Publications by authors named "Kiyohiko Mabuchi"

93 Publications

Radiation Risks for the Incidence of Kidney, Bladder and Other Urinary Tract Cancers: 1958-2009.

Radiat Res 2021 Feb;195(2):140-148

Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

As part of the recent series of articles to create a comprehensive description of the radiation risks of solid cancer incidence after ionizing radiation exposure, based on the atomic bomb survivors' Life Span Study (LSS), this work focuses on the risks of urinary tract cancer (UTC) and kidney cancer. Analyses covered a 52-year period of follow-up, through 2009, among 105,444 eligible survivors who were alive and cancer free in 1958. This represents an additional 11 years of follow-up since the last comprehensive report, with a total of 3,079,502 person-years. We observed 790 UTC and 218 kidney cancer cases. Adjusted for smoking, there was a strong linear radiation dose response for UTC. The sex-averaged excess relative risk per 1 Gy (ERR/Gy) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.82 to 2.1). Both males and females showed significantly increased ERRs/Gy with female point estimates at a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.4 to 8.6) greater than male estimates. UTC radiation risks were largely unmodified by age at exposure or attained age. The attributable fraction of UTC to radiation exposure was approximately 18% while that attributed to smoking was 48%. Kidney cancer showed an increased ERR due to smoking (0.56 per 50 pack-years; 95% CI -0.007 to 1.6; P = 0.054), but we did not observe any strong associations of kidney cancer with radiation exposure, although sex-specific dose responses were found to be statistically different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RADE-20-00158.1DOI Listing
February 2021

Radiation Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

Radiat Res 2021 Jan;195(1):60-65

Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

There is limited evidence concerning the association between radiation exposure and ovarian cancer. We evaluated radiation risk of ovarian cancer between 1958 and 2009 among 62,534 female atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study cohort, adding 11 years of follow-up from the previously reported study. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for total ovarian cancer and according to tumor type. We assessed the modifying effect of follow-up period and other factors on the radiation risk. We ascertained 288 first primary ovarian cancers including 77 type 1 epithelial cancers, 75 type 2 epithelial cancers, 66 epithelial cancers of undetermined type and 70 other cancers. Radiation dose was positively, although not significantly, associated with risk of total ovarian cancer [ERR/Gy = 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.22 to 1.11]. There was a suggestion of heterogeneity in radiation effects (P = 0.08) for type 1 (ERR/Gy = -0.32, 95% CI: <-0.32 to 0.88) and type 2 cancers (ERR/Gy = 1.24, 95% CI: -0.08 to 4.16). There were no significant trends in the ERR with time since exposure or age at exposure. Further follow-up will help characterize more accurately the patterns of radiation risk for total ovarian cancer and its types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RADE-20-00170.1DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk of Prostate Cancer Incidence among Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

Radiat Res 2021 Jan;195(1):66-76

Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

Epidemiological evidence for a radiation effect on prostate cancer risk has been inconsistent and largely indicative of no or little effect. Here we studied prostate cancer incidence among males of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in a follow-up from 1958 to 2009, eleven years more than was previously reported. During this period there were 851 incident cases of prostate cancer among 41,544 male subjects, doubling the total number of cases in the cohort. More than 50% of the cases were diagnosed among those who were less than 20 years of age at the time of the bombings and who were at, or near, the ages of heightened prostate cancer risks during the last decade of follow-up. In analyses of the radiation dose response using Poisson regression methods, we used a baseline-rate model that allowed for calendar period effects corresponding to the emergence of prostate-specific antigen screening in the general population as well as effects of attained age and birth cohort. The model also allowed for markedly increased baseline rates among the Adult Health Study participants between 2005 and 2009, a period during which a prostate-specific antigen test was included in Adult Health Study biennial health examinations. We found a significant linear dose response with an estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.21, 1.00, P = 0.001). An estimated 40 of the observed cases were attributed to radiation exposure from the bombings. There was a suggestion of the ERR decreasing with increasing age at exposure (P = 0.09). We found no indication of effects of smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index on the baseline risk of prostate cancer. The observed dose response strengthens the evidence of a radiation effect on the risk of prostate cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15481.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849930PMC
January 2021

Response to the Letter to the Editor by Drs. Walsh and Schneider.

