Publications by authors named "Lan Yang"

751 Publications

What limits limits?

Natl Sci Rev 2021 Jan 28;8(1):nwaa210. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288363PMC
January 2021

Ureteral metastasis from pulmonary adenocarcinoma: A case report and literature review.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Lung Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The occurrence of ureteral metastasis from distant primary tumors is uncommon, and appears to be especially rare when it originates from the lungs. In the case presented here, a patient with lumbago and left hydronephrosis was diagnosed with left ureteral metastasis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma after a CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung and retroperitoneal laparoscopic left nephroureterectomy. He accepted the targeted therapy because the lung tumor epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (exon19 deletion) was positive, and preoperative staging of lung adenocarcinoma was stage IVA. After an 8-month follow-up, he is still alive and well, with no local recurrence or distant metastases. The therapy outcome assessment is stable disease. Although rare, our case has demonstrated that pulmonary adenocarcinoma has the possibility of metastasizing to the ureter, a risk that should be considered in some lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14172DOI Listing
October 2021

Enhanced syngas production from CO photoreduction over CoPd alloy modified NiAl-LDH under visible light.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, P. R. China.

We reported the modification of a NiAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) by loading well-dispersed CoPd alloys through a NaBH reduction method. The modified NiAl-LDH achieved 14.5-fold and 2.1-fold improvements of the H and CO evolution rates and an applicable ratio of H/CO (nearly 1 : 1) under visible light ( > 420 nm). This study revealed the potential of alloys to adjust the H/CO ratio and enhance syngas production for LDHs for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc04863eDOI Listing
October 2021

Antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria: Occurrence, spread, and control.

J Basic Microbiol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

The production and use of antibiotics are becoming increasingly common worldwide, and the problem of antibiotic resistance is increasing alarmingly. Drug-resistant infections threaten human life and health and impose a heavy burden on the global economy. The origin and molecular basis of bacterial resistance is the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Investigations on ARGs mostly focus on the environments in which antibiotics are frequently used, such as hospitals and farms. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge of the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in nonclinical environments, such as air, aircraft wastewater, migratory bird feces, and sea areas in-depth, which have rarely been involved in previous studies. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of plasmid and phage during horizontal gene transfer was analyzed, and the transmission mechanism of ARGs was summarized. This review highlights the new mechanisms that enhance antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary background of multidrug resistance; in addition, some promising points for controlling or reducing the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance are also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.202100201DOI Listing
October 2021

Value of the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting COVID-19 Severity: A Meta-analysis.

Dis Markers 2021 8;2021:2571912. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College, Chengde 067000, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious and continues to spread rapidly. However, there are no simple and timely laboratory techniques to determine the severity of COVID-19. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the potential of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an indicator of severe versus nonsevere COVID-19 cases.

Methods: A search for studies on the NLR in severe and nonsevere COVID-19 cases published from January 1, 2020, to July 1, 2021, was conducted on the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were done on Stata 14.0 and Meta-disc 1.4 to assess the performance of the NLR.

Results: Thirty studies, including 5570 patients, were analyzed. Of these, 1603 and 3967 patients had severe and nonsevere COVID-19, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-0.87) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.83), respectively; positive and negative correlation ratios were 3.6 (95% CI, 2.7-4.7) and 0.23 (95% CI, 0.17-0.30), respectively; DOR was 16 (95% CI, 10-24), and the AUC was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.90).

Conclusion: The NLR could accurately determine the severity of COVID-19 and can be used to identify patients with severe disease to guide clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2571912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510823PMC
October 2021

Angle-based wavefront sensing enabled by the near fields of flat optics.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 14;12(1):6002. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

