Publications by authors named "Leila Laatikainen"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Improving visual prognosis of the diabetic patients during the past 30 years based on the data of the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment.

Acta Ophthalmol 2016 May 29;94(3):226-31. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

The Finnish Register of Visual Impairment, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate changes in visual impairment (VI) due to diabetic retinopathy (DR) recorded in the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment (RVI) during the past 30 years.

Methods: Data from the visually impaired diabetic persons included in the RVI were analysed using three 10-year cohorts (1982-90, 1991-2000, 2001-10). Information on the age at the time of the first VI registration, severity of VI determined according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition, and the age at death was collected. VI due to proliferative (PDR) and non-proliferative (NPDR) DR were analysed separately.

Results: Data of 4080 patients whose primary cause for VI was DR were analysed. The median age at the time of notification of VI for the three cohorts was 39, 62 and 59 years in the PDR group and 71, 73 and 73 in the NPDR group, respectively. The proportion of blind persons was 42%, 22% and 15% in the PDR group and 10%, 9% and 4% in the NPDR group, respectively. The median age at death in the three cohorts was 54, 73 and 72 years in PDR group and 76, 79 and 80 years in the NPDR group, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) compared with the general population was 8.3, 2.9 and 1.4 in persons with PDR and 3.4, 2.0 and 1.2 in those with NPDR, respectively.

Conclusions: A significant change in the profile of the VI in the PDR group has taken place in Finland. It was characterized by increased age at the time of VI notification, decreased severity of VI and higher age at death. Most evidently these improvements took place in the 1990s. The profile of VI in the NPDR group has changed only modestly. Compared with the general population, SMRs improved both in NPDR and PDR groups continuously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.12952DOI Listing
May 2016

Prevalence of major eye diseases and causes of visual impairment in the adult Finnish population: a nationwide population-based survey.

Acta Ophthalmol 2010 Jun 23;88(4):463-71. Epub 2009 Oct 23.

Department of Health and Functional Capacity, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy (ARM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the adult Finnish population.

Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample of the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. Of the 7979 eligible people, 7413 (93%) were interviewed and/or examined. The interview included self-reported doctor-made diagnoses of cataract, glaucoma, degenerative fundus changes (mainly ARM) or DR. Information on self-reported eye diseases was complemented with data from national registers, and case records were gathered for non-participants and persons with visual acuity (VA) < 0.5 or reporting difficulties in vision or eye diseases without assessed VA.

Results: Based on self-reported and/or register-based data the estimated total prevalences of cataract, glaucoma, ARM and DR in the study population were 10%, 5%, 4% and 1%, respectively. All these chronic eye diseases increased with age (p < 0.001). The corresponding prevalences for persons aged 65 and older were 34%, 13%, 12% and 2%, respectively. Cataract and glaucoma were more common in women than in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.91; OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.24-1.98, respectively]. The most prevalent eye diseases in people with visual impairment (VA < or = 0.25) were ARM (37%), unoperated cataract (27%), glaucoma (22%) and DR (7%).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of these mainly age-related eye diseases, together with increasing life expectancy, mean that continuous efforts are needed to identify and treat eye diseases in order to maintain patients' quality of life and to alleviate the social and economic burden of serious eye diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01566.xDOI Listing
June 2010

The decline in visual acuity in elderly people with healthy eyes or eyes with early age-related maculopathy in two Scandinavian population samples.

Acta Ophthalmol 2011 Mar;89(2):116-23

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Purpose: This study aimed to analyse the decline in visual acuity (VA) during normal ageing in two Scandinavian population samples of subjects aged ≥ 70 years and to study the age-specific decline in VA in eyes with early age-related maculopathy (ARM).

Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data pertaining to VA in the better eye in one population sample from Oulu (OU), Finland (aged 70-82 years) and a second population sample from Gothenburg (GG), Sweden (aged 82 or 88 years). The change in VA with age was evaluated in healthy eyes (OU, n = 119; GG, n = 40) and in eyes with early ARM (OU-ARM, n = 22; GG-ARM, n = 114) using linear regression or logistic regression. The results were compared with those of previous reports.

Results: Our population samples showed a significant decrease with age in VA in healthy eyes in subjects aged ≥ 44 years using both statistical models. Comparisons with previous reports demonstrated a homogeneity in the decline in VA with age. On average, 0.3 logMAR are lost from middle age up to 88 years, presumably as a result of physiological ageing. In early ARM, the rate of age-specific decline in VA more than doubled and the prevalence of VA < 0.5 markedly increased.

Conclusions: Visual acuity in healthy eyes declines with age from middle age onwards. The decrease in VA possibly accelerates in subjects aged > 70 years, although no significant evidence for this was found. An age-specific decline in VA is shown in eyes with early ARM. These results are important for the evaluation of age-specific treatment results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01653.xDOI Listing
March 2011

Use of eye care services and need for assistance in the visually impaired.