Radiat Res 2020 07;194(1):101

Associate Chief of Research, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RARE-20-000JCDOI Listing
July 2020

Field Study of the Possible Effect of Parental Irradiation on the Germline of Children Born to Cleanup Workers and Evacuees of the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 12;189(12):1451-1460

Although transgenerational effects of exposure to ionizing radiation have long been a concern, human research to date has been confined to studies of disease phenotypes in groups exposed to high doses and high dose rates, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Transgenerational effects of parental irradiation can be addressed using powerful new genomic technologies. In collaboration with the Ukrainian National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, the US National Cancer Institute, in 2014-2018, initiated a genomic alterations study among children born in selected regions of Ukraine to cleanup workers and/or evacuees exposed to low-dose-rate radiation after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear accident. To investigate whether parental radiation exposure is associated with germline mutations and genomic alterations in the offspring, we are collecting biospecimens from father-mother-offspring constellations to study de novo mutations, minisatellite mutations, copy-number changes, structural variants, genomic insertions and deletions, methylation profiles, and telomere length. Genomic alterations are being examined in relation to parental gonadal dose, reconstructed using questionnaire and measurement data. Subjects are being recruited in exposure categories that will allow examination of parental origin, duration, and timing of exposure in relation to conception. Here we describe the study methodology and recruitment results and provide descriptive information on the first 150 families (mother-father-child(ren)) enrolled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822640PMC
December 2020

Utility of gene expression studies in relation to radiation exposure and clinical outcomes: thyroid cancer in the Ukrainian-American cohort and late health effects in a MAYAK worker cohort.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 20;97(1):12-18. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.

Purpose: We herein report on changes in gene expression after radiation exposure to iodine-131 from the Chernobyl accident in the Ukrainian-American thyroid cohort and to external gamma ray or internal plutonium exposure in the Mayak Production Association radiation workers.

Materials And Methods: Taking advantage of access to tissue samples from the thyroid cancer cases in the Ukrainian-American cohort, our group tried to identify candidate genes to discriminate spontaneously occurring thyroid cancers from thyroid cancers caused by radiation exposure. We also examined gene expression changes in normal and cancerous thyroid tissue in relation to iodine-131 dose separately. Gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of radiation exposed Mayak workers were examined to elucidate the dose-to-gene and gene-to-health (e.g. cardiovascular disease) relationships.

Conclusions: Results of both projects are discussed under the aspect of dose-response relationships (dose-to-gene) and clinical outcome relationships (gene-to-effect) in light of how mechanistic data can be translated into actionable knowledge for radiation protection or clinical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2020.1748739DOI Listing
April 2020

Misclassification of primary liver cancer in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors.

Int J Cancer 2020 Sep 15;147(5):1294-1299. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Hirosoft International Corporation, Eureka, California.

Primary liver cancer is difficult to diagnose accurately at death, due to metastases from nearby organs and to concomitant diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Trends in diagnostic accuracy could affect radiation risk estimates for incident liver cancer by altering background rates or by impacting risk modification by sex and age. We quantified the potential impact of death-certificate inaccuracies on radiation risk estimates for liver cancer in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors. True-positive and false-negative rates were obtained from a previous study that compared death-certificate causes of death with those based on pathological review, from 1958 to 1987. We assumed various scenarios for misclassification rates after 1987. We obtained estimated true positives and estimated false negatives by stratified sampling from binomial distributions with probabilities given by the true-positive and false-negative rates, respectively. Poisson regression methods were applied to highly stratified person-year tables of corrected case counts and accrued person years. During the study period (1958-2009), there were 1,885 cases of liver cancer, which included 383 death-certificate-only (DCO) cases; 1,283 cases with chronic liver disease as the underlying cause of death; and 150 DCO cases of pancreatic cancer among 105,444 study participants. Across the range of scenarios considered, radiation risk estimates based on corrected case counts were attenuated, on average, by 13-30%. Our results indicated that radiation risk estimates for liver cancer were potentially sensitive to death-certificate inaccuracies. Additional data are needed to inform misclassification rates in recent years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32887DOI Listing
September 2020

Radiation risk of central nervous system tumors in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors, 1958-2009.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Jun 25;35(6):591-600. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Epidemiology, 5-2 Hijiyama Park, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 732-0815, Japan.

