Publications by authors named "Kumar Vaibhav"

83 Publications

Expanded principles of ethics and its implementation during COVID-19 vaccine trials: A scoping evidence based research synthesis.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jul 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Community Medicine Department, GMERS Medical College, Gotri, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

The COVID-19 pandemic will subside only through the emergence and distribution of an efficacious vaccine. The two main aspects that should be maintained in equilibrium: the dire necessity for speedy vaccine research and the need for safeguarding the research subjects, which is of utmost concern in research ethics. This opens up a discussion of what norms to follow during the clinical trials while developing the vaccine. As of now, various companies like Moderna, Pfizer, University of Oxford, Astra-Zeneca and so on have moved beyond the safety, efficacy and immunogenic studies. This narrative review explores and discusses the key principles of ethics: a principle of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice along with its ten general expanded principles. Furthermore, it delves into the different types of vaccines, their mechanisms, side effects, limitations, and advantages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1947101DOI Listing
July 2021

The CoVID-TE Risk Assessment Model for Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients with Cancer and COVID-19.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background:  Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have increased risks of venous (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE). Active cancer diagnosis and treatment are well-known risk factors; however, a risk assessment model (RAM) for VTE in patients with both cancer and COVID-19 is lacking.

Methods:  Among patients with cancer in the CCC19 cohort study, we assessed the incidence of VTE and ATE within 90 days of COVID-19 associated hospitalization. A multivariable logistic regression model specifically for VTE was built using a priori determined clinical risk factors. A simplified RAM was derived and internally validated using bootstrap.

Findings: From 3/17/2020 to 11/30/2020, 2804 hospitalized patients were analyzed. The incidence of VTE and ATE was 7.6% and 3.9%, respectively. The incidence of VTE, but not ATE, was higher in patients receiving recent anti-cancer therapy. A simplified RAM for VTE was derived and named CoVID-TE (Cancer subtype high to very-high risk by original Khorana score +1, VTE history +2, ICU admission +2, D-dimer elevation +1, recent systemic anti-cancer Therapy +1, and non-Hispanic Ethnicity +1). The RAM stratified patients into two cohorts (low-risk, 0-2 points, n=1423 vs. high-risk, 3+ points, n=1034) where VTE occurred in 4.1% low-risk and 11.3% high-risk patients (c statistic 0.67, 95% CI 0.63-0.71). The RAM performed similarly well in subgroups of patients not on anticoagulant prior to admission and moderately ill patients not requiring direct ICU admission.

Interpretation: Hospitalized patients with cancer and COVID-19 have elevated thrombotic risks. The CoVID-TE RAM for VTE prediction may help real-time data-driven decisions in this vulnerable population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15463DOI Listing
July 2021

Euglobulin clot lysis time reveals a high frequency of fibrinolytic activation in trauma.

Thromb Res 2021 08 31;204:22-28. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine and Blood Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of the fibrinolytic system plays a central role in the host response to trauma. There is significant heterogeneity in the degree of fibrinolysis activation at baseline that is usually assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG). Few studies have focused on plasma markers of fibrinolysis that could add novel insights into the frequency and mechanisms of fibrinolytic activation in trauma. Global fibrinolysis in plasma was assessed using a modified euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) assay in 171 major trauma patients and compared to commonly assessed analytes of fibrinolysis. The median ECLT in trauma patients was significantly shorter at 8.5 h (IQR, 1.3-19.5) compared to 19.9 h (9.8-22.6) in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). ECLT values ≤2.5th percentile of the reference range were present in 83 (48.5%) of trauma patients, suggesting increased fibrinolytic activation. Shortened ECLT values were associated with elevated plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes and free tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels in plasma. Sixteen (9.2%) individuals met the primary outcome for massive transfusion, here defined as the critical administration threshold (CAT) of 3 units of packed red cells in any 60-minute period within the first 24 h. In a univariate screen, plasma biomarkers associated with CAT included D-dimer (p < 0.001), PAP (p < 0.05), free tPA (p < 0.05) and ECLT (p < 0.05). We conclude that fibrinolytic activation, measured by ECLT, is present in a high proportion of trauma patients at presentation. The shortened ECLT is partially driven by high tPA levels and is associated with high levels of circulating PAP complexes. Further studies are needed to determine whether ECLT is an independent predictor of trauma outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.05.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277746PMC
August 2021

Infection and Immune Memory: Variables in Robust Protection by Vaccines Against SARS-CoV-2.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:660019. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, United States.