Optom Vis Sci 2008 May;85(5):341-9

Department of Health and Functional Capacity, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To assess the use of eye care services and unmet need for assistance in visually impaired people.

Methods: Cross-sectional population-based survey on a sample representing the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. Of the 7979 eligible people, 6645 (83.3%) were both interviewed and had their distance visual acuity (VA) assessed. One hundred forty-seven people were classified as visually impaired (VA < or = 0.25). A home interview included an assessment of the use of eye care services, need for assistance, sociodemographic variables, cognitive functioning, and mobility. Binocular VA for distance was measured with the participants' current spectacles, if any, as a part of a comprehensive health examination.

Results: One-half (58%) of visually impaired people had had a recent vision examination and 79% had received some vision rehabilitation services, mainly in form of spectacles (70%). Only one third (31%) had received formal low vision rehabilitation. People with moderate visual impairment (VA 0.1 to 0.25) were less likely to have received low vision rehabilitation, magnifying glasses, or other low vision aids compared with people with severe low vision (VA < 0.1). Furthermore, low cognitive capacity and living in an institution were associated with limited use of vision rehabilitation services. Of the visually impaired people living in the community, 71% reported need for assistance and 24% of them had unmet need for assistance in everyday activities. Although need for assistance was more common in people with severe low vision (83% vs. 67%, p = 0.09), unmet need for assistance seemed to be more common in people with moderate low vision (20% vs. 9%, p = 0.23).

Conclusions: Many visually impaired people, older persons in particular, have not had a recent vision examination and lack adequate low vision rehabilitation. This highlights the need for regular evaluation of vision function in elderly people and for actively supplying information about rehabilitation services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0b013e31816bea29DOI Listing
May 2008

The association between visual acuity and functional limitations: findings from a nationally representative population survey.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2007 Nov-Dec;14(6):333-42

Department of Health and Functional Capacity, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To determine the independent effect of visual acuity on individual activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility.

Methods: Cross-sectional survey on a sample representing the Finnish population aged 55 years and above. Of the 3392 eligible people, 3185 (93.9%) were interviewed, 2870 (84.6%) attended a comprehensive health examination, and 2781 (82.0%) had distance visual acuity (VA) assessed. A home interview included assessment of ADL, IADL and mobility, demographic variables and chronic conditions. Mobility measurements and binocular VA were assessed during the examination.

Results: Prevalence of ADL, IADL, and mobility limitations increased with decreasing VA (p<0.001). Visually impaired persons (VA< or =0.25) had ADL disabilities four times more likely than those with good VA (VA> or =0.8) after adjustment for socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and chronic conditions (OR 4.36, 95%CI 2.44-7.78). Limitations in IADL and measured mobility were five times as likely (OR 4.82, 95%CI 2.38-9.76 and OR 5.37, 95%CI 2.44-7.78, respectively), and self-reported mobility limitations were three times as likely (OR 3.07, 95%CI 1.67-9.63) as in persons with good VA.

Conclusions: Decreased VA is strongly associated with functional limitations, and even a slight decrease in VA was found to be associated with limitations in functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01658100701473713DOI Listing
February 2008

Adverse effects of fluorescein angiography.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Dec;84(6):720-1

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0420.2006.00776.xDOI Listing
December 2006

Repeatability (test-retest variability) of refractive error measurement in clinical settings.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Aug;84(4):532-6

Department of Ophthalmology, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland.

Purpose: To estimate the repeatability of refractive error measurement (REM) in a clinical environment in cataractous, pseudophakic and healthy eyes.

Methods: The refractive error of patients referred for cataract surgery or consultation measured by ophthalmic professionals was re-examined and the measurement results were compared. A total of 99 eyes from 99 persons (41 cataractous, 36 pseudophakic and 22 healthy eyes) with visual acuity (VA) of 0.3-1.3 (logMAR 0.52 to - 0.11) were included. The differences between measurements 1 and 2 were calculated as 3-dimensional vector values and spherical equivalents (SEs) and expressed as the coefficient of repeatability (CR). The mean time interval between the first and second examinations was 45 days.

Results: The CRs for all eyes for vertical (V), torsional (T) and horizontal (H) vectors were 0.74 D, 0.34 D and 0.93 D, respectively. The CR of SE for all eyes was 0.74 D. Eyes with lower VA (0.3-0.45) had larger variability in vector and SE values but the differences between VA groups were not statistically significant. The difference in the mean defocus equivalent (DE) between measurements 1 and 2 was, however, significantly greater in the group with lower VA. In all VA groups the mean difference vector was very close to the zero vector, which means that there was no systematic difference.

Conclusions: Repeatability of refractive error measurements in clinical settings has a certain degree of variability. In this series, the variability in eyes with better VA was not great and was in accordance with earlier findings in healthy eyes. Eyes with lower VA had greater variability due to greater tolerance to defocus. Thus, conclusions concerning changes in the refractive state and the need to make changes in the refractive correction of eyes with poorer vision should be made with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0420.2006.00695.xDOI Listing
August 2006

[Congenital and acquired blindness].