Radiation exposure is among the few factors known to be associated with risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. However, the patterns of radiation risk by histological type, sex or age are unclear. We evaluated radiation risks of first primary glioma, meningioma, schwannoma, and other or not otherwise specified (other/NOS) tumors in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors. Cases diagnosed between 1958 and 2009 were ascertained through population-based cancer registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. To estimate excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy), we fit rate models using Poisson regression methods. There were 285 CNS tumors (67 gliomas, 107 meningiomas, 49 schwannomas, and 64 other/NOS tumors) among 105,444 individuals with radiation dose estimates to the brain contributing 3.1 million person-years of observation. Based on a simple linear model without effect modification, ERR/Gy was 1.67 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12 to 5.26) for glioma, 1.82 (95% CI: 0.51 to 4.30) for meningioma, 1.45 (95% CI: - 0.01 to 4.97) for schwannoma, and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.61 to 2.57) for all CNS tumors as a group. For each tumor type, the dose-response was consistent with linearity and appeared to be stronger among males than among females, particularly for meningioma (P = 0.045). There was also evidence that the ERR/Gy for schwannoma decreased with attained age (P = 0.002). More than 60 years after the bombings, radiation risks for CNS tumors continue to be elevated. Further follow-up is necessary to characterize the lifetime risks of specific CNS tumors following radiation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-019-00599-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329623PMC
June 2020

Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Persons Exposed in Utero and During Early Life to Chernobyl Fallout.

Health Phys 2020 02;118(2):170-184

Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel, Belarus.

Thyroid radiation doses were estimated for a cohort of 2,965 Belarusian persons who were exposed in utero and during early life to fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Prenatal and postnatal doses to the thyroid due to intake of I, external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground, and ingestion of cesium isotopes (Cs and Cs) were calculated for all cohort members. Dose estimation was based on personal interviews with subjects' mothers; the interviews collected data on subjects' residential history, consumption by mothers during time of pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as consumption by subjects after birth. Direct instrumental measurements of radioactivity in mothers and the study subjects, if available, were also used for calculation of doses. Intake of I by mothers was found to be the predominant pathway for thyroid exposure for the study subjects. The average thyroid dose due to all exposure pathways was estimated to be 137 mGy (median dose of 25 mGy, maximal dose of 14.8 Gy), including 130 mGy (median dose of 17 mGy, maximal dose of 14.8 Gy) from I intake, 4.9 mGy (median dose of 3.0 mGy, maximal dose of 102 mGy) due to external irradiation, and 2.5 mGy (median dose of 1.7 mGy, maximal dose of 47 mGy) due to ingestion of Cs. The dose estimates will be used to evaluate the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in this unique cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6931907PMC
February 2020

Belarusian in utero cohort: A new opportunity to evaluate the health effects of prenatal and early-life exposure to ionising radiation.

J Radiol Prot 2020 Mar 26;40(1):280-295. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel, Belarus.

In April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in wide-scale contamination of Belarus with significantly elevated levels of radioiodine isotopes, mainly iodine-131 (I), and long-lived radiocaesium isotopes, mainly caesium-137 (Cs). Various groups of the population were affected by exposure to ionising radiation, including pregnant women and their foetuses. This paper describes the methods and results related to the establishment of a cohort of 2965 Belarusian people exposed in utero due to Chernobyl fallout. The cohort consists of individuals whose mothers resided in the most radioactively contaminated areas in Belarus at the time of the accident. Prenatal and postnatal doses to the thyroid due to intake of I, external irradiation and ingestion of radiocaesium isotopes were estimated for all cohort members. Ongoing research on this unique cohort will provide important information on adverse health effects following prenatal and postnatal exposure to radioiodine and radiocaesium isotopes, for which available epidemiological data are scant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab5c08DOI Listing
March 2020

Estimation of Radiation Doses for a Case-control Study of Thyroid Cancer Among Ukrainian Chernobyl Cleanup Workers.

