be exploited to selectively target cancer cells in cancer therapy. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) switches glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate by coupling with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Here, we demonstrated that GAPDHS displays significantly higher expression in uveal melanoma (UM) than in normal controls. Functionally, the knockdown of GAPDHS in UM cell lines hindered glycolysis by decreasing glucose uptake, lactate production, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, cell growth and proliferation; conversely, overexpression of GAPDHS promoted glycolysis, cell growth and proliferation. Furthermore, we identified that SOX10 knockdown reduced the activation of GAPDHS, leading to an attenuated malignant phenotype, and that SOX10 overexpression promoted the activation of GAPDHS, leading to an enhanced malignant phenotype. Mechanistically, SOX10 exerted its function by binding to the promoter of GAPDHS to regulate its expression. Importantly, SOX10 abrogation suppressed tumor growth and proliferation. Collectively, the results reveal that GAPDHS, which is regulated by SOX10, controls glycolysis and contributes to UM tumorigenesis, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.610683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267526PMC
June 2021

Encoding Fluorescence Anisotropic Barcodes with DNA Fameworks.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 9;143(28):10735-10742. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Division of Physical Biology, CAS Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China.

Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) holds great potential for multiplexed analysis and imaging of biomolecules since it can effectively discriminate fluorophores with overlapping emission spectra. Nevertheless, its susceptibility to environmental variation hampers its widespread applications in biology and biotechnology. In this study, we design FA DNA frameworks (FAFs) by scaffolding fluorophores in a fluorescent protein-like microenvironment. We find that the FA stability of the fluorophores is remarkably improved due to the sequestration effects of FAFs. The FA level of the fluorophores can be finely tuned when placed at different locations on an FAF, analogous to spectral shifts of protein-bound fluorophores. The high programmability of FAFs further enables the design of a spectrum of encoded FA barcodes for multiplexed sensing of nucleic acids and multiplexed labeling of live cells. This FAF system thus establishes a new paradigm for designing multiplexing FA probes for cellular imaging and other biological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04942DOI Listing
July 2021

Multiethnic Genome-wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

- Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent CVD risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. - We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 2,500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1,590 T2D individuals of African ancestry (AA) with or without exclusion of prevalent CVD, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3,608 EA and 838 AA with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. - We replicated two loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near and rs10757278 near ) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near ) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near at 13q13.3) at =2.0×10 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and AA. The expression QTL analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from GTEx pinpoints , encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (<3.1×10) for three previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near and rs11170820 near for CAC, and rs7412 near for cIMT). - Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased CVD risk in individuals with T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003258DOI Listing
July 2021

Asymmetric reconstruction of mammalian reovirus reveals interactions among RNA, transcriptional factor µ2 and capsid proteins.

Nat Commun 2021 07 7;12(1):4176. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) is the prototypical member of genus Orthoreovirus of family Reoviridae. However, lacking high-resolution structures of its RNA polymerase cofactor μ2 and infectious particle, limits understanding of molecular interactions among proteins and RNA, and their contributions to virion assembly and RNA transcription. Here, we report the 3.3 Å-resolution asymmetric reconstruction of transcribing MRV and in situ atomic models of its capsid proteins, the asymmetrically attached RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) λ3, and RdRp-bound nucleoside triphosphatase μ2 with a unique RNA-binding domain. We reveal molecular interactions among virion proteins and genomic and messenger RNA. Polymerase complexes in three Spinoreovirinae subfamily members are organized with different pseudo-D symmetries to engage their highly diversified genomes. The above interactions and those between symmetry-mismatched receptor-binding σ1 trimers and RNA-capping λ2 pentamers balance competing needs of capsid assembly, external protein removal, and allosteric triggering of endogenous RNA transcription, before, during and after infection, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24455-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263624PMC
July 2021