Duodecim 2005 ;121(23):2557-62

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July 2006

A nationwide population-based survey on visual acuity, near vision, and self-reported visual function in the adult population in Finland.

Ophthalmology 2005 Dec;112(12):2227-37

Department of Health and Functional Capacity, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence rates of habitual visual acuity (VA) levels and visual impairment in Finland and to assess their correlation with self-reported visual function.

Design: Cross-sectional population-based study.

Participants: Subjects were selected randomly from the Finnish population aged 30 years or older. Of 7979 eligible people, 7393 (93%) were interviewed, 6771 (85%) were examined, and 6663 (84%) had distance VA assessed.

Methods: Participants underwent a home interview and a comprehensive examination including measuring binocular VA for distance and for near with the participants' current spectacles, if any.

Main Outcome Measures: The level of VA for distance and for near with current spectacle correction. The self-reported capability to read newsprint and television text and the ability to move about without being restricted by reduced vision.

Results: The prevalence of good to moderate VA for distance (VA> or =0.5 [> or =20/40]) measured with current spectacles was 95.9%, and 87.4% had a VA level of 0.8 (20/25) or better. The prevalence of habitual visual impairment (VA< or =0.25 [< or =20/80]) was 1.6%, and 0.5% were blind (VA<0.1 [<20/200]). The prevalence of visual impairment increased significantly with age (P<0.001), especially in the age group of 65 to 74 years and upward. There was no gender difference in VA for distance, but decreased near vision (VA< or =0.25 [< or =20/80]) was significantly more common in men than in women (P<0.01). By applying the imputated numbers of visually impaired and blind participants to the Finnish population (approximately 3 million aged 30 years or older), there were approximately 65000 (2.1%) visually impaired and 17000 (0.6%) blind adult persons in the country in 2000. The correlation between self-reported visual ability and measured visual function was moderate but statistically significant (r = 0.27-0.40; P<0.0001). The proportion of people with reading difficulties or who were unable to read newsprint has decreased 7% during the last 2 decades.

Conclusions: Functional visual impairment increased with age especially in the age group of 65 to 74 years and upward and was as prevalent in women as in men. The prevalence of people with reading difficulties has decreased considerably since 1980.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.09.010DOI Listing
December 2005

Phacoemulsification in trabeculectomized eyes.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2005 Oct;83(5):561-6

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively risk indicators for cataract surgery and the effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) control in eyes that have undergone trabeculectomy.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of 138 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or exfoliation glaucoma (EG) in 138 consecutive patients over the age of 40 years undergoing trabeculectomy with no antimetabolites performed by one surgeon. Of the 48 eyes (35%) undergoing a cataract operation during the follow-up period of 2-5 years, 46 were included in this analysis. Their IOP, glaucoma medication and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before cataract surgery and at the last follow-up were compared. Risk indicators for cataract surgery were analysed.

Results: Cataract operations were performed 5.1-58.1 months (median 14.4 months) after trabeculectomy. The mean length of follow-up after cataract surgery was 25.3 months (SD 12.9, median 24.8 months). Before cataract surgery, the mean IOP was 16.2 mmHg (SD 4.9) and the mean number of topical antiglaucoma medicines 0.8 (SD 1.0). At the most recent visit, mean IOP was 17.3 mmHg (SD 6.4) (p = 0.35), and the mean number of medicines was 1.3 (SD 1.1) (p = 0.0007). Of the 22 eyes in which treatment had been categorized as completely successful (IOP < or = 21 mmHg without other therapy) before cataract surgery, 13 (59%) had remained so. The number of failures (IOP > 21 mmHg, or more than one medication needed or further surgery performed) increased from 14 (30%) before surgery to 28 (61%) afterwards. The proportion of failures in the cataract surgery group was twice that in the no cataract surgery group (61% versus 31%). In a proportional hazards regression, only age (73.9 years [SD 9.4] and 68.1 years [SD 9.8] in patients with and without cataract surgery, respectively) proved to be a significant (p = 0.001) indicator for surgery.

Conclusion: The results of this retrospective study on consecutive clinical cases of trabeculectomy indicate that cataract progression after trabeculectomy is mainly an age-related process. In more than half the eyes with good preoperative IOP control, this good control was maintained after cataract surgery. On the other hand, in some eyes cataract surgery may compromise IOP control even when surgery avoids the area of the bleb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0420.2005.00499.xDOI Listing
October 2005

Random measurement error in visual acuity measurement in clinical settings.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2005 Jun;83(3):328-32

Department of Ophthalmology, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland.

Purpose: To estimate the random measurement error in visual acuity (VA) determination in the clinical environment in cataractous, pseudophakic and healthy eyes.