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of a recent pandemic that has led to more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Most individuals are asymptomatic or display mild symptoms, which raises an inherent question as to how does the immune response differs from patients manifesting severe disease? During the initial phase of infection, dysregulated effector immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, megakaryocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid progenitor cells, and Th17 cells can alter the trajectory of an infected patient to severe disease. On the other hand, properly functioning CD4+, CD8+ cells, NK cells, and DCs reduce the disease severity. Detailed understanding of the immune response of convalescent individuals transitioning from the effector phase to the immunogenic memory phase can provide vital clues to understanding essential variables to assess vaccine-induced protection. Although neutralizing antibodies can wane over time, long-lasting B and T memory cells can persist in recovered individuals. The natural immunological memory captures the diverse repertoire of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes after natural infection whereas, currently approved vaccines are based on a single epitope, spike protein. It is essential to understand the nature of the immune response to natural infection to better identify 'correlates of protection' against this disease. This article discusses recent findings regarding immune response against natural infection to SARS-CoV-2 and the nature of immunogenic memory. More precise knowledge of the acute phase of immune response and its transition to immunological memory will contribute to the future design of vaccines and the identification of variables essential to maintain immune protection across diverse populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.660019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144450PMC
June 2021

A prospective, open-label, multicentric, single-arm, post-marketing clinical study to evaluate effectiveness and safety of Cross-Linked Sodium Hyaluronate 24mg with Lidocaine 3mg Injection in subjects undergoing treatment for facial wrinkles and lip augmentation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Dermatology, Cosmetic Dermatology & Dermato-Surgery, The Esthetic Clinics, Mumbai, India.

Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are quite commonly used since several years for soft tissue augmentation.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate primarily the safety and secondarily the clinical effectiveness of Cross-Linked Sodium Hyaluronate 24 mg with Lidocaine 3 mg (Jeunesso 24L) injection, in subjects undergoing treatment for facial wrinkles and lip augmentation.

Method: Patients between the age groups of 18 and 75 years, who were seeking soft tissue augmentation treatment on the face and with wrinkle severity score (WSS) ≥2 for bilateral Nasolabial Folds (NLF), were included in the study. The appropriate quantity of the filler was injected at the treatment site. Clinical efficacy assessments were conducted independently at 3 and 6 months after baseline. Clinical efficacy was assessed using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) and a Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS).

Results: The mean pain score was found to be 2.57 ± 2.06 immediately after injection which was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.675 at 15 min and this further subsided to "No Pain" in any of the participants at 60 min post the injection. WSRS mean score before treatment was 2.76, which were significantly reduced to 2.14, at 3 months. Majority of participants found an improvement in the marionette line severity. Also, significant improvements were seen in the perioral and lip areas. The Study filler was well-tolerated and no side effects were reported.

Conclusion: The study indicates that this particular filler, HA+L, is useful for cosmetic improvements in the nasolabial folds and for enhancement of the lips.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14249DOI Listing
May 2021

Harnessing the potential of the primary healthcare facilities in India to respond COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping evidence-based research synthesis.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jan 30;10(1):116-121. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Science, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

COVID-19 has resulted in an unprecedented loss of human lives and sufferings across the world. It has resulted in the collapse of public health systems and economy across the globe. As most of the national health systems lack organized surveillance infrastructure, resources, and expertise to respond to a pandemic, most of the countries failed to mount an effective response to contain the spread of this virus initially. As primary healthcare (PHC) has better access to the community, the settings where PHC services are inadequate or weak, hospitals are overwhelmed with patients, thus overburdening, and wasting meager specialist resources. PHC interventions can manage mild to moderate cases (>80% of total cases) and their contacts, along with addressing the needs of general population while only severe cases may require specialized hospital care. As PHC interventions have huge potential to tackle this pandemic, strengthening and inclusion of PHC in pandemic response could play a significant role in relieving the workload on secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and minimizing loss of lives and its short and long term socioeconomic consequences. This article explores the scope and importance of strengthening PHC in breaking the chain of the transmission of this infectious disease, building an adequate response to minimize its disastrous consequences and prevent future emerging and reemerging disease outbreaks, if any.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1609_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132786PMC
January 2021

Risk, Racial Disparity, and Outcomes Among Patients With Cancer and COVID-19 Infection.

JAMA Oncol 2021 07;7(7):1065

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.0768DOI Listing
July 2021

Pharmacological and Therapeutic Approaches in the Treatment of Epilepsy.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 25;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

Epilepsy affects around 50 million people across the globe and is the third most common chronic brain disorder. It is a non-communicable disease of the brain that affects people of all ages. It is accompanied by depression, anxiety, and substantially increased morbidity and mortality. A large number of third-generation anti-epileptic drugs are available, but they have multiple side-effects causing a decline in the quality of life. The inheritance and etiology of epilepsy are complex with multiple underlying genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Different neurotransmitters play intricate functions to maintain the normal physiology of various neurons. If there is any dysregulation of neurotransmission due to aberrant transmitter levels or their receptor biology, it can result in seizures. In this review, we have discussed the roles played by various neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) has remained one of the forefront areas of epilepsy research for a long time. Understanding the mechanisms underlying DRE is of utmost importance because of its high incidence rate among epilepsy patients and increased risks of psychosocial problems and premature death. Here we have enumerated various hypotheses of DRE. Further, we have discussed different non-conventional therapeutic strategies, including combination therapy and non-drug treatment. The recent studies supporting the modern approaches for the treatment of epilepsy have been deliberated with particular reference to the mTOR pathway, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9050470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146518PMC
April 2021

Non-surgical rhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: A systematic review.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Facial Plastic & Facial Cosmetic Surgery, The Esthetic Clinics, Mumbai, India.