There is a long history of using angle sensors to measure wavefront. The best example is the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Compared to other methods of wavefront sensing, angle-based approach is more broadly used in industrial applications and scientific research. Its wide adoption is attributed to its fully integrated setup, robustness, and fast speed. However, there is a long-standing issue in its low spatial resolution, which is limited by the size of the angle sensor. Here we report a angle-based wavefront sensor to overcome this challenge. It uses ultra-compact angle sensor built from flat optics. It is directly integrated on focal plane array. This wavefront sensor inherits all the benefits of the angle-based method. Moreover, it improves the spatial sampling density by over two orders of magnitude. The drastically improved resolution allows angle-based sensors to be used for quantitative phase imaging, enabling capabilities such as video-frame recording of high-resolution surface topography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26169-zDOI Listing
October 2021

The impacts of international trade on global greenhouse gas emissions: A thought experiment based on a novel no-trade analysis.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 24;300:113836. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Multidisciplinary Water Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Trade has been substantially influencing regional economic development, environmental sustainability, and human well-being. Enabled by the decomposition analysis, pollution haven hypothesis or "no-trade" scenarios (NTSs), the effects of trade on global/national social-economic-environmental development have been revealed. However, major limitations (e.g., using with-trade economic structures or neglecting price differences) existed in previous studies, and thus made the previous assessments of trade's effects unsatisfactorily. This study develops a novel NTS that addresses the existing limitations, and further applies it to estimate the effect of trade on global economic development and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We show that current international trade benefits the global economic growth but with a consequence of more GHG emissions compared with the NTS. The hypothetical production in small countries (e.g., Luxembourg or Japan) would be more constrained by the production factors (e.g., land) under the NTS, compared with those factor-endowment countries (e.g., the United States or India). For country-specific analysis, we find that today's developed countries would have a substantial increase in their GHG emissions of clothing- and service-related products under the NTS, whereas countries with net-export (e.g., China or Brazil) would have less GHG emissions under the NTS. Enhancing future global collaborations is vital, especially for small or resource-deficient economies, if they are to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113836DOI Listing
December 2021

On-Orbit Geometric Calibration from the Relative Motion of Stars for Geostationary Cameras.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 7;21(19). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Infrared Perception, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083, China.

Affected by the vibrations and thermal shocks during launch and the orbit penetration process, the geometric positioning model of the remote sensing cameras measured on the ground will generate a displacement, affecting the geometric accuracy of imagery and requiring recalibration. Conventional methods adopt the ground control points (GCPs) or stars as references for on-orbit geometric calibration. However, inescapable cloud coverage and discontented extraction algorithms make it extremely difficult to collect sufficient high-precision GCPs for modifying the misalignment of the camera, especially for geostationary satellites. Additionally, the number of the observed stars is very likely to be inadequate for calibrating the relative installations of the camera. In terms of the problems above, we propose a novel on-orbit geometric calibration method using the relative motion of stars for geostationary cameras. First, a geometric calibration model is constructed based on the optical system structure. Then, we analyze the relative motion transformation of the observed stars. The stellar trajectory and the auxiliary ephemeris are used to obtain the corresponding object vector for correcting the associated calibration parameters iteratively. Experimental results evaluated on the data of a geostationary experiment satellite demonstrate that the positioning errors corrected by this proposed method can be within ±2.35 pixels. This approach is able to effectively calibrate the camera and improve the positioning accuracy, which avoids the influence of cloud cover and overcomes the great dependence on the number of the observed stars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21196668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512346PMC
October 2021

Electrostatic adsorption and removal mechanism of ochratoxin A in wine via a positively charged nano-MgO microporous ceramic membrane.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 17;371:131157. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, PR China; Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a very important mycotoxin. However, there are few studies on the removal of OTA in wine because of the great influence on product quality and difficulty in practical application. A nano-MgO-modified diatomite ceramic membrane (MCM) with a high positive charge was prepared and applied to remove OTA in wine. The isotherm adsorption between the positively charged membrane and OTA was in accordance with the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 806 ng/g at 25 °C. All of the changes in adsorption enthalpy (ΔH), adsorption free energy (ΔG) and adsorption entropy (ΔS) were negative, which indicated that the combination of nano-MgO MCM and OTA was a spontaneous exothermic and nonspecific physical adsorption process. The concentrations of OTA in adsorption-treated wines were lower than 2 μg/kg, and the removal rates exceeded 92%. After OTA removal, the composition of wines was preserved to some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131157DOI Listing
September 2021

Multifunctional Size-Expandable Nanomedicines Enhance Tumor Accumulation and Penetration for Synergistic Chemo-Photothermal Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 27;13(39):46361-46374. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China.