A Novel Prognostic Signature Based on Metabolism-Related Genes to Predict Survival and Guide Personalized Treatment for Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 14;11:685026. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Metabolic reprogramming contributes to patient prognosis. Here, we aimed to reveal the comprehensive landscape in metabolism of head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC), and establish a novel metabolism-related prognostic model to explore the clinical potential and predictive value on therapeutic response. We screened 4752 metabolism-related genes (MRGs) and then identified differentially expressed MRGs in HNSCC. A novel 10-MRGs risk model for prognosis was established by the univariate Cox regression analysis and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regression analysis, and then verified in both internal and external validation cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis was employed to explore its prognostic power on the response of conventional therapy. The immune cell infiltration was also evaluated and we used tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) algorithm to estimate potential response of immunotherapy in different risk groups. Nomogram model was constructed to further predict patients' prognoses. We found the MRGs-related prognostic model showed good prediction performance. Survival analysis indicated that patients suffered obviously poorer survival outcomes in high-risk group ( < 0.001). The metabolism-related signature was further confirmed to be the independent prognostic value of HNSCC (HR = 6.387, 95% CI = 3.281-12.432, < 0.001), the efficacy of predictive model was also verified by internal and external validation cohorts. We observed that HNSCC patients would benefit from the application of chemotherapy in the low-risk group ( = 0.029). Immunotherapy may be effective for HNSCC patients with high risk score ( < 0.01). Furthermore, we established a predictive nomogram model for clinical application with high performance. Our study constructed and validated a promising 10-MRGs signature for monitoring outcome, which may provide potential indicators for metabolic therapy and therapeutic response prediction in HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.685026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236898PMC
June 2021

Construction of lncRNA-Mediated ceRNA Network for Investigating Immune Pathogenesis of Ischemic Stroke.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Ischemic stroke (IS) is a common and serious neurological disease. Extensive evidence indicates that activation of the immune system contributes significantly to the development of IS pathology. In recent years, some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), have been reported to affect IS process, especially the immunological response after stroke. However, the roles of lncRNA-mediated ceRNAs in immune pathogenesis of IS are not systemically investigated. In the present study, we generated a global immune-related ceRNA network containing immune-related genes (IRGs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs based on experimentally verified interactions. Further, we excavated an IS immune-related ceRNA (ISIRC) network through mapping significantly differentially expressed IRGs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs of patients with IS into the global network. We analyzed the topological properties of the two networks, respectively, and found that lncRNA NEAT1 and lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 played core roles in aforementioned two immune-related networks. Moreover, the results of functional enrichment analyses revealed that lncRNAs in the ISIRC network were mainly involved in several immune-related biological processes and pathways. Finally, we identified 17 lncRNAs which were highly related to the immune mechanism of IS through performing random walk with restart for the ISIRC network. Importantly, it has been confirmed that NEAT1, KCNQ1OT1, GAS5, and RMRP could regulate immuno-inflammatory response after stroke, such as production of inflammatory factors and activation of the immune cells. Our results suggested that lncRNAs exerted an important role in the immune pathogenesis of IS and provided a new strategy to do research on IS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02426-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of a Novel Locus for Gait Speed Decline with Aging: The Long Life Family Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology.

Background: Gait speed is a powerful indicator of health with aging. Potential genetic contributions to gait speed and its decline with aging are not well defined. We determined the heritability of and potential genetic regions underlying change in gait speed using longitudinal data from 2379 individuals belonging to 509 families in the Long Life Family Study (mean age 64±12, range 30-110 years; 45% men).

Methods: Gait-speed was measured over 4 meters at baseline and follow up (7±1 years). Quantitative trait linkage analyses were completed using pedigree-based maximum-likelihood methods with logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores >3.0 indicating genome-wide significance. We also performed linkage analysis in the top 10% of families contributing to LOD scores to allow for heterogeneity among families (HLOD). Data were adjusted for age, sex, height, and field center.

Results: At baseline, 26.9% of individuals had "slow" gait-speed <1.0 m/s (mean: 1.1±0.2 m/s) and gait speed declined at a rate of -0.02±0.03 m/s per year (p<0.0001). Baseline and change in gait-speed were significantly heritable (h  2 = 0.24-0.32, p<0.05). We did not find significant evidence for linkage for baseline gait speed; however, we identified a significant locus for change in gait speed on chromosome 16p (LOD=4.2). A subset of 21 families contributed to this linkage peak (HLOD = 6.83). Association analyses on chromosome 16 showed that the strongest variant resides within the ADCY9 gene.

Conclusion: Further analysis of the chromosome 16 region, and ADCY9 gene, may yield new insight on the biology of mobility decline with aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab177DOI Listing
June 2021

Sequence-Based Prediction of Transmembrane Protein Crystallization Propensity.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601, China.

