Publications by authors named "Krzysztof Kaczka"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Abdominal Wall Actinomycosis Associated with Foreign Body Perforation.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2021 Aug;116(eCollection):1-5

Abdominal wall actinomycosis is a very rare infection caused by anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria Actinomyces. We present a case of a 72-year-old female with chronic pain located in the right hypochondriac region and anterior abdominal wall mass which had developed six months before. An ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen were performed and showed an inflammatory change with a strong internal linear reflection in the right upper abdomen. The tumor was located inside the rectus abdominis muscle and connected with internal organs and subcutaneous tissue. The patient qualified for surgery. En block tumor excision was made with partial resection of the transverse colon. Postoperative study revealed fishbone-associated inflammatory actinomycosis tumor. The patient was successfully managed postoperatively with penicillin and discharged on the 11th day after the surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21614/chirurgia.116.eC.1760DOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis of Let-7 Family miRNA in Plasma as Potential Predictive Biomarkers of Diagnosis for Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Feb 28;10(3). Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647 Lodz, Poland.

The most common histological type of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Radical resection of the thyroid gland is currently the recommended method of treatment. Almost 75% of thyroidectomies performed just for diagnostic purposes are benign. Thus, the confirmation of innovative and more precise noninvasive biomarkers holds promise for the detection of PTC, which may decrease the number of unnecessary thyroid lobectomies. In this work, using the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method, we have analyzed the level of five miRNAs (let-7a, let-7c, let-7d, let-7f, and let-7i) in the plasma of patients with PTC and compared them with those of a healthy control group to investigate whether miRNAs also have value in the management of PTC. Levels of four miRNAs, namely let-7a, let-7c, let-7d, and let-7f, were significantly higher in PTC patients than healthy controls. Thus, the analysis of circulating let-7 can be a useful tool and support the currently used methods for PTC diagnosis. However, our observation requires further research on a larger patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10030130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151036PMC
February 2020

Altered levels of circulating nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Sci Rep 2019 10 8;9(1):14438. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid cancer type. However, diagnostics based on fine needle biopsy cannot make a definitive diagnosis in 25% of thyroid nodules. Additionally, approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed just for diagnostic purposes are benign. Despite this, biopsy still remains the main method of evaluation of thyroid nodules. Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) measurement could give a new diagnostic opportunities which may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures. In this study, using a qPCR, we have examined the nuclear cf-DNA and mitochondrial cf-DNA in the plasma of 32 patients. We have found that the level of nuclear cf-DNA is almost 2-fold increased (median 3 089 vs. 1 872, p = 0.022), whereas mitochondrial cf-DNA content was significantly decreased in respect to healthy controls (median 44 992 vs. 92 220, p = 0.010). The ROC curve analysis showed high specificity for nuclear cf-DNA and mitochondrial cf-DNA, which may serve as a useful tool to decrease the number of unneeded surgeries. Our study reports the first epidemiological evidence for lower mitochondrial cf-DNA content in the patient group, what suggests that apart from nuclear cf-DNA also mitochondrial cf-DNA is affected by disease development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51000-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783406PMC
October 2019

"Primary bacterial culture of bile and pancreatic juice in tumor related jaundice (TROJ) - is ascending cholangitis always our fault?"

Scand J Gastroenterol 2018 Dec 8;53(12):1569-1574. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

c Microbiology Unit , Łódź Medical University 1st Clinical Hospital in Łódź , Łódź , Poland.

Introduction: TROJ (tumor-related obstructive jaundice) is one of the most common indications for endoscopic retrograde choleopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary stenting. Despite the effectiveness of this procedure, especially in palliative patients, it is not without flaws. Ascending bacterial cholangitis, a common stenting complication, occurs in about 0.5-1.7% of cases. The authors' intention was to investigate whether this complication occurs solely due to the procedure or whether it is a result of an underlying bacterial infection in the dilated, obstructed bile and pancreatic ducts.

Methods: Sixteen patients with painless obstructive jaundice related to a tumor located in or in the proximity of the bile duct were enrolled for this study. Prior to endoscopic palliative stenting we harvested bile and pancreatic fluid and the proceeded with the initial procedure.

Results: In 14 cases (87.5%) we managed to restore the patency of the bile duct endoscopically. Additionaly, we observed that in 13 cases (81.25%) bacteria were present in the bile and/or pancreatic fluid. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus mitis - present in 7 cases (43.75%). The most effective antibiotics for discovered S. mitis strains were cefuroxime and vancomycin.