Size expansion can effectively improve tumor accumulation of nanocarriers where precise control is required. A dual-responsive nanocarrier stimulated by both endogenous pH and exogenous heat stimuli can change its size. Herein, a nanoparticle composed of poly(,-diethyl acrylamide) (PDEAA) and poly(2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDPA) is developed. The antitumor drug celastrol (CLT) and the photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) are then loaded in it to form CIPP. ICG generates heat under near-infrared (NIR) stimulation to kill tumor cells and enhance CIPP penetration. Meanwhile, CIPP expands in response to hyperthermia and acid tumor microenvironments, preventing itself from returning to the blood flow, thus accumulating in tumor sites. Ultimately, the acidic lysosomal environment in tumor cells disintegrates CIPP to release CLT, directly inducing immunogenic cell death and sensitizing tumor cells for hyperthermia by disrupting the interaction of heat shock protein 90 and P50. Most of the tumors in B16F10-bearing mice are eradicated after single laser irradiation. The dual-responsive CIPP with multiple functions and simple design displays a synergistic antitumor effect. This study provides a basis for developing size-expandable stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems against tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14170DOI Listing
October 2021

A Comprehensive Review of the Composition, Nutritional Value, and Functional Properties of Camel Milk Fat.

Foods 2021 Sep 13;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Recently, camel milk (CM) has been considered as a health-promoting icon due to its medicinal and nutritional benefits. CM fat globule membrane has numerous health-promoting properties, such as anti-adhesion and anti-bacterial properties, which are suitable for people who are allergic to cow's milk. CM contains milk fat globules with a small size, which accounts for their rapid digestion. Moreover, it also comprises lower amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids concurrent with higher levels of essential fatty acids than cow milk, with an improved lipid profile manifested by reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. In addition, it is rich in phospholipids, especially plasmalogens and sphingomyelin, suggesting that CM fat may meet the daily nutritional requirements of adults and infants. Thus, CM and its dairy products have become more attractive for consumers. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive review of CM fat's composition and nutritional properties. The overall goal is to increase knowledge related to CM fat characteristics and modify its unfavorable perception. Future studies are expected to be directed toward a better understanding of CM fat, which appears to be promising in the design and formulation of new products with significant health-promoting benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10092158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472115PMC
September 2021

Mass Measurements of Neutron-Deficient Yb Isotopes and Nuclear Structure at the Extreme Proton-Rich Side of the N=82 Shell.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(11):112501

TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3, Canada.

High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-deficient Yb isotopes have been performed at TRIUMF using TITAN's multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). For the first time, an MR-TOF-MS was used on line simultaneously as an isobar separator and as a mass spectrometer, extending the measurements to two isotopes further away from stability than otherwise possible. The ground state masses of ^{150,153}Yb and the excitation energy of ^{151}Yb^{m} were measured for the first time. As a result, the persistence of the N=82 shell with almost unmodified shell gap energies is established up to the proton drip line. Furthermore, the puzzling systematics of the h_{11/2}-excited isomeric states of the N=81 isotones are unraveled using state-of-the-art mean field calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.112501DOI Listing
September 2021

Learning from nature for healthcare, energy, and environment.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Aug 18;2(3):100135. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454742PMC
August 2021

A study on the esophageal dynamics in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and with refractory cough undergoing esophageal high-resolution manometry.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):9546-9553. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Chengdu, China.

Objective: To analyze the esophageal dynamics in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and with refractory cough while undergoing esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM).

Methods: A total of 32 patients with GERD and with refractory cough and 48 patients with GERD admitted to our hospital from February 2019 to July 2020 were assigned to the combined group and the GERD group, respectively, and 40 healthy volunteers were assigned to the healthy group. All the patients underwent HRM. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) parameters, the types of peristalsis of the esophageal body, the esophageal body motility, the i relaxation of LES and UES incidence rates, and the esophageal body motility disorders were compared among the three groups.