Background: Non-surgical rhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is a cosmetic procedure that has been becoming increasingly popular among patients wanting to correct nasal deformities or nasal irregularities, in the recent years.

Aim: This systematic review aims to provide quality evidence about the success of non-surgical rhinoplasty procedures in terms of patient satisfaction and complications.

Methods: A systematic electronic literature search using keywords and MESH search terms over the PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, and EBSCO online databases was conducted from November 2005 to February 2021. Additionally, the reference lists of included systematic reviews were hand searched. Data collected included patient satisfaction and complications from prospective and experimental studies providing highest level of evidence. Articles were critically appraised, and MINORS scale was used to assess the risk of bias.

Results: Based on the search criteria, 2896 citations were found. After removing duplicates and screening for relevance, 23 citations were finalized for full-text review, of which 12 articles were excluded and 11 articles were included in the study. The average satisfaction of patients amongst the studies was found to be >90%. In all the studies, transient edema and erythema, post-injection pain, and bruising were some temporary complications. Rare complications that were reported were vascular impairments and hematoma.

Conclusions: Non-surgical rhinoplasty is a good, minimally invasive alternative over conventional rhinoplasty. There is however a paucity of quality data in the form of experimental and prospective studies regarding the accuracy, effectiveness, and complications of non-surgical rhinoplasty.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14173DOI Listing
April 2021

Personalized video consent in Blepharoplasty: A new paradigm in the preoperative consent giving process.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jul 8;20(7):2211-2223. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Dermatology, Cosmetic Dermatology & Dermato-Surgery, The Esthetic Clinics, Mumbai, India.

Background: Informed consent is not simply the signing of a form by the patient but more significantly, a process of an in-depth communication between the doctor and the patient.

Aim: The written informed consent process typically involves reading a lengthy document involving the medical terms which at times lead to misinterpretation. Therefore, the current research envisages assessing the effectiveness and acceptability of the video consent tool athwart the traditional written consent procedure.

Methods: A retrospective questionnaire study was carried out with 30 patients posted for Blepharoplasty surgery between ages of 18-50 years. They were divided into two groups randomly. All the participants were given written consent. Video consent was taken additionally for group 2 subjects. All the participants received pre-validated questionnaire. The evaluation scale used was a 5-point Likert scale.

Results: People with video consent group were more satisfied with the consent process. It was noted that all the patients who received video consent were happier and understood the consent process better than patients with written consent only.

Conclusion: The inference drawn from our study depicts that video consent is not just easy to understand and clarifies the doubts associated with the surgery but also significantly reduces the anxiety of the patient preoperatively. Also, in other 'quality of life' improving cosmetic procedures including rhinoplasty, face lift surgeries, jaw surgeries, botox, fillers, lasers etc., video consenting tool can be used to a maximum benefit. It is strongly recommended to adopt the practice of taking video consent format in all forms of cosmetic procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14172DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding intellectual property rights among dental task force attending private dental colleges in Navi Mumbai: a cross-sectional study.

J Med Life 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):93-99

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, TPCT'S Terna Dental College, Navi Mumbai, India.

Intellectual property rights such as Copyright, Trademark, Patents and Trade secrets etc. help us to gain some protection against certain inventions by acknowledging the founder. In today's industry it is agreed that Intellectual Property Rights has a big role to play. This current study envisages the knowledge, attitude, practice regarding Intellectual Property Rights among dental task force attending private dental colleges.The survey was conducted among students of which were Interns, Post Graduates, faculty members and other dental surgeons attending private dental colleges in Navi Mumbai. The subjects of this study comprised of a total of 1020 students, faculty members and other dental surgeons from five different private dental institutes. The survey includes closed ended questions. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. Explaining calculations were used to summarize all the answers. A total of 889 students, faculty and other dental surgeons from private dental colleges responded. Results showed that about 83.5% believe the statement "Articles and other publications are protected by copyright." 66.6% of participants would select trademark in order to protect their clinic or organization name. About 38.7% were aware of the term Intellectual Property Rights. It also suggests that only 10.9% have attended any seminar/conference pertaining to IPR. The students and faculty members have an overall sense of eagerness to learn and gain more knowledge based on IPR. Thus conducting more workshops and seminars based on IPR should be encouraged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2020-0103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982253PMC
April 2021

Kartavya: An innovative model to deliver oral health services to transgender community in India.

Spec Care Dentist 2021 Jul 15;41(4):439-441. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Dean, T.P.C.T's Terna Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12584DOI Listing
July 2021

Cannabidiol Ameliorates Cognitive Function via Regulation of IL-33 and TREM2 Upregulation in a Murine Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;80(3):973-977

Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

There is a dire need for due innovative therapeutic modalities to improve outcomes of AD patients. In this study, we tested whether cannabidiol (CBD) improves outcomes in a translational model of familial AD and to investigate if CBD regulates interleukin (IL)-33 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which are associated with improved cognitive function. CBD was administered to 5xFAD mice, which recapitulate early onset, familial AD. Behavioral tests and immunoassays were used to evaluate cognitive and motor outcomes. Our findings suggest that CBD treatment enhanced IL-33 and TREM2 expression, ameliorated the symptoms of AD, and retarded cognitive decline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210026DOI Listing
January 2021

Include-integrate-involve: Deciphering oral healthcare providers' professional demeanor towards sexual and gender minority cohorts in a metropolitan city of western India.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):149-157. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

T.P.C.T's Terna Dental College & Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India.