Transmembrane proteins play a vital role in cell life activities. There are several techniques to determine transmembrane protein structures and X-ray crystallography is the primary methodology. However, due to the special properties of transmembrane proteins, it is still hard to determine their structures by X-ray crystallography technique. To reduce experimental consumption and improve experimental efficiency, it is of great significance to develop computational methods for predicting the crystallization propensity of transmembrane proteins. In this work, we proposed a sequence-based machine learning method, namely Prediction of TransMembrane protein Crystallization propensity (PTMC), to predict the propensity of transmembrane protein crystallization. First, we obtained several general sequence features and the specific encoded features of relative solvent accessibility and hydrophobicity. Second, feature selection was employed to filter out redundant and irrelevant features, and the optimal feature subset is composed of hydrophobicity, amino acid composition and relative solvent accessibility. Finally, we chose extreme gradient boosting by comparing with other several machine learning methods. Comparative results on the independent test set indicate that PTMC outperforms state-of-the-art sequence-based methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) and Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC). In comparison with two competitors, Bcrystal and TMCrys, PTMC achieves an improvement by 0.132 and 0.179 for sensitivity, 0.014 and 0.127 for specificity, 0.037 and 0.192 for accuracy, 0.128 and 0.362 for MCC, and 0.027 and 0.125 for AUC, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-021-00448-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Remote Photothermal Control of DNA Origami Assembly in Cellular Environments.

Nano Lett 2021 07 16;21(13):5834-5841. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

The Interdisciplinary Research Center, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Zhangjiang Laboratory, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China.

In situ synthesis of DNA origami structures in living systems is highly desirable due to its potential in biological applications, which nevertheless is hampered by the requirement of thermal activation procedures. Here, we report a photothermal DNA origami assembly method in near-physiological environments. We find that the use of copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs) can mediate efficient near-infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion to remotely control the solution temperature. Under a 4 min NIR illumination and subsequent natural cooling, rapid and high-yield (>80%) assembly of various types of DNA origami nanostructures is achieved as revealed by atomic force microscopy and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. We further demonstrate the in situ assembly of DNA origami with high location precision in cell lysates and in cell culture environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01821DOI Listing
July 2021

An Illustrated Guide to the Imaging Evolution of COVID in Non-Epidemic Areas of Southeast China.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 28;8:648180. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

By analyzing the CT manifestations and evolution of COVID in non-epidemic areas of southeast China, analyzing the developmental abnormalities and accompanying signs in the early and late stages of the disease, providing imaging evidence for clinical diagnosis and identification, and assisting in judging disease progression and monitoring prognosis. This retrospective and multicenter study included 1,648 chest CT examinations from 693 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection from 16 hospitals of southeast China between January 19 and March 27, 2020. Six trained radiologists analyzed and recorded the distribution and location of the lesions in the CT images of these patients. The accompanying signs include crazy-paving sign, bronchial wall thickening, microvascular thickening, bronchogram sign, fibrous lesions, halo and reverse-halo signs, nodules, atelectasis, and pleural effusion, and at the same time, they analyze the evolution of the abovementioned manifestations over time. There were 1,500 positive findings in 1,648 CT examinations of 693 patients; the average age of the patients was 46 years, including 13 children; the proportion of women was 49%. Early CT manifestations are single or multiple nodular, patchy, or flaky ground-glass-like density shadows. The frequency of occurrence of ground-glass shadows (47.27%), fibrous lesions (42.60%), and microvascular thickening (40.60%) was significantly higher than that of other signs. Ground-glass shadows increase and expand 3-7 days after the onset of symptoms. The distribution and location of lesions were not significantly related to the appearance time. Ground-glass shadow is the most common lesion, with an average absorption time of 6.2 days, followed by consolidation, with an absorption time of about 6.3 days. It takes about 8 days for pure ground-glass lesions to absorb. Consolidation change into ground glass or pure ground glass takes 10-14 days. For ground-glass opacity to evolve into pure ground-glass lesions, it takes an average of 17 days. For ground-glass lesions to evolve into consolidation, it takes 7 days, pure ground-glass lesions need 8 days to evolve into ground-glass lesions. The average time for CT signs to improve is 10-15 days, and the first to improve is the crazy-paving sign and nodules; while the progression of the disease is 6-12 days, the earliest signs of progression are air bronchogram signs, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis. There is no severe patient in this study. This study depicts the CT manifestation and evolution of COVID in non-epidemic origin areas, and provides valuable first-hand information for clinical diagnosis and judgment of patient's disease evolution and prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.648180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195620PMC
May 2021

Interobserver variability in target volume delineation in definitive radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer: a multi-center study from China.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 9;16(1):102. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the interobserver variability (IOV) in target volume delineation of definitive radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer (TEC) among cancer centers in China, and ultimately improve contouring consistency as much as possible to lay the foundation for multi-center prospective studies.

Methods: Sixteen cancer centers throughout China participated in this study. In Phase 1, three suitable cases with upper, middle, and lower TEC were chosen, and participants were asked to contour a group of gross tumor volume (GTV-T), nodal gross tumor volume (GTV-N) and clinical target volume (CTV) for each case based on their routine experience. In Phase 2, the same clinicians were instructed to follow a contouring protocol to re-contour another group of target volume. The variation of the target volume was analyzed and quantified using dice similarity coefficient (DSC).