Results: The combined group and the GERD group had lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) levels and lower 4-s integrated relaxation pressure (4 s IRP) levels, shorter lower esophageal sphincter lengths (LESL), and higher frequencies and longer durations of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) compared with the healthy group ( < 0.05). The upper esophageal sphincter lengths (UESL) in the GERD group were longer than they were in the healthy group ( < 0.05). Compared with the healthy group and the GERD group, the combined group had longer distal latencies (DL), break distances, and peristaltic breaks (PB), longer large and small peristaltic breaks, a greater number of ineffective swallows, lower upper esophageal sphincter pressure (UESP) levels, distal contraction integrals (DCI), contractile front velocities (CFV), and a higher incidence rate of esophageal body motility disorders ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Patients with GERD and with refractory cough often also have esophageal body motility disorders, longer PB, elevated UESP levels, and lower DCI. HRM can be used to objectively evaluate the esophageal dynamics and to differentiate among diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430120PMC
August 2021

Detection of Coccidioides posadasii in a patient with meningitis using metagenomic next-generation sequencing: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17;21(1):968. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. endemic to Southwestern United States and Central and South America. A history of residence and travel in these areas is essential for the diagnostic of coccidioidomycosis, which has highly variable symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe, disseminated infection, and even death. Immunocompromised patients of coccidioidomycosis experience a high risk of dissemination, chronic infection, and mortality. Meningitis is one of the most deleterious coccidioidomycosis and can cause various life-threatening complications.

Case Presentation: Here we report a case of Coccidioides posadasii meningitis in a 49-year-old female who returned to China after one and a half years residence in Los Angeles, USA. The repeated routine cultures using CSF for bacteria or fungi were all negative. To hunt for an infectious etiology, the state-of-the-art technology metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was then utilized, suggesting Coccidioides posadasii. Organizational pathological examination and polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) results subsequently confirmed the mNGS detection.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, cases for coccidioidal meningitis have been rarely reported in China. While global travelling may spread this disease across continents and make the diagnosis more difficult. mNGS can detect almost all known pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity, especially for uncommon pathogen, such as Coccidioides posadasii in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06661-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447723PMC
September 2021

Coherent perfect absorption at an exceptional point.

Science 2021 09 9;373(6560):1261-1265. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abj1028DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of left atrial geometric remodeling on late atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Aims: To quantitatively investigate the impact of left atrial geometric remodeling on atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 105 patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography before catheter ablation. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation recurrence were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis and used to create a nomogram.

Results: After at least 12 months of follow-up, 30 patients (29%) developed recurrent atrial fibrillation. Patients with recurrence had higher left atrial volume, left atrial sphericity, and lower left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in asymmetry index between the two groups (P = 0.121). Multivariable regression analysis showed that left atrial minimal volume index (LAVImin) [odds ratio (OR): 1.026, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.002-1.050, P = 0.034], left atrial sphericity (OR: 1.222, 95% CI: 1.040-1.435, P = 0.015) and CHADS2 score (OR: 1.511, 95% CI: 1.024-2.229, P = 0.038) were independent predictors of atrial fibrillation recurrence. The combined model of the left atrial sphericity to the LAVImin substantially increased the predictive power for atrial fibrillation recurrence [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.736, 95% CI: 0.627-0.844, P < 0.001], with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 61%. A nomogram was generated based on the contribution weights of the risk factors; the AUC was 0.772 (95% CI: 0.670-0.875) and had good internal validity.

Conclusion: The CHADS2 score, left atrial sphericity, and LAVImin were significant and independent predictors of atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation. Furthermore, the nomogram had a better predictive capacity for atrial fibrillation recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001255DOI Listing
September 2021

Correction: The signal pathways and treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Aug 31;6(1):326. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Children's Medical Center, and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Ministry of Science and Technology, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00744-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406011PMC
August 2021

Protease activated receptor 2 signaling promotes self-renewal and metastasis in colorectal cancer through β-catenin and periostin.