Conclusion: Primal bacterial pathogenes may be present in obstructed bile and pancreatic ducts prior to endoscopic intervention. The connection between Streptocccus mitis and TROJ needs further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2018.1542454DOI Listing
December 2018

One-step nucleic acid amplification analysis of sentinel lymph nodes in papillary thyroid cancer patients.

Arch Med Sci 2017 Oct 25;13(6):1416-1426. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: It is essential to look for methods to define the need for central lymphadenectomy for papillary thyroid cancer patients. The aim is to determine the efficacy of one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in the intraoperative detection of nodal involvement.

Material And Methods: This prospective, experimental study enrolled 49 patients with clinically negative lymph nodes. Intraoperatively, 1% Patent Blue dye was injected intratumorally. Lymph nodes that stained blue were defined as SLNs. They were directly cut into blocks at 2-mm intervals. Nonadjacent blocks were subjected to either the OSNA assay or histological examination.

Results: Sixty-five SLNs were found in 43 (87.8%) patients. There were 20 (30.8%) histopathologically positive SLNs. According to the OSNA, 22 (33.8%) SLNs were positive. The OSNA results were different from histopathology in 8 (12.3%) SLNs. The OSNA gave a positive result in 5 (7.7%) SLNs, while they were not involved according to the histopathology. However, OSNA upstaged N status from N0 to N1 only in 2 (3.1%) patients. Inverse results (histopathology +, OSNA-) were obtained in 3 (4.6%) SLNs. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) for OSNA were 0.77 and 0.93, respectively. The concordance rate between examinations was 85.5%.

Conclusions: In some patients with clinically negative lymph nodes, OSNA and SLN biopsy may prevent unnecessary central lymphadenectomy. On the other hand, the sentinel lymph node biopsy may reveal the presence of potentially involved sentinel lymph nodes outside the central compartment. These SLNs can also be assessed by means of OSNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.65466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701692PMC
October 2017

The efficiency of elastography in the diagnostics of follicular lesions and nodules with an unequivocal FNA result.

Endokrynol Pol 2017 12;68(6):610-622. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Morphometry of Endocrine Glands, Chair of Endocrinology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: The aim was to assess the usefulness of strain elastography (SEG) in the diagnostics of two groups of thyroid nodules (TNs): follicular lesions (FL) with low malignancy risk (< 20.0%) and low percentage of papillary carcinomas (PTCs) among cancers as well as TNs with unequivocal cytology (UC) and high percentage of PTCs among cancers.

Material And Methods: 168 TNs were analysed and eventually surgically treated: 100 UC (50 benign and 50 malignant - 90.0% PTCs) and 68 FL (60 benign, 8 malignant - 50.0% PTCs). Elasticity score (ES) and strain ratio (SR) were evaluated, and their effectiveness was compared with the evaluation of the number of ultrasound malignancy risk features (NoUMRFs).

Results: In the UC group the evaluation of mean values of SR and ES in both sections (meanSR, meanES) was more efficient than NoUMRFs analysis (AUC: 0.903 and 0.869 vs. 0.754, p < 0.05). The following thresholds: meanSR ≥ 2.01, meanES ≥ 2.5, NoUMRFs ≥ 2, were related to the increased malignancy risk in nodules (OR: 45.0; 23.2; 5.4, respectively), but only meanSR ≥ 2.01 was an independent risk factor (OR: 20.3; SEN: 86.0%, SPC: 88.0%). In the FL group, only the evaluation of tSR (SR assessed in transverse section) had the value of AUC > 0.7, and only the set of features: tSR ≥ 1.7 and NoUMRFs ≥ 1 increased the malignancy risk in nodules (OR: 12.0; SEN: 75.0%, SPC: 75.0%).

Conclusions: SEG is more reliable than conventional US in the diagnostics of TNs. The efficacy of SEG decreases with lowering percentage of PTCs among cancers. But in FL nodules SEG may support the selection of nodules for surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2017.0050DOI Listing
July 2018

Cholelithiasis - always infected?

Pol Przegl Chir 2017 Jun;89(3):23-26

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

This study aims to present results regarding the presence and identification of bacterial strains found in bile and gallstones located in the gallbladder and bile ducts in patients operated on due to cholelithiasis.