Methods: The VAs of patients referred for cataract surgery or consultation by ophthalmic professionals were re-examined and the VA results for distance using projector acuity charts were compared. Refractive errors were also remeasured. A total of 99 eyes (41 cataractous, 36 pseudophakic and 22 healthy eyes) were examined. The healthy comparison group consisted of hospital staff. Only one eye of each person and eyes with Snellen VAs of 0.3-1.3 (logMAR 0.52 to - 0.11) were included. The mean time interval between the first and second examinations was 45 days.

Results: The estimated standard deviation of measurement error (SDME) of repeated VA measurements of all eyes was logMAR 0.06. Eyes with the lowest VA (0.3-0.45) had the largest variability (SDME logMAR 0.09), and eyes with VA > or = 0.7 had the smallest (SDME logMAR 0.04). The variability may be partly explained by the line size progression in lower VAs, partly by the difference in the remeasurement of the refractive error. The difference in the average VA between examinations 1 and 2 (logMAR 0.15 versus 0.12) was considered to be of some interest because it indicates that some learning effect is possible.

Conclusion: Visual acuity results in clinical settings have a certain degree of inherent variability. In this series variability ranged from SDME logMAR 0.04 (eyes with good vision) to logMAR 0.09 (in the lower vision group) in the Snellen VA range of 0.3-1.3. Changes should be judged with caution, especially in cases of decreased VA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0420.2005.00469.xDOI Listing
June 2005

Traumatic cataract and other adverse events with the implantable contact lens.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2005 Mar;31(3):511-24

Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome and adverse events associated with implantation of the implantable contact lens (ICL) for the correction of high myopia or high hyperopia.

Setting: Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Methods: In this nonrandomized prospective clinical trial, the ICL V4 was implanted in 26 eyes of 13 patients with normal enrollment criteria (younger than 45 years, a clinically clear crystalline lens) (Group 1) and the V2, V3, or V4 were implanted in 38 eyes of 22 patients with heterogeneous criteria (older than 45 years or opacities in the crystalline lens) (Group 2). The main outcome measures were lens opacity classification system (LOCS II) assessment and transparency analysis of the lens.

Results: In Group 1, microdensitometric assessment showed no decrease in crystalline lens transparency and no statistically significant increase in crystalline lens density at any follow-up examination (P>.05). The incidence of anterior subcapsular (AS) opacities was 7.7%, and no eye developed clinically significant cataract during the mean follow-up of 13.2 months +/- 12.3 (SD). No myopic eye lost a line of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA); 50.0% of hyperopic eyes lost 1 line of BCVA. Sixty-eight percent of myopic eyes and 75.0% of hyperopic eyes were within +/-1.0 diopter of the predicted refraction. In Group 2, the incidence of AS opacities was 47.4% and 10 eyes (26.3%) developed clinically significant cataract during the mean follow-up of 30.9 +/- 18.0 months. The visual and refractive results were similar to those in Group 1 at 1 month, but due to progressive AS opacities in the crystalline lens, 23.4% of eyes lost BCVA lines during the follow-up. Intraoperative complications were few and insignificant.

Conclusions: Implantation of the ICL for correction of high myopia or high hyperopia appears to be a safe procedure with good visual and refractive results immediately. There was no decrease in the transparency or increase in the density of the crystalline lens with the latest generation of the ICL device in the normal group, indicating enhanced safety. Progressive lens opacification in the heterogeneous group shows there are risk factors for cataract formation; ie, type V3 ICL, preexisting lens opacities, and older patient age. Anterior subcapsular opacities are most likely the result of trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2004.06.084DOI Listing
March 2005

Strontium plaque brachytherapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration: three-year results of a randomized study.

Ophthalmology 2005 Apr;112(4):567-73

Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of strontium plaque (Sr90) brachytherapy for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

Design: Randomized clinical trial.

Participants: Eighty-eight eyes of 86 patients with subfoveal CNV secondary to AMD were randomized either to plaque radiotherapy or to observation.

Intervention: Radiotherapy was given as episcleral brachytherapy using Sr90 plaques. Two different plaque types were used. Plaque I had a diameter of 8 mm and delivered a dose of 15 Gy at a depth of 1.75 mm in 54 minutes. With plaque II, the corresponding values were 4 mm, 12.6 Gy, and 11 minutes. The control group was observed without any treatment.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was visual acuity at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Other outcome variables were contrast sensitivity, fluorescein angiographic, and clinically evaluated changes in the macula.

Results: Eighty-two patients (84 eyes [95%]) completed the 1-year follow-up, and 80 (93%) and 74 (86%) patients completed the 2- and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. At 6 months, visual loss of > or =3 lines occurred in 20% of treated patients and 42% of control patients (P = 0.031). At 12 months, a visual loss of > or =3 lines occurred in 45% (treated) and 56% (controls) (P = 0.325); at 24 months, in 73% and 71% (P = 0.914); and at 36 months, in 80% and 84% of patients (P = 0.591), respectively. Patients irradiated with plaque I had better results: a visual loss of > or =3 lines occurred in 6% at 6 months (P = 0.008, relative to controls), in 18% at 12 months (P = 0.007), in 59% at 24 months (P = 0.348), and in 71% at 36 months (P = 0.212). In patients treated with plaque II, the corresponding values were 29% (P = 0.032), 65% (P = 0.459), 83% (P = 0.317), and 80% (P = 0.687) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively.