Cancer Lett 2021 Aug 27;521:130-141. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China. Electronic address:

The maintenance and expansion of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is necessary for metastasis. Although protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is strongly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, it is unclear how it regulates distal metastasis, and no studies have shown the involvement of CSCs. In this study, we demonstrated that high PAR2 protein expression was correlated with metastatic CRC and poor prognosis in patients with stage III-IV CRC. CSCs from cell lines and patients showed higher levels of PAR2 than that of corresponding non-CSCs, and PAR2 inhibition reduced the CSC properties of the cell lines. Mechanistically, PAR2 inhibition switched the division mode of CSCs from symmetrical to asymmetrical via the ERK/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. We also identified periostin as a direct transcriptional target of β-catenin that mediates CSC self-renewal via PAR2 signaling. In a mouse xenograft model, PAR2 knockdown significantly attenuated liver metastasis. Finally, PAR2 expression was positively correlated with β-catenin and periostin in the primary sites of CRC with distant metastasis. Overall, our results indicate that PAR2 activation enhances CSC self-renewal and promotes metastasis through β-catenin and its target gene, periostin, in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.08.032DOI Listing
August 2021

Metastatic patterns and prognosis of young lung cancer patients: a population-based study by age.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1159

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China School of Medicine/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: We aimed to examine the different metastatic patterns and corresponding survival outcomes between all ages of young (aged <60 years) and elderly lung cancer patients.

Methods: Lung cancer patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 2010 and 2015 were divided into a young and elderly group. The young group was subdivided into four consecutive subgroups. Baseline characteristics were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Survival differences were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Of the total 200,362 lung cancer patients, 155,348 were elderly patients and 45,014 were young patients, including 3,461 aged <45 years, 5,697 aged 45-49 years, 13,645 aged 50-54 years, and 22,211 aged 55-59 years. Compared with elderly lung cancer patients, extrathoracic metastases were significantly more frequent in each younger group, irrespective of the site and number of extrathoracic metastatic organs. Regardless of metastasis patterns, young ages were independent prognostic factors of lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) [<45 years: hazard ratio (HR): 0.70; 45-49 years: HR: 0.87; 50-54 years: HR: 0.90; 55-59 years: HR: 0.93, all P values were <0.001]. In each age subgroup, patients with multi-organ extrathoracic metastasis had the worst LCSS.

Conclusions: Young lung cancer patients across all ages were at increased risk of extrathoracic metastasis, especially multi-organ patterns, but had a reduced risk of lung cancer-related death compared to elderly patients. Regular and meticulous monitoring of potential metastasized organs is required in young lung cancer patients throughout the follow-up period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350622PMC
July 2021

PP-1β and PP-2Aα modulate cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) functions in aging control and stress response through de-regulation of αB-crystallin gene and p300-p53 signaling axis.

Aging Cell 2021 09 23;20(9):e13458. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The function of the transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), is activated through S133 phosphorylation by PKA and others. Regarding its inactivation, it is not well defined. cAMP response element-binding protein plays an essential role in promoting cell proliferation, neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity associated with long-term memory. Our recent studies have shown that CREB is an important player in mediating stress response. Here, we have demonstrated that CREB regulates aging process through suppression of αB-crystallin and activation of the p300-p53-Bak/Bax signaling axis. First, we determined that two specific protein phosphatases, PP-1β and PP-2Aα, can inactivate CREB through S133 dephosphorylation. Subsequently, we demonstrated that cells expressing the S133A-CREB, a mutant mimicking constant dephosphorylation at S133, suppress CREB functions in aging control and stress response. Mechanistically, S133A-CREB not only significantly suppresses CREB control of αB-crystallin gene, but also represses CREB-mediated activation of p53 acetylation and downstream Bak/Bax genes. cAMP response element-binding protein suppression of αB-crystallin and its activation of p53 acetylation are major molecular events observed in human cataractous lenses of different age groups. Together, our results demonstrate that PP-1β and PP-2Aα modulate CREB functions in aging control and stress response through de-regulation of αB-crystallin gene and p300-p53-Bax/Bak signaling axis, which regulates human cataractogenesis in the aging lens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441381PMC
September 2021

Periodontitis and Number of Teeth in the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis.