Results: Sixteen clinicians provided routine volumes, whereas ten provided both routine and protocol volumes for each case. The IOV of routine GTV-N was the most striking in all cases, with the smallest DSC of 0.37 (95% CI 0.32-0.42), followed by CTV, whereas GTV-T showed high consistency. After following the protocol, the smallest DSC of GTV-N was improved to 0.64 (95% CI 0.45-0.83, P = 0.005) but the DSC of GTV-T and CTV remained constant in most cases.

Conclusion: Variability in target volume delineation was observed, but it could be significantly reduced and controlled using mandatory interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-01691-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188796PMC
June 2021

Fabrication of Cobaltous Sulfide Nanoparticle-Modified 3D MXene/Carbon Foam Hybrid Aerogels for All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 9;13(24):28222-28230. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Material Science and Engineering, Institute for Graphene Applied Technology Innovation, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China.

MXene is a neoteric type of bidimensional (2D) transition metal carbide/nitride with broad application prospects, in particular with electrochemical energy storage. The electrochemical performance of MXene is unsatisfactory because it is easy to stack resulting in the difficulty of electrolyte penetration and ion transport. In this study, the cobaltous sulfide-modified 3D MXene/N-doped carbon foam ([email protected]/CF) hybrid aerogel is projected and manufactured via simple in situ growth and thermal annealing strategies. The capacitance of the as-fabricated 300-CMC-31:1 electrode material reaches 250 F g (1 A g), which is obviously higher than those of MXene, [email protected], 400-CMC-31:1, 300-CMC-10:1, 300-CMC-50:1, CF, and MXene/CF electrode materials. Moreover, it can hold 97.5% of the original capacitance after 10,000 cycles and the internal resistance () is only 0.50 Ω. A green bulb can be lit by two all-solid asymmetric supercapacitors installed in series. The prepared [email protected]/CF hybrid aerogel exhibits promising potential for practical application in energy storage areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05904DOI Listing
June 2021

Living fabrication of functional semi-interpenetrating polymeric materials.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3422. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Cell-mediated living fabrication has great promise for generating materials with versatile, programmable functions. Here, we demonstrate the engineering of living materials consisting of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (sIPN). The fabrication process is driven by the engineered bacteria encapsulated in a polymeric microcapsule, which serves as the initial scaffold. The bacteria grow and undergo programmed lysis in a density-dependent manner, releasing protein monomers decorated with reactive tags. Those protein monomers polymerize with each other to form the second polymeric component that is interlaced with the initial crosslinked polymeric scaffold. The formation of sIPN serves the dual purposes of enhancing the mechanical property of the living materials and anchoring effector proteins for diverse applications. The material is resilient to perturbations because of the continual assembly of the protein mesh from the monomers released by the engineered bacteria. We demonstrate the adoption of the platform to protect gut microbiota in animals from antibiotic-mediated perturbations. Our work lays the foundation for programming functional living materials for diverse applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23812-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187375PMC
June 2021

Prescribing Silver Chirality with DNA Origami.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 3;143(23):8639-8646. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules and National Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Metal nanostructures of chiral geometry interacting with light via surface plasmon resonances can produce tailorable optical activity with their structural alterations. However, bottom-up fabrication of arbitrary chiral metal nanostructures with precise size and morphology remains a synthetic challenge. Here we develop a DNA origami-enabled aqueous solution metallization strategy to prescribe the chirality of silver nanostructures in three dimensions. We find that diamine silver(I) complexes coordinate with the bases of prescribed single-stranded protruding clustered DNA (pcDNA) on DNA origami via synergetic interactions including coordination, hydrogen bonds, and ion-π interaction, which induce site-specific pcDNA condensation and local enrichment of silver precursors that lowers the activation energy for nucleation. Using tubular DNA origami-based metallization, we obtain helical silver patterns up to a micrometer in length with well-defined chirality and pitches. We further demonstrate tailorable plasmonic optical activity of metallized chiral silver nanostructures. This method opens new pathways to synthesize programmable inorganic materials with arbitrary morphology and chirality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00363DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Colletotrichum liriopes as the Causative Agent of Anthracnose in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Lanzhou University, Pastoral Agriculture Sci. & Tech., Jiayuguan Xilu 768, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 730020;