Objectives: The Sexual and Gender Minorities (SGM) have been subject to disparities in healthcare. This study gauges and compares the demeanor of oral health task force in privately-funded and government-funded dental schools of India towards SGM cohorts.

Study Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional, point prevalent study was conducted following standard statements of the STROBE guidelines and using the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS). It was conducted among the clinical oral health taskforce hailing from private-funded and government-funded institutes.

Methods: One-way ANOVA test computed differences in mean MCRS scores among the undergraduates, postgraduates and faculty. Independent -test compared responses of participants from private institutions and government institutions using SPSS version 17 statistical software.

Results: All the respondents were mostly but not completely satisfied to work with SGM patients (MCRS score ​= ​4.55 ​± ​1.114) indicative of some underlying hesitance. Though everyone had a positive regard, undergraduates and those from private institutions felt more compassionate and showed greater willingness to put in extra efforts to help them feel at ease ( <0.05). This is interpretive of more receptiveness towards specialized training and policy reforms of these individuals.

Conclusion: The significant differences between institutes and designations highlight disparities in knowledge and training resulting in the underlying hesitation. Health education urgently needs a targeted and focused SGM-related training program to deconstruct these disparities and provide equitable oral and general health for all individuals irrespective of their sexual orientation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2021.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840477PMC
January 2021

COVID-19 driven changes in the air quality; a study of major cities in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 19;274:116512. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi, 835 205, India. Electronic address:

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented cessation of outdoor anthropogenic activities leading to a significant improvement of the environment across the world. However, the positive impacts on the environment are not expected to last long as countries have started to gradually come out of lockdown and engage in aggressive measures to regain the pre-COVID-19 levels of economic activity. The present study provides for an assessment of air quality changes during the period of lockdown and unlocking across 9 major cities in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, including three cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida) in the national capital region, which have frequently been included among the most polluted cities in the world. The pollutant load in a vertical column of air during March-July 2020 has been analyzed and compared with the corresponding period's pollution load in 2019. In addition, a detailed analysis of the ground-level changes in pollution load for Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida is also presented, along with the changes in local meteorology. A significant reduction in the total column density of NO, CO and ground-level pollution load of PM, PM, NO, and SO have been observed. In contrast, an increase in total column density of SO across all the cities (except Kanpur) and ground-level concentration of CO (in Noida and Greater Noida) and O (in Noida) was evident. The improvement in air quality (with respect to particulate matter) can primarily be attributed to the restrictions on construction and demolition activities, reduced re-suspension of roadside dust, and the restrictions on the movement of vehicles. A significant decline in the average summer temperature was recorded, and it can plausibly be attributed to lower radiative forcing due to reduced pollutant load in the atmosphere.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817480PMC
April 2021

Biomarker-based evaluation of cytogenotoxic potential of glyphosate in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper genotypes.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 19;193(2):73. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP, 226001, India.

Herbicides have proven to be a boon for agricultural fields. Their inherent property to kill weeds and unwanted vegetation makes them an essential biological tool for farmers and agricultural systems. Besides being capable of destroying weeds, they also exhibit certain effects on non-target crop plants. In the present study, a laboratory experiment was performed to assess the effect of glyphosate on Vigna mungo root meristem cells. Seeds of five different genotypes of V. mungo were treated with a series of concentrations of glyphosate ranging from 1 to 10 mM, and their effects on mitotic cell division were studied. Healthy and uniform-sized seeds were selected and were allowed to grow in Petri plates for 3 days, and all the doses were maintained in triplicates. Roots were fixed at day 3 after treatment (DAT) for cytological microscopic slide preparation. The results obtained indicate the dose-dependent reduction in the mitotic index in all the genotypes and an increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and relative abnormality rate (RAR). Most commonly observed chromosome aberrations at lower doses (< 6 mM) were fragments, stickiness, and disoriented metaphase, while at higher doses (6 to 10 mM) bridges, laggards, spindle disorientation, and clumping were obvious. The increase in the percentage of CAs and RAR indicates the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on cell cycle progression at various stages in root tip cells. The present study is a fine example of a biomarker-based genotoxic assessment of mitotic damage caused by glyphosate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08865-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Anticancer and antiproliferative efficacy of a standardized extract of on the highly differentiating oral cancer KB cell line athwart the cytotoxicity evaluation of the same on the normal fibroblast L929 cell line.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 May-Aug;24(2):258-265. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Public Health Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Background And Objectives: The perpetual search is on to find botanical complementary adjuncts to the conventional therapies used that is not only cost-effective but also reduces side effects associated with conventional synthetic drugs that are available in the market. The aim of this study was to assess the anticancer efficacy of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of cranberry against oral cancer KB cell line by Di-Methyl Thiazoldiphenyl Tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) assay and its cytotoxicity on normal fibroblast cells.