Med Sci Monit 2021 08 23;27:e930112. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial, Secondary Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND A positive link between periodontitis and chronic systemic disease has been indicated. However, few studies focused on the loss of teeth. Our analysis aims to analyze the relationship of periodontitis and number of teeth with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A meta-analysis was conducted on qualified data extracted from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Only cohort studies were included in this study. We screened articles that assessed the periodontal condition and teeth number as well as the incidence or mortality of CHD. Hazard ratio (HR) and relative risk (RR) were calculated by Stata SE software. RESULTS A total of 11 prospective studies with over 200 000 total participants were analyzed. Ten studies reported on periodontitis and CHD, and 4 studies included data on number of teeth. After adjusting for multivariate factors, there was a significant association between periodontitis and the risk of CHD (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.26); the RR of CHD in the edentulous population was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.08-1.34). Moreover, results on the RR values for number of teeth were as follows: 24-17 teeth (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05-1.19); 16-11 (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42); and £10 (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.43-1.69). CONCLUSIONS Our study showed that periodontitis is a risk factor for CHD and that the number of removed teeth is positively correlated with the risk of CHD. During clinical assessment, both factors need to be considered as factors associated with cardiovascular risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394608PMC
August 2021

The viability of complex coacervate encapsulated probiotics during simulated sequential gastrointestinal digestion affected by wall materials and drying methods.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 4;12(19):8907-8919. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Food Ingredients and Biopolymers Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA.

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of protein type (sodium caseinate and pea protein isolate) and protein to sugar beet pectin mixing ratio (5 : 1 and 2 : 1) on complex coacervate formation, as well as the impact of the finishing technology (freeze-drying and spray-drying) for improving the viability of encapsulated (LGG) in complex coacervates during simulated sequential gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. The physicochemical properties of LGG encapsulated microcapsules in liquid and powder form were evaluated. The state diagram and ζ-potential results indicated that pH 3.0 was the optimum pH for coacervate formation in the current systems. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), viscoelastic analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that the gel-like network structure of the complex coacervates was successfully formed between the protein and SBP at pH 3.0 through electrostatic interaction. In terms of physiochemical properties and viability of LGG encapsulated in the microcapsule powder, the drying method played a crucial role on particle size, microstructure and death rate of encapsulated LGG during simulated sequential GI digestion compared to protein type and biopolymer mixing ratio. For example, the microstructure of spray-dried microcapsules exhibited smaller spherical particles with some cavities, whereas the larger particle size of freeze-dried samples showed a porous sponge network structure with larger particle sizes. As a result, spray-dried LGG microcapsules generally had a lower death rate during simulated sequential gastrointestinal digestion compared to their freeze-dried counterparts. Among all samples, spray-dried PPI-SBP microcapsules demonstrated superior performance against cell loss and maintained more than 7.5 log CFU per g viable cells after digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01533hDOI Listing
October 2021

OX40L blockade cellular nanovesicles for autoimmune diseases therapy.

J Control Release 2021 09 8;337:557-570. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, 640041, china. Electronic address:

Current clinical agents for autoimmunity disorders treatment often cause substantial adverse effects and safety concerns, owing to non-specific immune modulation. Due to the prominent contribution of effector T cells in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and preferential location of co-stimulatory receptor-ligand pair OX40-OX40L at the inflamed sites, selectively targeting autoaggressive T cells by blockade OX40-OX40L, might represent an alternative strategy. Herein, we developed a new strategy to antagonize OX40-OX40L interaction by engineering a cell membrane derived nanovesicles (NVs) expressing OX40 receptors (OX40 NVs), and explored their potential for autoimmune disorders therapy. OX40 NVs showed specific binding capability to inflamed HUVECs in vitro, it also possessed distinct arthritic-targeting capacity in RA inflamed joints, and preferential accumulation in IBD inflamed colon. OX40 NVs efficiently suppressed the progression of both RA and IBD diseases through reducing CD4OX40 T cells population, and proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-α and IL-1β), while reinforcing Tregs immune-suppressive effect, with superior therapeutic efficacy than anti-OX40L. Additionally, dexamethasone (DEX) loading can further enhance the potential of OX40 NVs for RA treatment. Owing to their preferential localization to inflamed sites, and potent immune-suppression ability, targeting OX40-OX40L blockade by OX40 NVs for autoimmune therapy is highly promising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.08.008DOI Listing
September 2021