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), belonging to the Polygonaceae family, is one of the most important "functional food" crops in China. In fall 2020, buckwheat plants grown in field exhibiting stem canker symptoms were found in Tongxin county, Ningxia province, China. Symptoms included stem canker, dieback and extensive vascular discoloration. Cankers were bleached, silvery-white to dark gray, slightly sunken, oval to linear with slightly tapered tips, pycnidia formation was also observed within the cankers. Disease incidence was approximately 30% and moderate to high severity across the field. Symptomatic tissues were cut into 1-2 cm pieces, surface sterilized (75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% NaClO for 2 min) and washed four times with sterile distilled water, dried in sterile filter paper for 3 times, and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25 ℃. Fluffy mycelium was visible for all isolates after 48 h of incubation. Twenty-five single isolates were hyphal-tip purified on PDA. Six representative isolates were used for further study. The fungal colonies on PDA were flat with an entire margin, gray aerial hyphae, light brown pigmentation, appressed slimy mycelium within which numerous brown-black perithecia formed. Colonies on oatmeal agar (OA) were flat, with flocculent mycelium, conidiomata and conidia and the reverse side was black to smoke-grey. Sparse brown-black perithecia were observed within the mycelium. Conidia were hyaline, one-celled, smooth-walled, rarely finely verruculose, aseptate, slightly curved, both sides gradually tapering towards the round to slightly acute apex and truncate base, measured (15.7-23.7) µm (length) × (2.8-5.7) µm (width), (avg. 20.2 µm×4.2 µm, n=100). Genomic DNA was extracted from the same six isolates, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the genes encoding beta-tubulin (TUB), chitin synthase (CHS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and histone H3 (HIS3) were independently amplified with primers V9G/ITS4, T1/Bt-2b, CHS-354R/CHS-79F, GDF1/GDR1 and CYLH3F/CYLH3R, respectively (Damm et al., 2019). Sequences for all six isolates were identical. The sequences of the representative isolate 9J1 were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. MW819604, MW836580, MW836577, MW836578 and MW836579). The results of BLASTn showed that the ITS, TUB, CHS, GAPDH and HIS3 sequences of 9J1 were greater than 98% (555/557bp, 477/486bp, 258/259bp, 242/248bp and 339/345bp, respectively) identical to those of Colletotrichum liriopes (GenBank: MT645674 (ITS), GU228098 (TUB), MT663546 (CHS), MH291255 (GAPDH) and MH292811 (HIS3)). MrBayes phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of ITS, TUB, CHS, GAPDH and HIS3 showed that the isolate clustered monophyletically with strains of C. liriopes. Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the isolate was identified as C. liriopes. To fulfill Koch's postulates, spores of the isolate 9J1 grown on OA for 14 days were harvested in 0.01% Tween 20, and the suspension were adjusted to 104 spores/ml. Six one-month-old potted plants of buckwheat were inoculated by spraying the spore suspension until run-off. Plants were kept inside a plastic bag for 3 d to maintain high relative humidity and maintained in the greenhouse. Six control plants were sprayed with sterile deionized water and kept under the same conditions. Two weeks after inoculation, all inoculated plants showed stem canker symptoms as described above, whereas control plants remained healthy. The pathogen was successfully reisolated from leaf and stem symptomatic tissue, and identified as C. liriopes based on morphological features and DNA sequence analysis, thereby fulfilling Koch's postulates. C. liriopes has been reported causing anthracnose on Eria coronaria (Yang et al., 2011), Liriope spicata (Chen et al., 2019) in China, Liriope muscari in Mexico (Damm et al., 2009), Rohdea japonica in Korea (Kwon and Kim, 2013) and in the United States (Trigiano et al., 2018). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. liriopes causing anthracnose on buckwheat worldwide. Occurrence of this disease may represent a significant impact for buckwheat production because this crop is the major agricultural commodity in some parts of China. More studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of this disease and foster disease management programs in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0689-PDNDOI Listing
June 2021

Tunable and Passively Mode-Locking Nd:GdLaNbO Picosecond Laser.