Materials And Methods: extract was prepared using a hydroethanolic solvent (water - 30%:ethanol - 70%) using the standardized maceration protocol. Standard KB and normal fibroblast (L929) cell lines were used. The minimum lethal effect of the extract was calculated using the MTT cytotoxicity assay.

Results: The extract shows a satisfactory antiproliferative effect on the KB cell line and a higher cell viability percentage of the normal fibroblast cell line.

Conclusion: can prove to be an adjunct to the existing anticancer drug therapy against oral cancer KB cell line.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_129_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802834PMC
September 2020

AMPK induces regulatory innate lymphoid cells after traumatic brain injury.

JCI Insight 2021 01 11;6(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, and.

The CNS is regarded as an immunoprivileged organ, evading routine immune surveillance; however, the coordinated development of immune responses profoundly influences outcomes after brain injury. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are cytokine-producing cells that are critical for the initiation, modulation, and resolution of inflammation, but the functional relevance and mechanistic regulation of ILCs are unexplored after acute brain injury. We demonstrate increased proliferation of all ILC subtypes within the meninges for up to 1 year after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) while ILCs were present within resected dura and elevated within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of moderate-to-severe TBI patients. In line with energetic derangements after TBI, inhibition of the metabolic regulator, AMPK, increased meningeal ILC expansion, whereas AMPK activation suppressed proinflammatory ILC1/ILC3 and increased the frequency of IL-10-expressing ILC2 after TBI. Moreover, intracisternal administration of IL-33 activated AMPK, expanded ILC2, and suppressed ILC1 and ILC3 within the meninges of WT and Rag1-/- mice, but not Rag1-/- IL2rg-/- mice. Taken together, we identify AMPK as a brake on the expansion of proinflammatory, CNS-resident ILCs after brain injury. These findings establish a mechanistic framework whereby immunometabolic modulation of ILCs may direct the specificity, timing, and magnitude of cerebral immunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821592PMC
January 2021

Occupational exposure to pesticides in female tea garden workers and adverse birth outcomes.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Mar 22;35(3):e22677. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, ICMR-National Institute of Pathology, New Delhi, India.

Pesticides are globally used to eliminate pests from crops and plants. The increased use of pesticides has posed a serious threat to human health. This study evaluates the effects of pesticide exposure on pregnancy outcomes in tea garden workers (TGW). The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in the maternal blood, placenta, and cord blood of TGW and housewives (HWs). The placental structure and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α were also analyzed in TGW and HW groups delivering low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) babies. A significantly decreased AChE activity was observed in maternal blood and cord blood in TGW as compared with HW in the LBW group. However, it did not change significantly in the NBW group (p < .05). The adjusted regression analysis of birth outcomes (birth weight, head circumference, infant's length, and ponderal index) revealed a significant and positive association with the levels of AChE activity in maternal blood, placenta, and cord blood in TGW (p < .05). The histological analysis showed significantly higher placental syncytial knots, chorangiosis, fibrinoid deposition, necrosis, and stromal fibrosis in the LBW group of TGW. Microinfarction, increased fibrinoid deposition, and atypical villi characteristics, such as mushroom-like structures, were observed during scanning electron microscopy along with increased HIF-1α expression in placental tissues of TGW exposed to pesticides. Results suggest that occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy may decrease AChE activity and cause in utero pathological changes accompanied by an increased HIF-1α expression, which also contributes to placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22677DOI Listing
March 2021

Infections of the lung: a predictive, preventive and personalized perspective through the lens of evolution, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and its pathogenesis.

EPMA J 2020 Nov 13:1-21. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA USA.

The long evolutionary battle between humans and pathogens has played an important role in shaping the current network of host-pathogen interactions. Each organ brings new challenges from the perspective of a pathogen to establish a suitable niche for survival while subverting the protective mechanisms of the host. Lungs, the organ for oxygen exchange, have been an easy target for pathogens due to its accessibility. The organ has evolved diverse capabilities to provide the flexibility required for an organism's health and at the same time maintain protective functionality to prevent and resolve assault by pathogens. The pathogenic invasions are strongly challenged by healthy lung architecture which includes the presence and activity of the epithelium, mucous, antimicrobial proteins, surfactants, and immune cells. Competitively, the pathogens in the form of viruses, bacteria, and fungi have evolved an arsenal of strategies that can over-ride the host's protective mechanisms. While bacteria such as () can survive in dormant form for years before getting active in humans, novel pathogens can wreak havoc as they pose a high risk of morbidity and mortality in a very short duration of time. Recently, a coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic which provides us an opportunity to look at the host manipulative strategies used by respiratory pathogens. Their ability to hide, modify, evade, and exploit cell's processes are key to their survival. While pathogens like have been infecting humans for thousands of years, SARS-CoV-2 has been the cause of the recent pandemic. Molecular understanding of the strategies used by these pathogens could greatly serve in design of predictive, preventive, personalized medicine (PPPM). In this article, we have emphasized on the clinically relevant evasive strategies of the pathogens in the lungs with emphasis on and SARS-CoV-2. The molecular basis of these evasive strategies illuminated through advances in genomics, cell, and structural biology can assist in the mapping of vulnerable molecular networks which can be exploited translationally. These evolutionary approaches can further assist in generating screening and therapeutic options for susceptible populations and could be a promising approach for the prediction, prevention of disease, and the development of personalized medicines. Further, tailoring the clinical data of COVID-19 patients with their physiological responses in light of known host-respiratory pathogen interactions can provide opportunities to improve patient profiling and stratification according to identified therapeutic targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13167-020-00230-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661834PMC
November 2020