Paeonol Suppresses Vasculogenesis Through Regulating Vascular Smooth Muscle Phenotypic Switching.

J Endovasc Ther 2021 Aug 6:15266028211032956. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

College of Basic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Objective: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic switching is associated with development of a variety of occlusive vascular diseases. Paeonol has been reported to be involved in suppressing SMC proliferation. However, it is still unknown whether paeonol can regulate SMC phenotypic switching, and which eventually result in suppressing vasculogenesis.

Methods: Murine left common carotid artery was injured by completely ligation, and paeonol was administrated by intraperitoneal injection. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to visualize vascular neointima formation. Rat aortic SMCs were used to determine whether paeonol suppresses cell proliferation and migration. And murine hind limb ischemia model was performed to confirm the function role of paeonol in suppressing vasculogenesis.

Results: Complete ligation of murine common carotid artery successfully induced neointima formation. Paeonol treatment dramatically reduced the size of injury-induced neointima. Using rat aortic primary SMC, we identified that paeonol strongly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and decreased extracellular matrix deposition. And paeonol treatment dramatically suppressed vasculogenesis after hind limb ischemia injury.

Conclusion: Paeonol could regulate SMC phenotypic switching through inhibiting proliferation and migration of SMC, which results in inhibiting ischemia-induced vasculogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15266028211032956DOI Listing
August 2021

The chicken pan-genome reveals gene content variation and a promoter region deletion in IGF2BP1 affecting body size.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China.

Domestication and breeding have reshaped the genomic architecture of chicken, but the retention and loss of genomic elements during these evolutionary processes remain unclear. We present the first chicken pan-genome constructed using 664 individuals, which identified an additional ∼66.5 Mb sequences that are absent from the reference genome (GRCg6a). The constructed pan-genome encoded 20,491 predicated protein-coding genes, of which higher expression level are observed in conserved genes relative to dispensable genes. Presence/absence variation (PAV) analyses demonstrated that gene PAV in chicken was shaped by selection, genetic drift, and hybridization. PAV-based GWAS identified numerous candidate mutations related to growth, carcass composition, meat quality, or physiological traits. Among them, a deletion in the promoter region of IGF2BP1 affecting chicken body size is reported, which is supported by functional studies and extra samples. This is the first time to report the causal variant of chicken body size QTL located at chromosome 27 which was repeatedly reported. Therefore, the chicken pan-genome is a useful resource for biological discovery and breeding. It improves our understanding of chicken genome diversity and provides materials to unveil the evolution history of chicken domestication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab231DOI Listing
July 2021

Sulfidation of nickel foam with enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid.

Dalton Trans 2021 Aug 27;50(31):10922-10927. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Zhang Dayu School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning, China.

Electrochemical oxidation of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is an intriguing way of biomass conversion. Herein, a sulfidation of nickel foam (NiS/NF) was attempted via a hydrothermal method, achieving high selectivity and efficiency for HMF oxidation. The optimized NiS/NF electrode exhibits a nearly 100% conversion of HMF, 98% yield of FDCA, and 94% high faradaic efficiency. This material is stable and retains activity after 6 consecutive measurements. This work provides a facile route to design and prepare electrocatalysts for biomass upgrading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt02025kDOI Listing
August 2021

Clickable amino acid derivative tuned self-assembly of antigen and adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.