Molecules 2021 May 26;26(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

The Key Laboratory of Photonic Devices and Materials, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

A high-quality Nd:GdLaNbO (Nd:GLNO) crystal is grown by the Czochralski method, demonstrating wide absorption and fluorescence spectra and advantage for producing ultrafast laser pulses. In this paper, the tunable and passively mode-locking Nd:GLNO lasers are characterized for the first time. The tuning coverage is 34.87 nm ranging from 1058.05 to 1092.92 nm with a maximum output power of 4.6 W at 1065.29 nm. A stable continuous-wave (CW) passively mode-locking Nd:GLNO laser is achieved at 1065.26 nm, delivering a pulse width of 9.1 ps and a maximum CW mode-locking output power of 0.27 W.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198918PMC
May 2021

Effects of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Oral Calcium Bolus on Lactation Performance, Ca Homeostasis, and Health of Multiparous Dairy Cows.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Little information is available regarding the effect of supplementing 25-hydroxyvitamin D during the transition period combined with a postpartum oral calcium bolus on Ca homeostasis. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D combined with postpartum oral calcium bolus on lactation performance, serum minerals and vitamin D metabolites, blood biochemistry, and antioxidant and immune function in multiparous dairy cows. To evaluate the effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D combined with oral calcium, 48 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) supplementing 240 mg/day vitamin D without a postpartum oral Ca bolus (control), (2) supplementing 240 mg/day vitamin D with an oral Ca bolus containing 90 g of Ca immediately post-calving (Ca + VitD), (3) supplementing 6 g/day 25-hydroxyvitamin D without an oral Ca bolus (25D), and (4) supplementing 6 g/day 25-hydroxyvitamin D with an oral Ca bolus containing 90 g of Ca immediately post-calving (Ca + 25D). Lactation performance during the first 21 days was measured. Blood was collected at the initiation of calving and then 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days relative to the calving date. The yield of milk (0.05 < < 0.10), energy-corrected milk ( < 0.05), 3.5% fat-corrected milk ( < 0.05), and milk protein ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in 25-hydroxyvitamin D-treated groups within 3 weeks of lactation than in vitamin D-treated cows. The iCa ( < 0.05) and tCa ( < 0.05) were higher in both Ca and 25D + Ca cows than in the control and 25D groups within 48 h. The concentrations of serum tCa ( < 0.05), tP ( < 0.05), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D ( < 0.05) in 25D and 25D + Ca cows were higher than those in control and Ca cows within 21 days postpartum. Feeding 25-hydroxyvitamin D also showed a lower concentration of malondialdehyde ( < 0.05), interleukin 6 ( < 0.05), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) ( < 0.05), as well as a higher concentration of alkaline phosphatase ( < 0.05), total antioxidant capacity ( < 0.05), and immunoglobulin G ( < 0.05) than vitamin D. Supplementing Ca bolus also showed lower concentrations of alanine transaminase ( < 0.05) and TNF-α ( < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing 25-hydroxyvitamin D during the transition period combined with a postpartum oral calcium bolus improved lactation performance, Ca homeostasis, and antioxidant and immune function of medium-production dairy cows within 21 days postpartum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228806PMC
May 2021

Integrated nicking enzyme-powered numerous-legged DNA walker prepared by rolling circle amplification for fluorescence detection of microRNA.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 May 29;188(6):214. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Neurology, the Fengjie People's Hospital, Fengjie Branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Fengjie County, Chongqing, 404600, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been accepted as promising non-invasive biomarkers for cancer early diagnosis. Developing amplified sensing strategies for detecting ultralow concentration of miRNAs in clinical samples still requires much effort. Herein, an integrated fluorescence biosensor using nicking enzyme-powered numerous-feet DNA walking machine was developed for ultrasensitive detection of miRNA. A long numerous-feet walker produced by target-triggered rolling circle amplification autonomously moves along the defined DNA tracks on gold nanorods (AuNRs) with the help of nicking enzyme, leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This results in an amplified fluorescence signal, typically measured at 518 nm emission wavelength. Benefiting from the long walker that dramatically improves movement range, the homogenous and one-step strategy realizes ultrahigh sensitivity with a limit of detection of 0.8 fM. Furthermore, this walking machine has been successfully used to quantification of miRNA in clinical serum samples. The consistency of the gained results between of the developed strategy and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) shows that the sensing method has great promise for tumor diagnostics based on nucleic acid. Schematic representation of the fluorescent biosensing strategy, numerous-legged DNA walker prepared by rolling circle amplification on gold nanorods (AuNRs) for microRNA analysis, which can be applied in real samples with good results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04875-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Spot Refractive Screening With or Without Maximum Atropine Cycloplegia in Preschool Chinese Children.

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2021 May-Jun;58(3):146-153. Epub 2021 May 1.

Purpose: To evaluate averaged, repeat Spot Vision Screener (Welch Allyn) refractive screening with and without maximal atropine cycloplegia in preschool Chinese children.