Comparative assessment of the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in adolescent patients undergoing treatment by first bicuspid extraction and en mass retraction, associated with low-frequency mechanical vibrations in passive self-ligating and conventional brackets: A randomized controlled trial.

Int Orthod 2020 Dec 6;18(4):696-705. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Institute of Dental Sciences and Technologies, Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, NH-58, Kadarabad, ModiNagar, Ghaziabad UP, India.

Background: Low-frequency vibrations are one of the many non-surgical modalities aimed at increasing the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.

Objective: The present trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of low-frequency vibrations in increasing the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed mechanotherapy with passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets.

Materials And Methods: Setting and sample population: department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics in a nationally accredited dental college. Participants, study design and methods: 65 patients were randomly allocated to three groups. Two experimental groups consisted of passive self-ligating and conventionally ligated appliances received low-frequency vibrations. The control group did not receive any vibrations. Allocation ratio was 1:1:1.32. Eligibility criteria: adolescent patients with sound and healthy dentition, incisor irregularity<5mm.

Primary Outcome: rate of orthodontic tooth movement in mm/month. Randomization and blinding: computer-generated random allocation sequencing was done and data assessor was blinded.

Statistics: the Q-Q plot and Shapiro-Wilks test judged the normality of the data. The parametric test included ANCOVA and post-hoc analysis.

Results: No statistically significant enhancement of tooth movement was seen in the experimental groups, when comparison was done with the control group P>0.05. Comparison between the two experimental groups did not reveal any significant difference either.

Conclusion: No statistically significant increase of orthodontic tooth movement was seen with low-frequency vibrations and the mode of ligation did not have any effect in increasing the rate of tooth movement either.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ortho.2020.08.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Biomarker-enhanced VTE risk stratification in ambulatory patients with cancer.

Thromb Res 2020 12 8;196:437-443. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Risk assessment models are used to stratify cancer patients according to their underlying risk of VTE. The CATS score has been shown to enhance VTE risk stratification as compared to the modified Khorana score by incorporating d-dimer and soluble p-selectin measurements. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of the CATS score with respect to VTE risk stratification.

Materials And Methods: Analysis of a subset of the AVERT trial population for whom biomarker data was available. All patients included in the AVERT trial were at increased risk of VTE based on a modified Khorana score of ≥2. Patients were stratified according to the modified Khorana score and CATS score. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the 6-month cumulative probabilities of VTE.

Results: A total of 466 patients were included in the analysis, 229 and 237 patients in the placebo and apixaban arms, respectively. The 6-month cumulative probability of VTE among patients with a modified Khorana score ≥ 3 was 13% [95% CI 7 to 23], whereas it was 20% [95% CI 11 to 35] for patients with a CATS score ≥ 4. The absolute risk reduction achieved with apixaban VTE prophylaxis among patients with modified Khorana ≥2, modified Khorana ≥3 and CATS ≥4 was -5.9% [-10.9 to -0.8], -5.8% [-16.0 to 4.5] and -10.1% [-22.9 to 2.6], respectively. Apixaban VTE prophylaxis among patients with increasing modified Khorana or CATS scores was not associated with an increased risk of bleeding events.

Conclusions: The use of a CATS score of ≥4 to identify ambulatory cancer patients at very high risk of VTE could enhance the benefit/risk ratio achieved with apixaban VTE prophylaxis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.09.035DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of efficacy of QR678 and QR678 Neo hair growth factor formulation in the treatment of persistent chemotherapy-induced alopecia caused due to cytotoxic chemotherapy-A prospective pilot study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Dec 19;19(12):3270-3279. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Clinical Research Coordinator, The Esthetic Clinics, Terna Dental College, Mumbai, India.

Background: Cancers are one of the main reasons of morbidity and mortality globally. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most alarming, terrifying, and traumatic adverse effects. A range of therapeutic measures has been suggested to alleviate CIA, but at present, there is no accepted pharmacological therapy that can assure prevention or management.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of QR 678 Neo® therapy in the treatment of persistent chemotherapy-induced alopecia in women and men treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for breast and lung cancers, respectively.