Materials And Methods: Bacterial culture was evaluated in 92 patients. There were 54 women (59%) and 38 men (41%) who underwent surgery on account of cholelithiasis and /or gallstones in bile ducts between 2013 and 2014. Bile and gallstone samples were cultured intraoperatively for bacteria; bacterial strains were identified, and their sensitivity to antibiotics was determined. Molecular methods (NGS and Sanger method) were used to separate bacterial strains in one of the gallbladder stones and the results were compared with bacterial strains grown from the bile.

Results: Bile cultures were positive in 46 patients that is, 50% of the study group. The following bacteria strains were grown: Enterococcus spp. (44%), Escherichia coli (37%) and Klebsiella spp. (35%). Candidiasis accompanied by bacterial infection was detected in 7 patients (15%). Molecular testing of gallstones revealed DNA of Enterococcus spp., Escherichia spp., Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium spp. In the bile culture of the same patient Enterococcus spp. (avium and faecalis) was detected. Conclusion 1. More than one pathogen was grown on samples obtained from 31 patients (70%) with bile infection. 2. The most common pathogens include Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. 3. Bacterial infections are often accompanied by a fungal infection (Candida albicans) 4. Bacterial strains grown from a gallstone sample partially corresponded with strains identified in the bile of the same patient.
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June 2017

Early Predictors of Post - Thyroidectomy Hypoparathyroidism.

Pol Przegl Chir 2016 Dec;88(6):305-314

Thyroid surgery is the most commonly performed procedure in the field of endocrine surgery. Studies are still ongoing on the development of a single algorithm for diagnosis and care of patients at risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the biochemical marker that would allow the most accurate diagnosis of patient groups at risk of developing hypoparathyroidism and to identify risk factors for this disorder.

Material And Methods: The prospective study included 142 consecutive patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for benign goiter from January 1st 2014 to December 31st 2015. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), total calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and magnesium (Mg) levels have been measured preoperatively and at 1, 6, 24, and 48 h postoperatively.

Results: Clinical symptoms of hypoparathyroidism developed in 25 (17.6%) of 142 patients. The best diagnostic accuracy for hypoparathyroidism based on ROC curves was obtained for iPTH at 6h (AUC 0.942; 95% CI: 0.866-1.000, p<0.001) and its percentage change from baseline ΔiPTH at 6h (AUC 0.930; 95% CI: 0.858-1.000, p<0.001). In an multivariate analysis, the preoperative Ca level higher by 0.1 mmol/l, and iPTH level higher by 0.1 pmol/l were associated with a lower risk of hypoparathyroidism, by 68% (p=0.012) and 61% (p=0.007), respectively. A 1% decline in iPTH from baseline increased the risk of hypoparathyroidism by 15% (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The most reliable markers indicating a high risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism are the decline in ΔiPTH at 6h by > 65% or iPTH level at 6h <1.57 pmol /l. A postoperative decline in iPTH levels is an independent risk factor for the development of hypoparathyroidism. Preoperative higher concentrations of Ca and iPTH are protective factors for the development of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pjs-2016-0069DOI Listing
December 2016

Analysis of clinical significance of equivocal thyroid cytology with a special consideration for FLUS category - five years of new classification of FNA results.

Endokrynol Pol 2016 ;67(1):23-34

Department of Morphometry of Endocrine Glands, Chair of Endocrinology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: The diagnostic category of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) was intended to allow selection of cases with low risk of malignancy from all smears with indeterminate, suspicious cytology (ISC), which can potentially take advantage from repeat fine-needle aspiration (rFNA). Aim of the study was a comparison of the risk of malignancy related to FLUS nodules and other nodules with ISC: suspected follicular neoplasm (SFN) and suspected malignancy (SM), as well as analysis of the usefulness of assessing ultrasonographic malignancy risk features (UMRF) in nodules with ISC.

Material And Methods: We analysed UMRF, rFNA, and results of histopathological examination (H) in 441 FLUS, 135 SFN, and 72 SM nodules.

Results: The frequency of exposing cancer in H in FLUS nodules was 5.9%, and when cytological follow up was also included it was 2.9%. rFNAs made the diagnosis more precise in 72.7% of FLUS, and in 5.2% it was diagnosis/suspicion of cancer. The incidence of cancer in SFN nodules was 8.2%, in SM nodules with suspicion of papillary cancer - 61.1%, and in nodules with suspicion of other or unspecified malignancy - 53.8% (p < 0.0001 FLUS vs. both groups). The presence of calcifications is the only independent UMRF for nodules with ISC (OR 4.7). Features of importance are also microcalcifications (OR 3.8), especially in the SM group, and taller-than-wide-shape (OR 2.2). FLUS and SFN nodules are characterised by particularly low value of assessing suspicious margins; analysis of hypoechogenicity is of low value in SFN nodules, like suspected vascularisation in SFN and SM nodules.