Methods: Refractive errors of 450 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years were measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy as the gold standard. The Spot Vision Screener was used to examine the refractive errors of these children before and after cycloplegia. The differences between the two methods were assessed using the Wilcoxon test and Bland-Altman plot. The accuracy of the Spot Vision Screener in detecting refractive errors was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

Results: Before cycloplegia, the Spot Vision Screener provided statistically significantly lower values of sphere (median difference: 1.50 diopters [D], 95% CI: 1.38 to 1.63 D) and spherical equivalent (median difference: 1.56 D, 95% CI: 1.50 to 1.69 D). For hyperopia of greater than 3.00 D spherical value (n = 118), the median difference between the Spot Vision Screener and cycloplegic retinoscopy was 2.63 D (95% CI: 2.50 to 2.88 D). The Bland-Altman plot showed that the difference between the results of the two examination methods was large. The sensitivity of the Spot Vision Screener for detecting refractive errors increased after the screening criteria were optimized.

Conclusions: The Spot Vision Screener was efficient in detecting anisometropia in Chinese preschool children. The Spot Vision Screener without cycloplegia underestimated the spherical value of hyperopia and the difference was larger when the cycloplegic hyperopia increased. The performance of the Spot Vision Screener without cycloplegia in detecting cycloplegic hyperopia was not complete. The instrument referral criteria of the Spot Vision Screener should be adjusted according to clinical practice, but it is not simple and users should do it with expert assistance. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01913913-20210128-01DOI Listing
May 2021

An AKT/PRMT5/SREBP1 axis in lung adenocarcinoma regulates de novo lipogenesis and tumor growth.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Protein kinase B (AKT) hyperactivation and de novo lipogenesis are both common in tumor progression. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) is the master regulator for tumor lipid metabolism, and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an enzyme that can catalyze symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA) modification of the mature form of SREBP1 (mSREBP1) to induce its hyperactivation. Here, we report that SDMA-modified mSREBP1 (mSREBP1-SDMA) was overexpressed and correlated with Ser473-phosphorylated AKT (AKT-473P) expression and poor patient outcomes in human lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, patients with AKT-473P and mSREBP1-SDMA coexpression showed the worst prognosis. Mechanistic investigation revealed that AKT activation upregulated SREBP1 at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels, whereas PRMT5 knockdown reversed AKT signaling-mediated mSREBP1 ubiquitin-proteasome pathway stabilization at the post-translational level. Meanwhile, AKT activation promoted nuclear PRMT5 to the cytoplasm without changing total PRMT5 expression, and the transported cytoplasmic PRMT5 (cPRMT5) induced by AKT activation showed a strong mSREBP1-binding ability. Immunohistochemical assay indicated that AKT-473P and mSREBP1-SDMA were positively correlated with cPRMT5 in lung adenocarcinomas, and high cPRMT5 levels in tumors were associated with poor patient outcomes. Additionally, PRMT5 knockdown reversed AKT activation-induced lipid synthesis and growth advantage of lung adenocarcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we defined an AKT/PRMT5/SREBP1 axis involved in de novo lipogenesis and the growth of lung cancer. Our data also support that cPRMT5 is a potential therapeutic target for hyperactive AKT-driven lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14988DOI Listing
May 2021

Research trends for papillary thyroid carcinoma from 2010 to 2019: A systematic review and bibliometrics analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e26100

Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012.

Background: Thyroid carcinoma comprises the fastest rising incidence of carcinomas over the past decade. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most predominant type of thyroid carcinoma. This study aimed to assess the research trends in the field of PTC.

Methods: Publications from January 2010 to December 2019 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database using Thompson Reuters. Searching strategies were determined according to Medical Subject Heading terms. Different kinds of bibliometrics software, such as HistCite and VOSviewer, and online bibliometrics analysis platforms were utilized to evaluate and visualize the results.

Results: A total of 8102 publications across 93 countries were identified, with the annual number of publications showing an increasing trend. The United States, China, and South Korea showed their dominant position in PTC publication outputs, H-index, total citations, and international collaborations. Thyroid was the most productive journal. Akira Miyauchi published the most articles, and the most productive institution was Yonsei University. The hotspots keywords proliferation, invasion and metastasis, diagnoses and prognoses, therapeutic resistance, recurrence, and microcarcinomas appeared earlier and were sustained over the last 3 years.

Conclusions: This bibliometric study provides a comprehensive analysis delineating the scientific productivity, collaboration, and research hotspots within the PTC field, which will be very helpful when focusing on the direction of research over the next few years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154384PMC
May 2021

Supra-Binary Polarization in a Ferroelectric Nanowire.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 24;33(26):e2101981. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Science, Center for Superfunctional Materials, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.