Health Phys 2020 01;118(1):18-35

Burnasyan Federal Medical and Biophysical Centre, Moscow, Russia.

Thyroid doses were estimated for 607 subjects of a case-control study of thyroid cancer nested in the cohort of 150,813 male Ukrainian cleanup workers who were exposed to radiation as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Individual thyroid doses due to external irradiation, inhalation of I and short-lived radioiodine and radiotellurium isotopes (I, I, I, Te, and Te) during the cleanup mission, and intake of I during residence in contaminated settlements were calculated for all study subjects, along with associated uncertainty distributions. The average thyroid dose due to all exposure pathways combined was estimated to be 199 mGy (median: 47 mGy; range: 0.15 mGy to 9.0 Gy), with averages of 140 mGy (median: 20 mGy; range: 0.015 mGy to 3.6 Gy) from external irradiation during the cleanup mission, 44 mGy (median: 12 mGy; range: ~0 mGy to 1.7 Gy) due to I inhalation, 42 mGy (median: 7.3 mGy; range: 0.001 mGy to 3.4 Gy) due to I intake during residence, and 11 mGy (median: 1.6 mGy; range: ~0 mGy to 0.38 Gy) due to inhalation of short-lived radionuclides. Internal exposure of the thyroid gland to I contributed more than 50% of the total thyroid dose in 45% of the study subjects. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic doses were characterized by a mean geometric standard deviation of 2.0, 1.8, 2.0, and 2.6 for external irradiation, inhalation of I, inhalation of short-lived radionuclides, and residential exposure, respectively. The models used for dose calculations were validated against instrument measurements done shortly after the accident. Results of the validation showed that thyroid doses could be estimated retrospectively for Chernobyl cleanup workers two to three decades after the accident with a reasonable degree of reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880802PMC
January 2020

Radiation-Related Risk of Cancers of the Upper Digestive Tract among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors.

Radiat Res 2019 09 29;192(3):331-344. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Departments of Epidemiology.

As a follow-up to the comprehensive work on solid cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors between 1958 and 1998, we report here on updated radiation risk estimates for upper digestive tract cancers. In this study, we added 11 years of follow-up (1958-2009), used improved radiation dose estimates, considered effects of smoking and alcohol consumption and performed dose-response analyses by anatomical sub-site. In examining 52 years'worth of data, we ascertained the occurrence of 394 oral cavity/pharyngeal cancers, 486 esophageal cancers and 5,661 stomach cancers among 105,444 subjects. The radiation risk for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer, other than salivary gland, was elevated but not significantly so. In contrast, salivary gland cancer exhibited a strong linear dose response with excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.54 per Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 to 6.1]. Radiation risk decreased considerably with increasing age at time of exposure (-66% per decade, 95% CI: -88% to -32%). The dose response for esophageal cancer was statistically significant under a simple linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic model. Both linear-quadratic and quadratic models described the data better than a simple linear model and, of the two, the quadratic model showed a marginally better fit based on the Akaike Information Criteria. Sex difference in linear ERRs was not statistically significant; however, when the dose-response shape was allowed to vary by sex, statistically significant curvature was found among males, with no evidence of quadratic departure from linearity among females. The risk for stomach cancer increased significantly with dose and there was little evidence for quadratic departure from linearity among either males or females. The sex-averaged ERR at age 70 was 0.33 per Gy (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.47). The ERR decreased significantly (-1.93 power of attained age, 95% CI: -2.94 to -0.82) with increasing attained age, but not with age at exposure, and was higher in females than males ( = 0.02). Our results are largely consistent with the results of prior LSS analyses. Salivary gland, esophageal and stomach cancers continue to show significant increases in risk with radiation dose. Adjustment for lifestyle factors had almost no impact on the radiation effect estimates. Further follow-up of the LSS cohort is important to clarify the nature of radiation effects for upper digestive tract cancers, especially for oral cavity/pharyngeal and esophageal cancers, for which detailed investigation for dose-response shape could not be conducted due to the small number of cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15386.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Effect of Heterogeneity in Background Incidence on Inference about the Solid-Cancer Radiation Dose Response in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

Radiat Res 2019 08 29;192(4):388-398. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Departments of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.