Conclusions: The risk of cancer in FLUS and SFN nodules is lower than in SM nodules. rFNAs of FLUS nodules make the diagnosis more precise in more than 70% of cases and are effective in revealing cancers. UMRFs present variable diagnostic value depending on the subcategory of ISC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.2016.0004DOI Listing
February 2017

One-step nucleic acid amplification testing in medullary thyroid cancer lymph nodes: a case series.

Arch Med Sci 2015 Mar 14;11(1):137-41. Epub 2015 Mar 14.

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, University Hospital and Education Centre of Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: Locoregional relapse in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) may be caused by nodal micrometastases. Medullary thyroid cancer lymph nodes have not yet been evaluated by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect MTC cells by OSNA in cervical lymph nodes and compare the obtained outcomes with conventional histopathology.

Material And Methods: Twenty-one randomized, unenlarged lymph nodes from 5 patients with MTC were examined by histopathology and OSNA. Lymph nodes were divided into four representative blocks by a sterile, single use, special cutting device in the same way as in the clinical protocol study performed by Tsujimoto et al. Two blocks were used for histopathology and immunohistochemistry, 2 for OSNA.

Results: Positive results of histopathology and OSNA were revealed in 4 patients. The outcomes of OSNA and histopathology were corresponding in 3 patients. Positive histopathology results of 2 lymph nodes from 2 patients were confirmed by OSNA. In 1 patient there were only negative results of both examinations. One-step nucleic acid amplification failed to detect metastasis in 1 lymph node in 2 patients although it did not change the TNM status in these patients. There were no false positive results in the OSNA test.

Conclusions: One-step nucleic acid amplification may be an alternative method to histopathology in detecting nodal involvement in MTC. Further studies should evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of OSNA and the impact on staging in MTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2015.49206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4379370PMC
March 2015

First one-step nucleic acid amplification testing in papillary thyroid cancer lymph nodes - a comparison with histopathology and real-time PCR.

Endokrynol Pol 2014 ;65(6):422-30

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: The significance of lymph node metastases and the optimal extent of lymphadenectomy remain matters of controversy in papillary thyroid cancer. This study was designed to assess the feasibility and reliability of OSNA and real-time PCR for CK19 and TG mRNA in papillary thyroid cancer lymph nodes evaluation compared to standard histopathology.

Material And Methods: Each of 92 randomised lymph nodes from 32 papillary thyroid cancer patients were divided into representative parts and assessed using the three studied methods.

Results: Eighteen (19.6%) lymph nodes from ten (31.3%) patients were positive according to histopathology. When the cut-off value distinguishing metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in the OSNA assay was set at 250 copies per microlitre, the results were positive in 16 (17.4%) lymph nodes from 11 (34.4%) patients. Twenty three (25%) lymph nodes were tested positive in real-time PCR for TG mRNA. Real-time PCR for CK19 mRNA was positive in 18 (19.6%) lymph nodes from 13 (40.6%) patients. No statistically significant differences were noted between the diagnostic accuracy of either molecular method compared to the histopathological examination (p = 0.81). Overall, 20 positive molecular biology results were noted in patients with negative histopathology results. Conversely, in 18 lymph nodes, despite a metastasis finding in histopathology, at least one molecular test yielded a negative result.

Conclusions: It was revealed that OSNA is a reliable technique for the evaluation of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer. This method was shown to have equivalent accuracy to histopathology and real-time PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.2014.0059DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluating the prognostic value of selected prognostic scales in patients operated on due to peritonitis.

Pol Przegl Chir 2014 Dec 18;86(9):422-8. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Unlabelled: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of prognostic scales: ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist), MPI (Meinheim Peritonitis Index), MOFS (the Multiple Organ Failure Score) and SPI (the Simple Prognostic Index) in the prognosis of the course of disease in patients operated on for peritonitis.

Material And Methods: The study was conducted in the Clinical Department of General and Oncological Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź between January 2009 to December 2010. During this period 263 patients were operated on for peritonitis. Before surgery all patients were classified into particular groups according to the above mentioned prognostic scales according to their criteria.