The prediction and observation of supra-binary polarization in a ferroelectric nanowire (FNW) covered with a semicylindrical gate that provides an anisotropic electric field in the FNW are reported. There are gate-voltage-driven transitions between four polarization states in the FNW's cross-section, dubbed vertical-up, vertical-down, radial-in, and radial-out. They are determined by the interplay between the spatial depolarization energy and the free energy induced by an anisotropic external electric field, in clear distinction from the conventional film-based binary ferroelectricity. When the FNW is mounted on a biased graphene nanoribbon (GNR), these transitions induce exotic current-voltage hysteresis in the FNW-GNR transistor. This discovery suggests new operating mechanisms of ferroelectric devices. In particular, it enables intrinsic quaternary-digit information manipulation in parallel to the bit manipulation employed in conventional data storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101981DOI Listing
July 2021

CD36 promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the mtROS pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells of diabetic kidneys.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 21;12(6):523. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Nephrology, Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Tubulointerstitial inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is the key proinflammatory cytokine associated with tubulointerstitial inflammation. The NLRP3 inflammasome regulates IL-1β activation and secretion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents the main mediator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We previously reported that CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, mediates ROS production in DN. Here, we determined whether CD36 is involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explored the underlying mechanisms. We observed that high glucose induced-NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediate IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation, and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. In addition, the levels of CD36, NLRP3, and IL-1β expression (protein and mRNA) were all significantly increased under high glucose conditions. CD36 knockdown resulted in decreased NLRP3 activation and IL-1β secretion. CD36 knockdown or the addition of MitoTempo significantly inhibited ROS production in HK-2 cells. CD36 overexpression enhanced NLRP3 activation, which was reduced by MitoTempo. High glucose levels induced a change in the metabolism of HK-2 cells from fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to glycolysis, which promoted mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production after 72 h. CD36 knockdown increased the level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and mitochondrial FAO, which was accompanied by the inhibition of NLRP3 and IL-1β. The in vivo experimental results indicate that an inhibition of CD36 could protect diabetic db/db mice from tubulointerstitial inflammation and tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. CD36 mediates mtROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in db/db mice. CD36 inhibition upregulated the level of FAO-related enzymes and AMPK activity in db/db mice. These results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is mediated by CD36 in renal tubular epithelial cells in DN, which suppresses mitochondrial FAO and stimulates mtROS production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03813-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140121PMC
May 2021

An improved DNA-binding hot spot residues prediction method by exploring interfacial neighbor properties.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 17;22(Suppl 3):253. Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing of Ministry of Education, Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601, Anhui, China.

Background: DNA-binding hot spots are dominant and fundamental residues that contribute most of the binding free energy yet accounting for a small portion of protein-DNA interfaces. As experimental methods for identifying hot spots are time-consuming and costly, high-efficiency computational approaches are emerging as alternative pathways to experimental methods.

Results: Herein, we present a new computational method, termed inpPDH, for hot spot prediction. To improve the prediction performance, we extract hybrid features which incorporate traditional features and new interfacial neighbor properties. To remove redundant and irrelevant features, feature selection is employed using a two-step feature selection strategy. Finally, a subset of 7 optimal features are chosen to construct the predictor using support vector machine. The results on the benchmark dataset show that this proposed method yields significantly better prediction accuracy than those previously published methods in the literature. Moreover, a user-friendly web server for inpPDH is well established and is freely available at http://bioinfo.ahu.edu.cn/inpPDH .

Conclusions: We have developed an accurate improved prediction model, inpPDH, for hot spot residues in protein-DNA binding interfaces by given the structure of a protein-DNA complex. Moreover, we identify a comprehensive and useful feature subset including the proposed interfacial neighbor features that has an important strength for identifying hot spot residues. Our results indicate that these features are more effective than the conventional features considered previously, and that the combination of interfacial neighbor features and traditional features may support the creation of a discriminative feature set for efficient prediction of hot spot residues in protein-DNA complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03871-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130120PMC
May 2021

A nano-integrated microfluidic biochip for enzyme-based point-of-care detection of creatinine.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4726-4729

Division of Physical Biology, CAS Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, P. R. China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, P. R. China.

A nano-integrated portable enzymatic microfluidic electrochemical biochip was developed for single-step point-of-care testing of creatinine. The biochip could automatically eliminate a lot of interferences from practical biological samples and enzymatic intermediate products. Gold nanostructure- and carbon nanotube-based screen-printed carbon electrodes were integrated into microfluidic structures to improve the detection performance for creatinine. The microfluidic electrochemical biochip holds promise to become a practical device for medical diagnosis, especially POCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00825kDOI Listing
May 2021
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