A recent analysis of solid cancer incidence in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan) found evidence of a nonlinear, upwardly curving radiation dose response among males but not among females. Further analysis of this new and unexpected finding was necessary. We used two approaches to investigate this finding. In one approach, we excluded individual cancer sites or groups of sites from all solid cancers. In the other approach, we used joint analysis to allow for heterogeneity in background-rate parameters across groups of cancers with dissimilar trends in background rates. Exclusion of a few sites led to the disappearance of curvature among males in the remaining collection of solid cancers; some of these influential sites have unique features in their background age-specific incidence that are not captured by a background-rate model fit to all solid cancers combined. Exclusion of a few sites also led to an appearance of curvature among females. Misspecification of background rates can cause bias in inference about the shape of the dose response, so heterogeneity of background rates might explain at least part of the all solid cancer dose-response difference in curvature between males and females. We conclude that analysis based on all solid cancers as a single outcome is not the optimal method to assess radiation risk for solid cancer in the Life Span Study; joint analysis with suitable choices of cancer groups might be preferable by allowing for background-rate heterogeneity across sites while providing greater power to assess radiation risk than analyses of individual sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15127.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827345PMC
August 2019

Radiation and Risk of Liver, Biliary Tract, and Pancreatic Cancers among Atomic Bomb Survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: 1958-2009.

Radiat Res 2019 09 10;192(3):299-310. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Departments of Epidemiology.

The Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors has consistently demonstrated significant excess radiation-related risks of liver cancer since the first cancer incidence report. Here, we present updated information on radiation risks of liver, biliary tract and pancreatic cancers based on 11 additional years of follow-up since the last report, from 1958 to 2009. The current analyses used improved individual radiation doses and accounted for the effects of alcohol consumption, smoking and body mass index. The study participants included 105,444 LSS participants with known individual radiation dose and no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. Cases were the first primary incident cancers of the liver (including intrahepatic bile duct), biliary tract (gallbladder and other and unspecified parts of biliary tract) or pancreas identified through linkage with population-based cancer registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs) associated with DS02R1 doses for liver (liver and biliary tract cancers) or pancreas (pancreatic cancer). We identified 2,016 incident liver cancer cases during the follow-up period. Radiation dose was significantly associated with liver cancer risk (ERR per Gy: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.89; EAR per 10,000 person-year Gy: 5.32, 95% CI: 2.49 to 8.51). There was no evidence for curvature in the radiation dose response (=0.344). ERRs by age-at-exposure categories were significantly increased among those who were exposed at 0-9, 10-19 and 20-29 years, but not significantly increased after age 30 years, although there was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity in these ERRs ( = 0.378). The radiation ERRs were not affected by adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption or body mass index. As in previously reported studies, radiation dose was not associated with risk of biliary tract cancer (ERR per Gy: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.25 to 0.30). Radiation dose was associated with a nonsignificant increase in pancreatic cancer risk (ERR per Gy: 0.38, 95% CI: <0 to 0.83). The increased risk was statistically significant among women (ERR per Gy: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.45), but not among men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15341.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Radiation Risks of Uterine Cancer in Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2018 Oct 8;2(4):pky081. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Background: Ionizing radiation is known to be capable of causing cancer of many organs, but its relationship with uterine cancer has not been well characterized.

Methods: We studied incidence of uterine cancer during 1958-2009 among 62 534 female atomic bomb survivors. Using Poisson regression analysis, we fitted excess relative risk (ERR) models to uterine cancer rates adjusted for several lifestyle and reproductive factors. Person-years at risk were also adjusted for the probability of prior hysterectomy, because it could affect the subsequent risk of uterine cancer. We assessed the modifying effect of age and other factors on the radiation risk. For analysis of the modifying effect of age at radiation exposure around menarche, we compared the radiation risk for several exposure-age categories as well as using parametric models.