Results: There were 29 (11%) deaths. ASA ≥4 (p<0.0001), MPI >30 (p<0.0001) MOFS ≥2 (p<0.0001), SPI II, III, IV (p<0.0001) were important risk factors of death.

Conclusions: 1. ASA, MPI, MOFS and SPI scales are of high significance in predicting the outcome in patients operated on for peritonitis. 2. The ASA scale in spite and due to its simplicity is adequate enough to be used in everyday practice in patients operated on for peritonitis. 3. The MPI scale is most suitable in the scientific aims and in comparing the outcomes of patients operated on for peritonitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/pjs-2014-0075DOI Listing
December 2014

Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections.

Pol Przegl Chir 2013 Sep;85(9):483-90

Unlabelled: Nosocomial infections caused by strains Acinetobacter baumannii strands are a growing clinical problem. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strands is observed and that limits the ways of therapy considerably. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of infection and susceptibility spectrum of the species Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients treated at Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Hospital in Zgierz with particular emphasis on surgical wards.

Materials And Methods: The material consisted of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were obtained from samples of materials from patients treated at Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Hospital in Zgierz from January to December 2011. Isolated bacterial strains were cultured at microbiological substrates. Isolates were identified to species using the VITEK 2 GN card (bioMérieux) and Vitek 2 automated system (bioMérieux). Susceptibility towards antibiotics of particular strains was determined by the means of AST NO 93 card. In the case of resistance towards carbapenem, the MIC was marked by E-test with Mueller Hinton substrate. The occurrence of MBL was verified by the means of disc system with Mueller Hinton substrate.

Results: We have shown that total number of Acinetobacter baumannii infections at hospital was 140 (10,31% of total results of cultures). Percentage of Acinetobacter baumannii infections at wards: Intensive Care Unit 48%, Surgical Departments 20%, Internal Diseases Department 16%, Neurology 13%, other wards - 3%. The susceptibility percentage of Acinetobacter Baumannii against antibiotics: colistin 90%, imipenem 64%, meropenem 43%, ampicillin-sulbactam 28%, amikacin 27%, gentamicin 24%, cefepime 9%, ceftazidime 7%, ciprofloxacin 7%

Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii infections are a significant proportion of nosocomial infections. Most relate to surgical wards and ICUs. Acinetobacter baumannii is resistant against most antibiotics. The highest percentage of sensitivity demonstrated for colistin and carbapenems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/pjs-2013-0075DOI Listing
September 2013

Sentinel lymph node in thyroid tumors - own experience.

Contemp Oncol (Pozn) 2013 29;17(2):184-9. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Łódź, Poland Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Hospital, Zgierz, Poland.

Aim Of The Study: To determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the evaluation of the cervical lymph node status in patients with thyroid tumors.

Material And Methods: Twenty-three patients with suspected thyroid cancer were enrolled in the study. 0.5-1.0 ml of 1% Patent Blue dye was injected intratumorally. After SLNB, thyroidectomy and proper lymphadenectomy were performed.

Results: Sentinel lymph node was detected in 20 (86.9%) patients. Thirty-one SLNs were found - 21 (67.7%) were located in the central neck compartment, 4 (12.9%) in the lateral neck compartment, 6 (19.4%) in the upper mediastinum. The number of SLNs ranged from 1 to 3 (mean 1.6). Sentinel lymph node was positive in 5 (25%) patients, negative in 15 (75%) in the final histopathology. Sentinel lymph nodes were located only in the central neck compartment in 13 patients, and in both the central and lateral neck compartments in 2 patients. In one patient, SLNs were located only in the central neck compartment and upper mediastinum. Three patients had SLNs only in the upper mediastinum, while one had them only in the lateral neck compartment. In one patient a node regarded as SLN was negative, while there were metastases in removed non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLNs). In two patients, histopathology of SLNs showed that they were actually parathyroid glands.

Conclusions: Our results confirm that thyroid cancer SLNB is rather easy to carry out. Its performance along with intraoperative examination can help to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomy. However, it should be kept in mind that parathyroid glands can be stained and removed by mistake during SLNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wo.2013.34623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3685375PMC
June 2013

Calcitonin and procalcitonin in patients with medullary thyroid cancer or bacterial infection.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2012 Mar-Apr;21(2):169-78

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Łódź, Poland.

Objectives: To evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) utility as a marker of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).