Methods: A total of 8 male patients with history of lung cancer and 12 female patients with history of breast cancer in the age range of 25-60 years, with WHO classification of grade I and II persistent alopecia who had undergone chemotherapy treatment, were selected for the study. At each visit, 1.5 mL solution of QR 678 was injected into the scalp skin of patients. A total of 8 sessions were performed at an interval of 3 weeks each. All the patients were evaluated with standard global photography, video microscopic assessment, and patient self-assessment questionnaire at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year.

Results: Marked improvement was seen in the global assessment score at 6 months (mean-8) which was maintained even after 1 year. Mean score increase in hair count at 6 months was 12.71 which further increased at 1 year. High satisfaction score was given by patients for slowing of hair loss (mean = 4.2) and also for overall hair growth. For appearance and growth of hair, the mean value was 3.4 and 3.8, respectively.

Conclusion: The formulation of QR 678 and QR 678 Neo showed to be significantly safe and efficient for chemotherapy-induced alopecia in both men and women. Improvement in hair growth was maintained even at 1 year of follow-up. No patient had any severe adverse effects, and injections were also easily bearable by most of them.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13759DOI Listing
December 2020

Revisiting Traumatic Brain Injury: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Interventions.

Biomedicines 2020 Sep 29;8(10). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

Studying the complex molecular mechanisms involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is crucial for developing new therapies for TBI. Current treatments for TBI are primarily focused on patient stabilization and symptom mitigation. However, the field lacks defined therapies to prevent cell death, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cascades which lead to chronic pathology. Little can be done to treat the mechanical damage that occurs during the primary insult of a TBI; however, secondary injury mechanisms, such as inflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, edema formation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and cell death, can be targeted by therapeutic interventions. Elucidating the many mechanisms underlying secondary injury and studying targets of neuroprotective therapeutic agents is critical for developing new treatments. Therefore, we present a review on the molecular events following TBI from inflammation to programmed cell death and discuss current research and the latest therapeutic strategies to help understand TBI-mediated secondary injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8100389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601301PMC
September 2020

Neurological consequences of COVID-19: what have we learned and where do we go from here?

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Sep 30;17(1):286. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, 1120 15th Street, 30912, Augusta, Georgia.

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious pathogen that is genetically similar to SARS-CoV. Similar to other recent coronavirus outbreaks, including SARS and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 infected patients typically present with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and lower respiratory system dysfunction, including high rates of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, a rapidly accumulating set of clinical studies revealed atypical symptoms of COVID-19 that involve neurological signs, including headaches, anosmia, nausea, dysgeusia, damage to respiratory centers, and cerebral infarction. These unexpected findings may provide important clues regarding the pathological sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, no efficacious therapies or vaccines are currently available, complicating the clinical management of COVID-19 patients and emphasizing the public health need for controlled, hypothesis-driven experimental studies to provide a framework for therapeutic development. In this mini-review, we summarize the current body of literature regarding the central nervous system (CNS) effects of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss several potential targets for therapeutic development to reduce neurological consequences in COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01957-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525232PMC
September 2020

QR678 & QR678 Neo Hair Growth Formulations: A Cellular Toxicity & Animal Efficacy Study.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2020 Aug 25;8(8):e2843. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

The Department of Research and Biostatistics, The Esthetic Clinics, Mumbai, India.

Current treatment modalities are limited in their approach and success for hair loss. QR 678 & QR 678 Neo are new formulations, consisting of a combination of growth factors and peptides. This study demonstrates safety analysis of QR 678 & QR 678 Neo formulation, using in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo animal efficacy.

Methods: Factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, keratinocyte growth factor, and copper tripeptide 1 (QR 678) or their biomimetic peptides (QR678 Neo) were suspended in a sterile injectable vehicle. The 3-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to explore the cytotoxic effects of each factor used in the compositions in human keratinocyte cell and human fibroblast cell assays. An in vivo analysis, wherein study animals were given intradermal QR 678 & QR 678 Neo injections, was conducted to assess whether the formulations produce hair growth. Also, hair follicle viability was checked by intradermal injection of the pharmaceutical compositions in secondary alopecia.

Results: In both formulations, a positive response was observed with respect to the number of mice exhibiting hair growth at the injection sites. The injections caused retention of hair in a 0.25-cm radius around the injection site. On cytotoxicity study, all the factors were found to be safe in human keratinocyte cell and human fibroblast cell assay. A positive response was demonstrated in animals on treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent.

Conclusions: Intradermal injections of QR 678 & QR 678 Neo hair growth factor formulations are a safe and efficacious option for alopecia. Results seem encouraging enough to warrant a trial in humans with secondary alopecia, post cancer chemotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489598PMC
August 2020

D-Dimer Enhances Risk-Targeted Thromboprophylaxis in Ambulatory Patients with Cancer.

Oncologist 2020 12 12;25(12):1075-1083. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Thromboprophylaxis for ambulatory patients with cancer is effective, although uncertainties remain on who should be targeted. Using D-dimer values from individuals enrolled to the AVERT trial, we sought to identify and validate a more efficient venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk threshold for thromboprophylaxis.