Results: There were 224 uterine corpus cancers and 982 cervical cancers. We found a significant association between radiation dose and risk of corpus cancer (ERR per Gray [ERR/Gy] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03 to 1.87) but not for cervical cancer (ERR/Gy = 0.00, 95% CI = -0.22 to 0.31). For corpus cancer, we found statistically significant heterogeneity in ERR/Gy by age (  = .001) with elevated risk for women exposed to radiation between ages 11 and 15 years (ERR/Gy = 4.10, 95% CI = 1.47 to 8.42) and no indication of a radiation effect for exposures before or after this exposure-age range.

Conclusions: The current data suggest that uterine corpus is especially sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of radiation exposure occurring during the mid-pubertal period preceding menarche. There is little evidence for a radiation effect on cervical cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pky081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586771PMC
October 2018

Radiation risk of incident colorectal cancer by anatomical site among atomic bomb survivors: 1958-2009.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 3;146(3):635-645. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.

Radiation effects on colorectal cancer rates, adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake and frequency of meat consumption and body mass index (BMI) by anatomical subsite (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) were examined in a cohort of 105,444 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to describe radiation-associated excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute rates (EAR) for the 1958-2009 period. There were 2,960 first primary colorectal cancers including 894 proximal, 871 distal and 1,046 rectal cancers. Smoking, alcohol intake and BMI were associated with subsite-specific cancer background rates. Significant linear dose-responses were found for total colon (sex-averaged ERR/Gy for 70 years old exposed at age 30 = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34; 0.98), proximal [ERR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.32; 1.44] and distal colon cancers [ERR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.97], but not for rectal cancer [ERR = 0.023, 95% CI: -0.081; 0.13]. The ERRs for proximal and distal colon cancers were not significantly different (p = 0.41). The ERR decreased with attained age for total colon, but not for proximal colon cancer, and with calendar year for distal colon cancer. The ERRs and EARs did not vary by age at exposure, except for decreasing trend in EAR for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of proximal and distal colon cancers. The ERR for proximal cancer persists over time, but that for distal colon cancer decreases. There continues to be no indication of radiation effects on rectal cancer incidence in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916284PMC
February 2020

Reply to letter: Thyroid neoplasia after Chernobyl: A comment.

Int J Cancer 2019 06 27;144(11):2898. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32213DOI Listing
June 2019

Thyroid Cancer and Benign Nodules After Exposure In Utero to Fallout From Chernobyl.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 01;104(1):41-48

Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev, Ukraine.

Background: Children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) in fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident appear to be at increased risk of thyroid cancer and benign thyroid nodules. The prenatal period is also considered radiosensitive, and the fetal thyroid can absorb I-131 from the maternal circulation.

Objectives: We aimed to estimate the risk of malignant and benign thyroid nodules in individuals exposed prenatally.

Methods: We studied a cohort of 2582 subjects in Ukraine with estimates of I-131 prenatal thyroid dose (mean = 72.6 mGy), who underwent two standardized thyroid screening examinations. To evaluate the dose-response relationship, we estimated the excess OR (EOR) using logistic regression.

Results: Based on a combined total of eight cases diagnosed at screenings from 2003 to 2006 and 2012 to 2015, we found a markedly elevated, albeit not statistically significant, dose-related risk of thyroid cancer (EOR/Gy = 3.91, 95% CI: -1.49, 65.66). At cycle 2 (n = 1,786), there was a strong and significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and screen-detected large benign nodules (≥10 mm) (EOR/Gy = 4.19, 95% CI: 0.68, 11.62; P = 0.009), but no significant increase in risk for small nodules (<10 mm) (EOR/Gy = 0.34, 95% CI: -0.67, 2.24; P = 0.604).

Conclusions: The dose effect by nodule size, with I-131 risk for large but not small nodules, is similar to that among exposed children and adolescents in Belarus. Based on a small number of cases, there is also a suggestive effect of I-131 dose on thyroid cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456983PMC
January 2019

Increased risk of skin cancer in Japanese heterozygotes of xeroderma pigmentosum group A.

J Hum Genet 2018 Nov 8;63(11):1181-1184. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.

