Publications by authors named "Laura Aarnos"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A modular brain-on-a-chip for modelling epileptic seizures with functionally connected human neuronal networks.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Nov 26;168:112553. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

NeuroGroup, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Epilepsies are a group of neurological disorders characterised by recurrent epileptic seizures. Seizures, defined as abnormal transient discharges of neuronal activity, can affect the entire brain circuitry or remain more focal in the specific brain regions and neuronal networks. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons are a promising option for modelling epilepsies, but as such, they do not model groups of connected neuronal networks or focal seizures. Our solution is a Modular Platform for Epilepsy Modelling In Vitro (MEMO), a lab-on-chip device, in which three hPSC-derived networks are separated by a novel microfluidic cell culture device that allows controlled network-to-network axonal connections through microtunnels. In this study, we show that the neuronal networks formed a functional circuitry that was successfully cultured in MEMO for up to 98 days. The spontaneous neuronal network activities were monitored with an integrated custom-made microelectrode array (MEA). The networks developed spontaneous burst activity that was synchronous both within and between the axonally connected networks, i.e. mimicking both local and circuitry functionality of the brain. A convulsant, kainic acid, increased bursts only in the specifically treated networks. The activity reduction by an anticonvulsant, phenytoin, was also localised to treated networks. Therefore, modelling focal seizures in human neuronal networks is now possible with the developed chip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112553DOI Listing
November 2020

Functional characterization of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical networks differentiated on laminin-521 substrate: comparison to rat cortical cultures.

Sci Rep 2019 11 20;9(1):17125. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology and BioMediTech, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons provide exciting opportunities for in vitro modeling of neurological diseases and for advancing drug development and neurotoxicological studies. However, generating electrophysiologically mature neuronal networks from hPSCs has been challenging. Here, we report the differentiation of functionally active hPSC-derived cortical networks on defined laminin-521 substrate. We apply microelectrode array (MEA) measurements to assess network events and compare the activity development of hPSC-derived networks to that of widely used rat embryonic cortical cultures. In both of these networks, activity developed through a similar sequence of stages and time frames; however, the hPSC-derived networks showed unique patterns of bursting activity. The hPSC-derived networks developed synchronous activity, which involved glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs, recapitulating the classical cortical activity also observed in rodent counterparts. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on spike rates, network synchronization and burst features revealed the segregation of hPSC-derived and rat network recordings into different clusters, reflecting the species-specific and maturation state differences between the two networks. Overall, hPSC-derived neural cultures produced with a defined protocol generate cortical type network activity, which validates their applicability as a human-specific model for pharmacological studies and modeling network dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53647-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868015PMC
November 2019

DNA-Based Enzyme Reactors and Systems.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2016 Jul 27;6(8). Epub 2016 Jul 27.

Biohybrid Materials, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16100, Aalto 00076, Finland.

During recent years, the possibility to create custom biocompatible nanoshapes using DNA as a building material has rapidly emerged. Further, these rationally designed DNA structures could be exploited in positioning pivotal molecules, such as enzymes, with nanometer-level precision. This feature could be used in the fabrication of artificial biochemical machinery that is able to mimic the complex reactions found in living cells. Currently, DNA-enzyme hybrids can be used to control (multi-enzyme) cascade reactions and to regulate the enzyme functions and the reaction pathways. Moreover, sophisticated DNA structures can be utilized in encapsulating active enzymes and delivering the molecular cargo into cells. In this review, we focus on the latest enzyme systems based on novel DNA nanostructures: enzyme reactors, regulatory devices and carriers that can find uses in various biotechnological and nanomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano6080139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5224616PMC
July 2016
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