Materials And Methods: The AVERT trial compared thromboprophylaxis with apixaban with placebo among patients with cancer with a Khorana Risk Score ≥2. The D-dimer measured at randomization was used to calculate an individualized 6-month VTE risk using the validated CATScore. A modified intention-to-treat analysis was used to assess efficacy (VTE) and safety (major and overall bleeding) in the (a) complete cohort and (b) ≥8% and < 8% 6-month VTE risk thresholds.

Results: Five hundred seventy-four patients were randomized in the AVERT trial; 466 (81%) with baseline D-dimer were included in the study. Two hundred thirty-seven subjects received apixaban; 229 received placebo. In the complete cohort, there were 13 (5.5%) VTE events in the apixaban arm compared with 26 (11.4%) events in the placebo arm (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.49 [0.25-0.95], p < .05). Number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one VTE = 17. Eighty-two (35%) and 72 (31%) patients in the apixaban and placebo arms, respectively, had a 6-month VTE risk ≥8%. In this subgroup, 7 (8.4%) VTE events occurred with apixaban and 19 (26.3%) events with placebo (aHR 0.33 [0.14-0.81], p < .05), NNT = 6. Individuals with a VTE risk <8% derived no benefit from apixaban thromboprophylaxis (aHR 0.89 [0.30-2.65), p = .84). Increased rates of overall bleeding were observed with apixaban in both the complete (aHR 2.11 [1.09-4.09], p < .05) and ≥ 8% predicted risk cohorts (aHR 2.87 [0.91-9.13], p = .07).

Conclusion: A 6-month VTE risk threshold of ≥8% increases the efficiency of risk-targeted thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer.

Implications For Practice: Ambulatory patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). A Khorana Risk Score (KRS) ≥2 is currently the suggested threshold for thromboprophylaxis. Using baseline D-dimer values from individuals enrolled to the AVERT trial, this retrospective validation study identifies a 6-month VTE risk of ≥8% as a more efficient threshold for thromboprophylaxis. At this threshold, the number needed to treat to prevent one VTE is 6, compared with 17 when using a KRS ≥2. Conversely, individuals with a predicted risk of <8% derive no clinical benefit from thromboprophylaxis. Future prospective studies should validate this threshold for outpatient thromboprophylaxis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938400PMC
December 2020

Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNA.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2020 2;5(3):197-201. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia, USA.

In the absence of effective antivirals and vaccination, the pandemic of COVID-19 remains the most significant challenge to our health care system in decades. There is an urgent need for definitive therapeutic intervention. Clinical reports indicate that the cytokine storm associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality in severe cases of some respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19. In recent years, cannabinoids have been investigated extensively due to their potential effects on the human body. Among all cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of pathological conditions. Therefore, it is logical to explore whether CBD can reduce the cytokine storm and treat ARDS. In this study, we show that intranasal application of Poly(I:C), a synthetic analogue of viral double-stranded RNA, simulated symptoms of severe viral infections inducing signs of ARDS and cytokine storm. The administration of CBD downregulated the level of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorated the clinical symptoms of Poly I:C-induced ARDS. Our results suggest a potential protective role for CBD during ARDS that may extend CBD as part of the treatment of COVID-19 by reducing the cytokine storm, protecting pulmonary tissues, and re-establishing inflammatory homeostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/can.2020.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480719PMC
September 2020

Broken symmetries and the related interface-induced effects at Weyl-system TaAs in proximity of noble metals.

Sci Rep 2020 Sep 2;10(1):14438. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085, India.

Weyl semimetal TaAs, congenially accommodating the massless Weyl fermions, furnishes a platform to observe a spontaneous breaking of either the time-reversal or the inversion symmetry and the concurrent genesis of pairs of Weyl nodes with significant topological durability. Former experimental analysis, which reveals that the near-zero spin-polarization of bulk TaAs, experiences a boost in proximity of point-contacts of non-magnetic metals along with the associated tip-induced superconductivity, provides the impetus to study the large-area stacked interfaces of TaAs with noble metals like Au and Ag. The primary outcomes of the present work can be listed as follows: (1) First-principles calculations on the interfacial systems have manifested an increment of the interface-induced spin-polarization and contact-induced transport spin-polarization of TaAs in proximity of noble metals; (2) In contrast to the single interface, for vertically stacked cases, the broken inversion symmetry of the system introduces a z-directional band-dispersion, resulting in an energetically separated series of non-degenerate band crossings. The simultaneous presence of such band-crossings and spin-polarization indicated the coexistence of both broken time reversal and inversion symmetries for metal-semimetal stacked interfaces; (3) quantum transport calculations on different device geometries reveal the importance of contact geometry for spin-transport in TaAs devices. Lateral contacts are found to be more effective in obtaining a uniform spin transport and larger transport spin polarization; (4) the phonon dispersion behaviour of TaAs displays a closure of band-gap with the associated increase of phonon-density of states for the acoustic modes in proximity of lateral contacts of noble metals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71494-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468271PMC
September 2020
-->