Conclusions: The short-term clinical course of exudative AMD is affected by Sr90 brachytherapy, but by 12 months, there was no treatment benefit. This article contains additional online-only material available at http://www.ophsource.org/periodicals/ophtha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.11.029DOI Listing
April 2005

Progression of visual field defects and visual loss in trabeculectomized eyes.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2005 Aug 8;243(8):741-7. Epub 2005 Feb 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate progression of visual field (VF) defects and development of visual impairment (low vision and blindness) after trabeculectomy.

Methods: We evaluated retrospectively 138 eyes of 138 consecutive patients over 40 years of age with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or exfoliation glaucoma (EG) operated on by trabeculectomy without antimetabolites. The mean follow-up period was 3.5 years (range 2-5). In 83 eyes, pre- and postoperative VF measured by the same technique were compared to detect progression. Visual acuities (VA) were recorded as Snellen decimal notations. VA of <0.3 to 0.05 was defined as low vision and VA of <0.05 or VF constricted to less than 20 degrees in diameter as blindness.

Results: In 34 (41%) of 83 eyes with comparable fields, VF defects progressed because of glaucoma. In logistic regression analysis, severity of preoperative VF loss (P=0.0047) and use of preoperative oral anti-glaucomatous medication (P=0.047) correlated significantly with VF progression. In univariate analysis, also initial intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after surgery (P=0.023) and IOP reduction from preoperative to last postoperative examination (P=0.036) were significantly smaller in eyes with VF progression. Defect progression did not, however, correlate significantly with the last IOP (P=0.58). Six eyes (4.3%) were blind due to glaucoma preoperatively and 14 eyes (10.1%) at the last follow-up. Visual impairment correlated with the severity of initial VF loss (P=0.008).

Conclusions: Progression of VF defects and development of visual impairment due to glaucoma was fairly common despite trabeculectomy. Both were associated with severity of initial VF defect. In this series, no significant correlation appeared between defect progression and the last IOP, but association between stability of VF and the amount of IOP reduction after surgery indicate that a lower target IOP level particularly in eyes with initially severe VF defect would, however, be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-004-1088-3DOI Listing
August 2005

Quality of vision after AMO Array multifocal intraocular lens implantation.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2004 Dec;30(12):2483-93

Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of Array SA40N multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) (AMO) implantation in cataract surgery.

Setting: Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Methods: In this prospective randomized comparative trial, 80 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were selected based on preoperative counseling and randomized to have multifocal or monofocal IOL implantation. Fifty-three eyes of 35 patients received a multifocal IOL and 67 eyes of 40 patients, a monofocal IOL. The incidence of complications and visual outcome in the multifocal and monofocal IOL groups were compared. Quality of vision was measured by comparing the severity of visual symptoms (glare, halos, and cataract symptoms score), changes in functional impairment measured by a 7-item visual function test (VF-7), changes in global measures of vision (trouble and satisfaction with vision), and range of accommodation and contrast sensitivity.

Results: Intraoperative and postoperative complications and adverse events were few and required no further surgical intervention. Both distance and near visual acuities were significantly better in the multifocal group than in the monofocal group; the difference was most prominent in distance corrected near acuity (P<.001). Thirty-five eyes (67.3%) in the multifocal group and 10 eyes (14.9%) in the monofocal group achieved a distance corrected near acuity of J6 (20/40) or better; 30 eyes (56.6%) and 19 eyes (28.4%), respectively, achieved a best corrected distance acuity of 20/20 or better. Glare symptoms decreased postoperatively in both groups but were slightly more common in the multifocal group. In contrast, halos were significantly more common at 1 month in the multifocal group (P<.001). Contrast sensitivity values were slightly lower with multifocal IOLs at almost all spatial frequencies, but the difference was not significant. The change in the quality of life postoperatively, measured with the VF-7, was significant and identical in both groups.

Conclusions: Pseudophakic eyes with multifocal IOLs had better distance and near acuity and range of accommodation than eyes with a monofocal IOL. Slightly lower contrast sensitivity and increased perception of halos by subjects with the multifocal IOL appear to be an acceptable compromise to enhanced near and distance vision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2004.04.049DOI Listing
December 2004

Visual impairment in children born at full term from 1972 through 1989 in Finland.

Ophthalmology 2004 Dec;111(12):2307-12

Finnish Register of Visual Impairment, Finnish National Agency for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To investigate the incidence, prevalence, and causes of visual impairment in children born at full term and to determine conditions and factors associated with visual impairment.

Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study.

Participants: All visually impaired individuals from 0 to 17 years of age who were born at full term from 1972 through 1989 in Finland and recorded in the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment (n = 556) were eligible for this study.

Methods: Data in the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment relating to 556 subjects were supplemented with data from hospital records and other national registers (Register of Births, Register of Congenital Malformations, Finnish Care Register, and Finnish Cancer Register). Data relating to the children born at full term were compared with Finnish perinatal and vital statistics and with data concerning children born prematurely. The chi-square test (Mantel-Haenszel) and stepwise logistic regression analysis were used in statistical analysis of the data.

Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity, time of onset of visual impairment, ophthalmic diagnosis of visual impairment, systemic disease, multiple handicap, 5-minute Apgar score, prenatal disorders, perinatal disorders, disorders arising during infancy and childhood, and treatment.

Results: Four hundred thirty-one of the 556 individuals with visual impairment (78%) had been born at full term. Visual impairment was predominantly associated with genetic (53%) and prenatal (34%) factors. Ocular malformations (34%), retinal diseases (31%), and neuro-ophthalmologic disorders (26%) were the main ophthalmic diagnoses. Optic nerve atrophy (20%) and congenital cataract (13%) were the most common single diagnoses. The occurrence of blindness, systemic disease, and multiple handicap was 40%, 43%, and 45%, respectively.

Conclusions: The incidence of visual impairment in children born at full term did not decline during the 2 decades covered by this study. The findings reflected the lack of treatment for genetic eye diseases. The results also confirmed an obvious need for further understanding of mechanisms underlying congenital anomalies of the human visual system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.05.033DOI Listing
December 2004

The fluorescein angiography revolution: a breakthrough with sustained impact.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2004 Aug;82(4):381-92

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1395-3907.2004.00284.xDOI Listing
August 2004

Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery: a retrospective survey.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2004 Jun;30(6):1335-41

Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]

Purpose: To evaluate patient satisfaction and functional visual outcome, safety, and visual and refractive outcomes of simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS).

Setting: North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland.

Methods: A retrospective external review of 200 patients drawn randomly from 637 patients who underwent SBCS at the North Karelia Central Hospital in 2001 was performed. Of the 200 eligible patients, 141 who returned a completed questionnaire on patient satisfaction and functional visual outcome of SBCS were enrolled. Postoperative refraction and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were available in 148 eyes of 74 patients.

Results: The surgery was carried out under topical anesthesia, and 98% were outpatient surgeries. No serious intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Of the 141 patients, 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91-98) experienced SBCS as positive or quite positive, 89% (95% CI: 83-94) felt safe to go home after the surgery, and 91% (95% CI: 85-95) would recommend SBCS to their relatives or friends. The mean visual functioning index (VF-7 score) was 87.3 (median 95). Postoperative BCVA was 20/40 or better in 84% (95% CI: 77-89) and 20/25 or better in 66% (95% CI: 57-73) of the 148 eyes examined. The postoperative refraction was +/-0.75 diopter (D) of the target value in 78% (95% CI: 71-85) and +/-1.5 D in 95% (95% CI: 91-98), and the mean anisometropia was 0.26 D (SD 0.6 D, range 0-1.65).

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that SBCS by experienced surgeons is likely to be a safe and efficient procedure and is positively received by patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2004.02.045DOI Listing
June 2004

Effects of early postoperative complications and the location of trephined block on long-term intraocular pressure control after trabeculectomy.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003 Oct 29;241(10):803-8. Epub 2003 Aug 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland:

Background: Complications of trabeculectomy in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliation glaucoma (EG) were compared. The effects of complications and the location of the trephined tissue block on the long-term success were evaluated.

Methods: One hundred thirty-eight consecutive eyes with POAG or EG of patients over 40 years of age operated on by one surgeon by trabeculectomy without using antimetabolites were analyzed retrospectively. Early postoperative complications and any additional postoperative procedures were recorded and related to the final outcome. In 118 eyes the location of the trephined tissue block was defined in a light microscopic study as anterior or posterior. The success rates in these two groups were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the complication rates were compared.

Results: Postoperative complications were equally common in POAG and EG, except for hyphema, which was significantly more common in EG than in POAG. Of the early complications, only insufficient filtration at the end of the 1st postoperative month was significantly associated with failure in the long term. The location of trabeculectomy did not significantly affect the early postoperative complications or the long-term success.

Conclusions: Early postoperative complications after trabeculectomy were common, but the only significant predictor of failure was increased intraocular pressure at the end of the 1st postoperative month.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-003-0756-zDOI Listing
October 2003

Visual impairment in children born prematurely from 1972 through 1989.

Ophthalmology 2003 Aug;110(8):1639-45

The Finnish Register of Visual Impairment, Finnish National Agency for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To investigate the incidence and causes of visual impairment in children born prematurely in Finland from 1972 through 1989, and to determine what conditions and factors were associated with its occurrence.

Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional study.

Subjects: All visually impaired individuals from 0 to 17 years of age who had been born at fewer than 37 gestational weeks in Finland from 1972 through 1989 for whom records were available in the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment were eligible for this study.

Methods: Data in the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment relating to 556 children were supplemented with data from hospital records, and from the Register of Births, the Register of Congenital Malformations, the Finnish Care Register, and the Finnish Cancer Register. Data relating to causes associated with visual impairment in particular were collected. Data relating to the children born prematurely were compared with data relating to children born at full term. The chi-square test (Mantel-Haenszel), the Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher exact test, and stepwise logistic regression analysis were used in statistical analysis of the data.

Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity, ophthalmologic diagnoses, associated systemic disease, multiple handicap, gestational age, birth weight, 5-minute Apgar scores, and prenatal, perinatal, and infantile or juvenile disorders or disease and treatment.

Results: One hundred twenty-five of the 556 visually impaired children (23%; 11/100000 children less than 18 years of age) had been born preterm. Retinopathy of prematurity, optic atrophy, and cerebral amblyopia were the main diagnoses associated with visual impairment (in 46%, 28%, and 12% of cases, respectively). Sixty-six percent of those born prematurely with visual impairment were also affected by other handicaps (mental, motor, auditory), 54% by cerebral palsy and 36% by epilepsy. Eighty-eight of the 125 children (70%) born preterm with visual impairment were blind. Very low birth weight (<1500 g), young gestational age (fewer than 30 weeks), prenatal infection, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory disorders, asphyxia, and lengthy mechanical ventilation were associated with an increased risk of visual impairment.

Conclusions: Premature birth was a major risk factor of severe visual impairment and blindness in childhood. The visual impairment often was accompanied by cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and other motor and mental handicaps. Retinopathy of prematurity, optic atrophy, and cerebral amblyopia were the main diagnoses associated with visual impairment. During the 18 years covered by the study, the increasing incidence of survival of infants born weighing fewer than 1500 g was associated with increasing incidence of blindness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00498-6DOI Listing
August 2003

Litigation in ophthalmology.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003 Aug;81(4):319-20

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0420.2003.00124.xDOI Listing
August 2003

Changes in visual acuity of patients undergoing cataract surgery during the last two decades.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2002 Oct;80(5):506-11

Department of Ophthalmology, Vaasa Central Hospital, Finland.

Purpose: To compare preoperative visual acuities in patients who underwent cataract surgery between 1982 and 2000.

Methods: Information on visual acuity (VA), ocular disease and general disease was obtained from records relating to samples of consecutive cataract operations in 1982, 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000 in two hospitals in the Vaasa region of Finland.

Results: Between 1982 and 2000, the average preoperative VA in the operated eye increased by 0.85 logMAR units (from logMAR 1.56 to logMAR 0.71) or 8.5 log lines. Corresponding decimal values are 0.03 and 0.2, respectively. In the better eye, VA increased from logMAR 0.64 to logMAR 0.37. Corresponding decimal values are 0.23 and 0.43, respectively. The incidence of cataract surgery increased from 1.0 to 7.2 operations per 1000 of the population per year over the period. For an annual increase of one operation per 1000 inhabitants, the increase in average VA before surgery is 1.3 log lines in the operated eye and 0.4 log lines in the better eye. The number of patients with visual impairment (WHO definition: VA < 0.3) before surgery fell from 47% to 15%, and the number of patients with profound visual handicaps (VA < 0.1) before surgery fell from 15% to 4%.

Conclusion: The preoperative vision of patients undergoing cataract surgery during the last two decades has improved significantly. Preoperative VA has increased linearly in line with the incidence of surgery. Only a small proportion of the increase in incidence of cataract surgery can be explained by the increasing average age of the population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0420.2002.800509.xDOI Listing
October 2002

Long-term outcome of trabeculectomy in terms of intraocular pressure.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2002 Jun;80(3):267-71

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome, long-term results and contributing prognostic factors of trabeculectomy in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) and to compare the results in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliation glaucoma (EG).

Methods: This study involved retrospective evaluation of 138 consecutive patients (138 eyes) with either POAG or EG. All patients had undergone primary trabeculectomy performed by the same surgeon between November 1994 and August 1996. Only one eye per patient was included. Operations performed with the use of antimetabolites were excluded. All patients were aged over 40 years and were white. Follow-up for all subjects lasted at least 2 years. Successful control of IOP was defined as achieving IOP < or = 21 mmHg without medication (complete success) or with a single topical medication (qualified success). Success rates were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and risk factors were analysed with proportional hazards regression.

Results: According to the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, success rates (complete or qualified) were 82% at 1 year, 70% at 2 years, 64% at 3 years and 52% at 4 years. A total of 63% were complete successes at 1 year, 54% at 2 years, 45% at 3 years and 40% at 4 years. Complete success rates were significantly better in the POAG group than in the EG group. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the presence of EG and early postoperative IOP > 30 mmHg decreased the possibility of complete success, while a cataract operation performed during follow-up improved it.