J Control Release 2021 09 24;337:306-316. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Natural Product Synthesis and Drug Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. Electronic address:

Amino acid-tuned self-assembly has become an attractive strategy for constructing various functional materials. Here, a series of dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) functionalized amphiphilic amino acid derivatives are designed and screened as building blocks of functional supramolecular self-assembly nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy. One top-performing supramolecular self-assembly material (named DA6C1) is identified through combinatorial screening, and spherical nanoparticles can be easily prepared by this material tuned multicomponent synergistic self-assembly of ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG oligonucleotide. DA6C1 based nanovaccine can significantly enhance the cellular uptake of OVA and CpG into the same bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and greatly improve the activation of DCs. Moreover, after subcutaneous injection, this nanovaccine flows rapidly to the lymph nodes and elicits strong immune responses to achieve effective prophylactic and therapeutic effect. Therefore, our work highlights the great potential of clickable amino acid derivatives as a convenient and powerful tool to construct nanovaccine for effective immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.07.033DOI Listing
September 2021

Therapeutic mechanism of steaming umbilical cord therapy with Chinese herbal medicine on a rat model of IBS-D via the PAR-2/TRVP1 pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6288-6296. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Hepatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of TCM Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the PAR-2/TRVP1-based mechanism of steaming umbilical cord therapy with Chinese Herbal Medicine (SUCT-CHM) in IBS-D rat models.

Methods: Sixty-two IBS-D modeled rats were established, and were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 31) and the experimental group (n = 31). The model group did not receive intervention measures, and the experimental group was treated with SUCT-CHM. After 14 days of intervention, the two groups of rats were compared in terms of body weight, gastrointestinal function, Bristol stool score, wet/dry weight ratio of rat stool, and abdominal withdrawal reflex scores. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), protease-activated receptors-2 (PAR-2), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and Substance P (SP) protein expression were detected using ELISA.

Results: After 14 d of intervention, compared to the control group, the rats in the experimental group showed a significant increase in body mass indexes ( < 0.05); decreased Bristol stool scores ( < 0.05); less stagnation of the intestinal contents and greater intestine propulsion rate ( < 0.05), lower wet/dry weight ratio of rat stool ( < 0.05), abdominal withdrawal reflex scores ( < 0.05) as well as PAR-2, TRVP1, CGRP and SP expression levels ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: SUCT-CHM was effective in treating IBS-D in rats. It improved gastrointestinal function and reduced visceral hypersensitivity in rats possibly via the PAR-2/TRVP1 pathway.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290801PMC
June 2021

Selenium attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury‑induced damage to the blood‑brain barrier in hyperglycemia through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway‑mediated autophagy inhibition.

Int J Mol Med 2021 09 23;48(3). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, School of Basic Medical Science, Incubation Base of National Key Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 750004, P.R. China.

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability. Diabetes mellitus, characterized by hyperglycemia, is a common concomitant disease of ischemic stroke, which is associated with autophagy dysfunction and blood‑brain barrier (BBB) damage following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy for the disease. The purpose of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of selenium on the BBB following I/R injury in hyperglycemic rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in diabetic Sprague‑Dawley rats. Treatment with selenium and the autophagy inhibitor 3‑methyladenine significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain water content and Evans blue leakage, while increasing the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and decreasing that of autophagy‑related proteins (P<0.05). In addition, selenium increased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, AKT and mTOR (P<0.05). A mouse bEnd.3 brain microvascular endothelial cell line was co‑cultured with an MA‑h mouse astrocyte‑hippocampal cell line to simulate the BBB. The cells were then subjected to hyperglycemia, followed by oxygen‑glucose deprivation for 1 h and reoxygenation for 24 h. It was revealed that selenium increased TJ protein levels, reduced BBB permeability, decreased autophagy levels and enhanced the expression of phosphorylated (p)‑AKT/AKT and p‑mTOR/mTOR proteins (P<0.05). Treatment with wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3K) significantly prevented the beneficial effects of selenium on the BBB, whereas insulin‑like growth factor 1 (a PI3K activator) mimicked the effects of selenium. In conclusion, the present findings indicated that selenium can inhibit autophagy by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, significantly preventing BBB damage following cerebral I/R injury in hyperglycemic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354314PMC
September 2021
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