Material And Methods: Calcitonin (CT) and PCT levels were measured in MTC patients and patients with serious bacterial infections. 70 patients were enrolled in the study: 6 MTC active patients: 4 with disseminated, unreoperable disease and 2 re-operated patients, in whom markers were checked before and after surgery; 23 MTC patients in remission after radical surgery; 11 non-toxic nodular goiter (NTNG) patients; 30 patients with severe, bacterial infection or sepsis.

Results: All MTC active patients had greatly elevated CT and PCT levels. In two re-operated patients, marker levels decreased but were still above the reference range. In 15 MTC patients in remission, the levels of either marker were not increased. Both markers were slightly increased in 3 patients in this group, while CT was elevated in 5 patients. In all but 1 patient in the NTNG group, both marker levels were not elevated. Among patients with bacterial infection, PCT and CT levels showed no increase in 8 patients, both markers were elevated in 10 patients, and an increase of PCT levels was seen in 10 patients while of CT only in 2 patients. Correlations between CT and PCT values were very strong in MTC patients (r = 0.95; p = 0.004 for active MTC, r = 0.60; p = 0.002 for MTC patients in remission) and in patients with NTNG (r = 0.77; p = 0.02). In patients with infection, both parameters were completely independent (r = 0.002; p = 0.99).

Conclusions: PCT measurement could be an alternative to CT measurement for evaluation of MTC status.
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January 2013

Sentinel lymph node biopsy techniques in thyroid pathologies--a meta-analysis.

Endokrynol Pol 2012 ;63(3):222-31

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: To review different sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) techniques in patients with thyroid neoplasm. We also compared the detection rates of the different detection methods in these patients.

Material And Methods: The Medline database from 1998 until December 2010 was searched for the following terms: thyroid cancer, thyroid neoplasm, and sentinel lymph node. Studies in which sentinel lymph nodes were detected by the blue dye technique and/or by a radiotracer in patients with suspected thyroid cancer were analysed.

Results: Twenty five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Based on the technique used for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection, the included studies were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of studies in which only the blue dye technique was used to detect SLNs. Group 2 was made up of studies in which the radioisotope technique was used. Studies in which both techniques were used were grouped into Group 3. There were 18 studies in which the blue dye technique was used to detect SLNs (Group 1), four studies in which only the radioisotope technique was used to detect SLNs (Group 2), and only two studies where both techniques were used (Group 3). Among 891 patients from Group 1, SLN was found in 740 (83.1%) patients. Detection rates in these studies were very different and varied from 0% to 95.5%. Among 160 patients from Group 2, SLN was detected in 158 (98.8%). In the third group of patients, in which both methods were performed, SLN was found in 48 (98%) of 49 patients. Detection rates in those studies were very high (100% and 97.8%).

Conclusions: The analysis proved that SLNB is, technically, fairly easy to perform. However, nodal metastases are of debatable prognostic value in thyroid cancer, so the clinical value of SLNB remains to be proven. It seems reasonable to perform further, prospective studies on larger groups of patients, in which both techniques would be used. They should compare the efficiency of SLNB with elective or selective central lymphadenectomy in reducing local recurrence rates.
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November 2012

Can procalcitonin be useful for medullary thyroid cancer?

Endokrynol Pol 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):430-6

Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medicine University, Łódź, Poland.

Introduction: Calcitonin, the best known marker for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), has several laboratory limitations which limit its use in the routines of non-specialized laboratories. Procalcitonin, the precursor of calcitonin, is free from these drawbacks. The aim of this study was to compare calcitonin and procalcitonin levels in MTC patients with active disease or in remission, and in patients with non-toxic nodular goiter (NTNG).

Material And Methods: Forty-three serum samples, obtained from 40 patients (6 MTC active disease patients, 23 MTC patients in remission, and 11 NTNG patients), were tested for calcitonin and procalcitonin levels. The levels of both markers were measured in 2 MTC patients with active disease before and after surgery. One was re-operated due to neck relapse, the other one due to liver metastases.

Results: Both procalcitonin and calcitonin levels were considerably higher in all MTC patients with the active disease. In two re-operated patients, the levels of both markers decreased after surgery but remained above the reference range. In the remission group of MTC patients, 18 had both markers within the reference range, 2 had slightly elevated calcitonin, and 3 patients exhibited both markers slightly increased. In the NTNG group, all but one patient had normal procalcitonin and calcitonin levels. Analysis revealed a significant correlation between procalcitonin and calcitonin levels (r = 0.7383; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Procalcitonin has a similar distribution of values as calcitonin and may be used for evaluation of MTC status in some situations when accurate CT estimation is not achievable.
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August 2011

Normocalcemic, subclinical, asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with goiter or papillary thyroid cancer--preliminary report. Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism and thyroid pathology.