Conclusion: The IOP-reducing effect of trabeculectomy decreases gradually. After 4 years, 52% of operated eyes had IOP < or = 21 mmHg with or without a single topical medication. Diagnosis of EG implied a worse long-term outcome for trabeculectomy in terms of IOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0420.2002.800307.xDOI Listing
June 2002

Subclinical inflammation after laser in situ keratomileusis in corneal grafts.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2002 May;28(5):782-7

Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate postoperative inflammatory reaction in the eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in corneal grafts.

Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Methods: Ten eyes of 9 patients with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and significant postoperative refractive errors and astigmatism had LASIK 22 months or more after the PKP. All patients were treated with the VISX Star excimer laser and the Bausch & Lomb Hansatome microkeratome. Preoperative and early postoperative inflammation was evaluated by quantifying the aqueous flare intensity with a laser flare photometer (Kowa FM-500). A full ophthalmic assessment was also performed before LASIK and up to 6 months postoperatively.

Results: The inflammatory response was mild and limited to the first postoperative hour. The mean anterior chamber flare increased from 6.0 photons/millisecond (ph/ms) preoperatively to 14.0 ph/ms at 1 hour and then decreased to 6.7 ph/ms (hour 3), 6.8 ph/ms (day 1), and 8.2 ph/ms (day 7). The mean spherical equivalent (SE) refraction decreased from -3.81 diopters (D) (range -9.63 to -0.25 D) to -0.46 D (range -1.13 to +0.38 D), and the mean preoperative astigmatism decreased from 3.0 D (range 6.5 to 0.5 D) to 0.7 D (range 0.0 to 2.0 D). At the last examination, 9 eyes were within +/-1.0 D (6 within +/-0.5 D) and all were within +/-1.5 D of the intended SE refraction. Three eyes achieved full cylinder correction, and 7 were within +/-1.0 D of the intended correction. Eight eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better (unchanged or gain of 1 to 4 lines [6], loss of 1 line [1], and loss of 3 lines [1]), and 8 had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/50 or better.

Conclusions: Uneventful LASIK induced subtle, short-lasting anterior chamber flare when measured by the laser flare meter. In corneal grafts, LASIK appeared to be a safe and effective procedure for residual refractive errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0886-3350(02)01239-7DOI Listing
May 2002

Implantable contact lens for high myopia.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2002 Jan;28(1):29-36

Helsinki University Eye Hospital, PO Box 220, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and biocompatibility of a collagen polymer implantable contact lens (ICL) (Staar Collamer) as a posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (IOL) to correct high myopia.

Setting: Departments of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Methods: A Staar Collamer posterior chamber phakic IOL was implanted in 38 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 39 years (range 24 to 54 years). The mean preoperative myopia was -15.10 diopters (D) (range -7.75 to -29.00 D). Surgical implantation was performed through a 3.0 mm clear corneal sutureless incision using paraocular anesthesia. The patients were followed clinically up to 3 years. The mean follow-up was 13.6 months (range 6 to 24 months) for refractive data and 22.3 months (range 6 to 35 months) for complications. The possible inflammatory response to the ICL was measured using a laser flare meter in 12 eyes.

Results: Postoperatively, all eyes had a significant increase in uncorrected visual acuity, allowing all but 3 patients (5 eyes) to manage most activities without spectacles. The mean spherical equivalent refraction at the last examination was -2.00 D +/- 2.48 (SD) (range +0.13 to -13.00 D), within +/-1.00 D of the targeted refraction in 31 eyes (81.6%) and within +/-0.50 D in 27 eyes (71.1%). In eyes in which the preoperative myopia was less than -18.00 D (n = 28), the achieved refraction was within +/-1.00 D of the intended refraction in 27 eyes (96.4%) and within +/-0.50 D in 24 eyes (85.7%). The refraction remained stable with a statistically insignificant change (P >.05) at each interval during the follow-up. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved by 1 or more lines in 23 of 32 eyes (71.9%) at 1 year. Two eyes (6.3%) lost 1 line of BCVA. Laser flare photometry showed normal aqueous flare values (11.71 +/- 6.61 photon counts/ms) in the 12 eyes measured at least 6 months after ICL implantation. Pupillary block glaucoma requiring surgical intervention occurred in 3 patients (7.9%). One patient (2.6%) developed cataract 1.5 years after ICL implantation; both ICLs were removed, and the refractive errors were corrected by lensectomy and implantation of low-power posterior chamber IOLs. One patient (2.6%) showed progression of dry macular degeneration at 17 months.

Conclusion: At 1 year, ICL implantation had good visual and refractive results with excellent biocompatibility. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm that significant complications do not occur in most patients over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0886-3350(01)01218-4DOI Listing
January 2002
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