This study was designed to learn if asymptomatic heterozygotes with mutations in a DNA repair gene are at an increased risk for cancer. To examine this, we focused on carriers of an XPA founder mutation because the frequency of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients is much greater among Japanese than Caucasians, more than half of Japanese XP patients are affected at the XPA gene, and the majority of XP-A patients carry the same founder mutation in the XPA gene. Here we show that the frequency of XPA heterozygote was 14/1698 (0.8%) in cancer-free controls, and the corresponding frequency in patients with nonmelanocytic skin cancer that developed in sun-exposed areas was 11/440 (2.5%, OR = 3.08, p = 0.0097) for basal cell carcinoma, and 3/272 (1.1%, OR = 1.34, p = 0.72) for squamous cell carcinoma. These results suggest a moderately elevated risk for skin cancer among XPA heterozygotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-018-0495-yDOI Listing
November 2018

Incidence of Breast Cancer in the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

Radiat Res 2018 10 25;190(4):433-444. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

c   Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland.

The importance of reproductive history in breast tissue development and etiology of sporadic breast cancer in females is well established. However, there is limited evidence of factors, other than age, that modify risk of radiation-related breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated breast cancer incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors, adding 11 years of follow-up and incorporating reproductive history data. We used Poisson regression models to describe radiation risks and modifying effects of age and reproductive factors. Among 62,534 females, we identified 1,470 breast cancers between 1958 and 2009. Of 397 new cases diagnosed since 1998, 75% were exposed before age 20. We found a strong linear dose response with excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.12 per Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73 to 1.59] for females at age 70 after exposure at age 30. The ERR decreased with increasing attained age ( P = 0.007) while excess absolute rate (EAR) increased with attained age up to age 70 ( P < 0.001). Age at menarche was a strong modifier of the radiation effect: for a given dose, both the ERR and EAR decreased with increasing age at menarche ( P = 0.007 and P < 0.001). Also, independently, age-at-exposure effects on ERR and EAR differed before and after menarche ( P = 0.043 and P = 0.015, respectively, relative to log-linear trends), with highest risks for exposures around menarche. Despite the small number of male breast cancers (n = 10), the data continue to suggest a dose response (ERR per Gy = 5.7; 95% CI: 0.3 to 30.8; P = 0.018). Persistently increased risk of female breast cancer after radiation exposure and its modification pattern suggests heightened breast sensitivity during puberty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15015.1DOI Listing
October 2018

Comparative Histopathologic Analysis of "Radiogenic" and "Sporadic" Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Patients Born Before and After the Chernobyl Accident.

Thyroid 2018 07;28(7):880-890

2 Department of Radiation Molecular Epidemiology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University , Nagasaki, Japan .

Background: The issue of whether radiation-induced thyroid cancer is pathologically different from sporadic remains not fully answered. This study compared structural characteristics and invasive features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in two age-matched groups: patients who were children (≤4 years old) at the time of the Chernobyl accident and who lived in three regions of Ukraine most contaminated by radioactive iodine I ("radiogenic" cancer), and those who lived in the same regions but who were born after 1987 and were not exposed to I ("sporadic" cancer). Further, the histopathologic features of PTC were analyzed in relation to age and individual I thyroid dose.

Methods: The study included 301 radiogenic and 194 sporadic PTCs. According to age at surgery, patients were subdivided into children (≤14 years old), adolescents (15-18 years old), and adults (19-28 years old). Statistical analyses included univariate tests and multivariable logistic regression within and across the age subgroups. Analyses of morphological features related to I doses were conducted among exposed patients on categorical and continuous scales controlling for sex and age.

Results: Among children, radiogenic PTC displayed a significantly higher frequency of tumors with a dominant solid growth pattern, intrathyroidal spread, extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic/vascular invasion, and distant metastases. Exposed adolescents more frequently displayed extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic/vascular invasion, and distant metastases. Exposed adults more frequently had intrathyroidal spread and extrathyroidal extension. The frequency of PTC with dominant papillary pattern and oxyphilic cell metaplasia was significantly lower in radiogenic compared to sporadic tumors for all age groups. Manifestations of tumor aggressiveness were most frequent in children compared to adolescents and adults regardless of etiology.