Wiad Lek 2007 ;60(5-6):228-30

Kliniki Chirurgii Endokrynologicznej i Ogólnej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lodzi.

Unlabelled: The aim of the prospective study was the evaluation of primary, subclinical, normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) incidence in patients, operated on because of non-toxic (NTG), toxic (TG) goiter and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).

Material And Methods: The study was performed in the group of 196 patients operated on NTG (115 patients), TG (43 patients) and PTC (38 patients). All patients had never been operated because of goiter. No patient had clinical symptoms of PHPT. Calcium concentration (Ca), phosphorus concentration (P) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) in blood serum were measured in all patients a day before operation. When those parameters were out of range, parathormone concentration (PTH) in blood serum was measured. In the case of elevated PTH concentration PHPT was diagnosed. Furthermore, in order to exclude renal failure and insufficiency tests for creatinine and urea concentrations in blood serum and urinalysis were performed.

Results: There was no case of increased Ca concentration among 158 patients with benign goiter. The values of at least one measured parameters (P or ALP) were abnormal in 47 out of 158 patients with benign goiter (29.7%). Increased PTH concentration (mean 101.5 pg/ml) was in 16 of 47 patients (10.1% of 158 patients). Normocalcemic PHPT was diagnosed in 12 (10.4%) NTG patients and 4 (9.3%) TG patients. In patients with PTC hypercalcemia was not affirmed. In 7 (18.42%) cases of 38 PTC patients P concentration and ALP activity were abnormal. Increased PTH concentration (84.85 pg/ml) was found in one female with PTC with normal values of P and ALP. Incidence of PHPT was observed in 2.63% of PTC patients.

Conclusions: 1. There was no significant difference of PHPT incidence between various type of goiter. 2. In our study coexistence of PTC and normocalcemic, asymptomatic PHPT is rare.
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December 2007

[Prospective study on incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with goiter].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2006 Nov;21(125):469-73

Department of Genaral Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Unlabelled: Primary hyperparathyroidismus (PHPT) may coexist with goitre. Measurement of calcium concentration in blood serum is recommended before goiter operation. However, because of subclinical PHPT with normocalcemia this screening is insufficient for diagnosis of all PHPT cases.

The Aim: of the study is prospective evaluation of PHPT incidence in patients operated because of goitre.

Material And Methods: The study was performed in group of 158 patients (145 women, 13 men) operated because of non-toxic goitre --115 patients--(SNN) and toxic--43 patients--(SNT). Calcium concentration (Ca), phosphorus concentration (P) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) have been measured in all patients a day before operation. When this parameters has been out of normal range, parathormone concentration (PTH) was measured. PHPT was diagnosed, when PTH has been higher then normal range. Following Ca, P, ALP and PTH measurement was performed 3 months after operation to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of PHPT RESULTS: Values of Ca, P and ALP was out of normal range in 47 (37 with SNN and 10 with SNT) of 158 patients (29,7%). Higher PTH concentration (average 101,5 pg/ml) was in 16 of 47 patients (10, 1% of 158 patients). There was no hypercalcemia in any patient with PHPT PHPT was diagnosed in 12 (10,4%) patients with SNN and 4 (9,3%) with SNT. 12 patients were applied to following screening 3 months after operation. Among this patients value of Ca, P and ALP out of normal range was ascertained in 8 patients (66,7%). In 4 patients was higher PTH concentration. Increased PTH concentration and CA, P ALP concentration in normal range was observed in 1 patient three months after operation. In 5 of 12 (41,7%) patients was confirmed remaining PHPT although operation (average PTH 87,1 pg/ml).

Conclusions: Primary hyperparathyroidismus coexist with similar incidence in patients with SNN and SNT Standard PHPT screening is proper because of PHPT incidence in up to 10% thyroid operated patients.
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November 2006

[Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in children in the multicenter analysis in Poland for PPGGL].

Endokrynol Pol 2006 ;57 Suppl A:75-81

Department of Pediatric Surgery Nicolaus Copernicus University, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum-Bydgoszcz, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 9, Bydgoszcz.

Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in children presents different biological behavior in comparison to adults. Authors presents preliminary results of multicenter analysis concerning incidence, diagnostics and treatment of DTC in children.

