Publications by authors named "Kristy Moniz"

4 Publications

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Antibiotic resistance in mucosal bacteria from high Arctic migratory salmonids.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of the Sciences and Mathematics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA.

Two related salmonids, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) sampled from the high Arctic region of Nunavut, Canada are anadromous fish, migrating annually from the same ice-covered freshwater waterbodies to spend summers in the marine waters of the Arctic Ocean. Microbiota associated with the skin-associated mucus undergo community change coincident with migration, and irrespective of this turnover, antibiotic resistance was detected in mixed bacterial cultures initiated with mucus samples. Although as expected most bacteria were unculturable, however, 5/7 isolates showed susceptibility to a panel of five common antibiotics. The fish were sampled under severe conditions and at remote locations far from human habitation. Regardless, two isolates, 'Carnobacterium maltaromaticum sm-2' and 'Arthrobacter citreus sm', showed multi-resistance to two or more antibiotics including ampicillin and streptomycin indicating multiple resistance genes. It is unknown if these fish bacteria have 'natural' resistance phenotypes or if resistance has been acquired. As result of these observations, we urge long-term monitoring of drug-resistant bacteria in the region and caution the assumption of a lack of drug-resistant organisms even in such extreme environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12975DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Arctic Food Fish Species for Anthropogenic Contaminant Testing Using Geography and Genetics.

Foods 2020 Dec 8;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.

The identification of food fish bearing anthropogenic contaminants is one of many priorities for Indigenous peoples living in the Arctic. Mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of concern, and these are reported, in some cases for the first time, for fish sampled in and around King William Island, located in Nunavut, Canada. More than 500 salmonids, comprising Arctic char, lake trout, lake whitefish, and ciscoes, were assayed for contaminants. The studied species are anadromous, migrating to the ocean to feed in the summers and returning to freshwater before sea ice formation in the autumn. Assessments of muscle Hg levels in salmonids from fishing sites on King William Island showed generally higher levels than from mainland sites, with mean concentrations generally below guidelines, except for lake trout. In contrast, mainland fish showed higher means for As, including non-toxic arsenobetaine, than island fish. Lake trout were highest in As and PCB levels, with salmonid PCB congener analysis showing signatures consistent with the legacy of cold-war distant early warning stations. After DNA-profiling, only 4-32 Arctic char single nucleotide polymorphisms were needed for successful population assignment. These results support our objective to demonstrate that genomic tools could facilitate efficient and cost-effective cluster assignment for contaminant analysis during ocean residency. We further suggest that routine pollutant testing during the current period of dramatic climate change would be helpful to safeguard the wellbeing of Inuit who depend on these fish as a staple input to their diet. Moreover, this strategy should be applicable elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764770PMC
December 2020

Impact of food grade and nano-TiO particles on a human intestinal community.

Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Aug 28;106(Pt A):242-249. Epub 2017 May 28.

Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston ON K7L 3N6, Canada; Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:

Titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NPs) are used as an additive (E171 or INS171) in foods such as gum, candy and puddings. To address concerns about the potential hazardous effects of ingested NPs, the toxicity of these food-grade NPs was investigated with a defined model intestinal bacterial community. Each titania preparation (food-grade TiO formulations, E171-1 and E171-6a) was tested at concentrations equivalent to those found in the human intestine after sampling 1-2 pieces of gum or candy (100-250 ppm). At the low concentrations used, neither the TiO food additives nor control TiO NPs had an impact on gas production and only a minor effect on fatty acids profiles (C16:00, C18:00, 15:1 w5c, 18:1 w9c and 18:1 w9c, p < 0.05). DNA profiles and phylogenetic distributions confirmed limited effects on the bacterial community, with a modest decrease in the relative abundance of the dominant Bacteroides ovatus in favor of Clostridium cocleatum (-13% and +14% respectively, p < 0.05). Such minor shifts in the treated consortia suggest that food grade and nano-TiO particles do not have a major effect on human gut microbiota when tested in vitro at relevant low concentrations. However, the cumulative effects of chronic TiO NP ingestion remain to be tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.05.050DOI Listing
August 2017

Monitoring the developmental impact of copper and silver nanoparticle exposure in Drosophila and their microbiomes.

Sci Total Environ 2014 Jul 22;487:822-9. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:

There is concern that waste waters containing manufactured metal nanoparticles (NPs) originating from consumer goods, will find their way into streams and larger water bodies. Aquatic invertebrates could be vulnerable to such pollution, and here we have used fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, as a model invertebrate, to test for the effect of NPs on fitness. Both copper NP and microparticle (MP)-containing medium slowed development, reduced adult longevity and decreased sperm competition. In contrast, ingestion of silver resulted in a significant reduction in developmental success only if the metal particles were nanosized. Ag NP-treatments resulted in reduced developmental success as assessed by larval and pupal survival as well as larval climbing ability, but there was no impact of silver on adult longevity and little effect on reproductive success. However, Cu NPs generally appeared to be no more toxic to this invertebrate model than the bulk counterpart. The impact of silver ingestion in larvae was further investigated by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the midgut flora. There was a striking reduction in the diversity of the gut microbiota of Ag NP-treated larvae with a rise in the predominance of Lactobacillus brevis and a decrease in Acetobacter compared to control or Ag MP-treatment groups. Importantly, these experiments show that perturbation of the microbial assemblage within a metazoan model may contribute to Ag NP-mediated toxicity. These observations have implications for impact assessments of nanoparticles as emerging contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.129DOI Listing
July 2014