Material And Methods: The study is a retrospective analysis of 107 pediatric patients from 14 academic centers based on the data from 2000 to 2005 obtained by questionnaire in hospitals involved in the treatment of DTC in children.

Results: Papillary thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 83 children, follicular thyroid cancer in 10 children and medullary thyroid cancer in 14 children. Incidence of DTC in children was estimated between 18 and 23 cases per year. The biggest group of patients consisted of children between 11 and 15 years of age, with girls to boys ratio 3.3 : 1. Clinically DTC in children presented most often as solitary thyroid nodule. Cervical lymphadenopathy was observed in 42% of patients. Intraoperative verification indicated metastatic nodes in 50% of children. Low stage DTC predominated (T1 in 36% and T2 in 26% of children). One step surgery was performed in 65% of children with DTC, two step surgery in 25% of patients. I131 therapy was undertaken in 80% of children. Lung metastases were indicated in post therapeutic studies in 14% of children with DTC. Prophylactic thyroidectomies were performed in 79% of children in the group of patients with MTC and RET gene mutations.

Conclusions: The necessity of introduction of unified therapeutic standard in children with DTC in Poland is underlined.
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February 2012

[Lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer in immunohistochemical and molecular examination--preliminary report].

Endokrynol Pol 2005 Mar-Apr;56(2):160-7

Department of Endocrinological and General Surgery Medical University of Lódź, Poland.

Background: Total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy is the most typical operation in a case of papillary thyroid cancer. Range of lymph node resection still remains a matter of controversy. In some publications treatment of lymph node metastases doesn't affect survival, so only selective lymph node resection is the extended enough operation. The others remark that, local relapse- the worst prognostic factor, appears the most often in the lymph nodes, so they suggest more aggressive treatment. To solve that problem we try to find more sensitive methods to examine lymph nodes.

Aim: To compare the results of detection lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer by immunohistochemistry with the results of RT- PCR for thyroglobulin (Tg) mRNA.

Material And Methods: Each of one hundred eighty four cervical lymph nodes obtained from 24 patients, operated in our Department was divided into 2 halves: one was used for conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the other part was investigated by RT- PCR for Tg mRNA. Immunohistochemical staining for Tg was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections with anti-Tg antibodies.

Results: According to routine, histopathological examination 8 (33.5%) patients had involved lymph nodes. One hundred correspondence of the results of immunohistochemistry and histopathology was observed. We obtained different results of examination of the lymph nodes in 6 (25%) patients. In four patients (16.7%) RT-PCR was more sensitive in detection of positive lymph nodes, in two patients (8.3%) it revealed less metastasized lymph nodes than immunohistochemistry. The remaining 18 patients didn't have any differences, fourteen (58.3%) of them had the negative lymph nodes and four (16.7%) had positive, the same lymph nodes in all examinations. Finally, according to RT-PCR 10 (41.7%) of the patients had metastasized lymph nodes.

Conclusion: Tg RT-PCR is a sensitive method of detection of papillary thyroid cancer cells and may help to detect the metastases of papillary thyroid cancer in regional lymph nodes.
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February 2006

Detection of lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer-comparison of the results of histopathology, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-a preliminary report.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2005 Jun 8;390(3):209-15. Epub 2005 Jan 8.

Department of Endocrinological and General Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Pabianicka 62, 93-513, Lodz, Poland.

Background: The range of lymphadenectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer remains still a matter of controversy because of the lack of reliable diagnostic methods for nodal metastases, other than histopathology.

Aim: To compare the results of detection of lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry with the results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for thyroglobulin mRNA.

Patients And Methods: Each of 166 cervical lymph nodes obtained from 21 patients was divided into two halves: one was used for conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the other part was investigated by molecular examination.

Results: We obtained different results from examination of the lymph nodes in six (28.6%) patients. In four patients (19.1%) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was more sensitive in detection of positive lymph nodes; in two patients (9.5%) it revealed fewer metastasised lymph nodes than did histopathology. The rest of the patients did not have any differences: 12 (57.1%) of them had negative lymph nodes and three (14.3%) had positive lymph nodes in all examinations.

Conclusions: (1) Thyroglobulin (Tg) RT-PCR is an appropriate method of detection for thyroid cancer cells. (2) In combination with histopathology, it might help to qualify patients' nodal status better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-004-0528-1DOI Listing
June 2005
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