Conclusions: Radiogenic PTC is less likely to demonstrate a dominant papillary growth pattern and more likely to display more aggressive tumor behavior than sporadic PTC. Histopathologic tumor aggressiveness declines with patient age in both radiogenic and sporadic cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112184PMC
July 2018

Population Density in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Before the Bombings in 1945: Its Measurement and Impact on Radiation Risk Estimates in the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors.

Am J Epidemiol 2018 08;187(8):1623-1629

Hirosoft International Corporation, Eureka, California.

In the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors, differences in urbanicity between high-dose and low-dose survivors could confound the association between radiation dose and adverse outcomes. We obtained data on the population distribution in Hiroshima and Nagasaki before the 1945 bombings and quantified the impact of adjustment for population density on radiation risk estimates for mortality (1950-2003) and incident solid cancer (1958-2009). Population density ranged from 4,671 to 14,378 people/km2 in the urban region of Hiroshima and 5,748 to 19,149 people/km2 in the urban region of Nagasaki. Radiation risk estimates for solid cancer mortality were attenuated by 5.1% after adjustment for population density, but those for all-cause mortality and incident solid cancer were unchanged. There was no overall association between population density and adverse outcomes, but there was evidence that the association between density and mortality differed according to age at exposure. Among survivors who were 10-14 years of age in 1945, there was a positive association between population density and risk of all-cause mortality (per 5,000-people/km2 increase, relative risk = 1.053, 95% confidence interval: 1.027, 1.079) and solid cancer mortality (per 5,000-people/km2 increase, relative risk = 1.069, 95% confidence interval: 1.025, 1.115). Our results suggest that radiation risk estimates from the Life Span Study are not sensitive to unmeasured confounding by urban-rural differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070048PMC
August 2018

Investigation of the Relationship Between Radiation Dose and Gene Mutations and Fusions in Post-Chernobyl Thyroid Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 04;110(4):371-378

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer. However, the genetic mechanisms of radiation-associated carcinogenesis remain not fully understood.

Methods: In this study, we used targeted next-generation sequencing and RNA-Seq to study 65 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) from patients in the Ukrainian-American cohort with measurement-based iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid doses received as a result of the Chernobyl accident. We fitted linear regression models to evaluate differences in distribution of risk factors for PTC according to type of genetic alteration and logistic regression models to evaluate the I-131 dose response. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Driver mutations were identified in 96.9% of these thyroid cancers, including point mutations in 26.2% and gene fusions in 70.8% of cases. Novel driver fusions such as POR-BRAF, as well as STRN-ALK fusions that have not been implicated in radiation-associated cancer before, were found. The mean I-131 dose in cases with point mutations was 0.2 Gy (range = 0.013-1.05 Gy), statistically significantly lower than 1.4 Gy (range = 0.009-6.15 Gy) for cases with fusions (P < .001). No driver point mutations were found in tumors from individuals who received more than 1.1 Gy of radiation. Relative to tumors with point mutations, the proportion of tumors with gene fusions increased with radiation dose, reaching 87.8% among individuals exposed to 0.3 Gy or higher. With a limited study sample size, the estimated odds ratio at 1 Gy was 20.01 (95% confidence interval = 2.57 to 653.02, P < .001). In addition, after controlling for I-131 dose, we found higher odds ratios for gene fusion-positive PTCs associated with several specific demographic and geographic features.

Conclusions: Our data provide support for a link between I-131 thyroid dose and generation of carcinogenic gene fusions, the predominant mechanism of thyroid cancer associated with radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059206PMC
April 2018

Neonatal outcomes following exposure in utero to fallout from Chernobyl.

Eur J Epidemiol 2017 12 30;32(12):1075-1088. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev, Ukraine.

Iodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members' prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. We found similar, statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in both head circumference (-1.0 cm/Gy, P = 0.005) and chest circumference (-0.9 cm/Gy, P = 0.023), as well as a similar but non-significant reduction in neonatal length (-0.6 cm/Gy, P = 0.169). Gestational length was significantly increased with increasing fetal dose (0.5 wks/Gy, P = 0.007). There was no significant (P > 0.1) effect of fetal dose on birth weight. The observed associations of radioiodine exposure with decreased head and chest circumference are consistent with those observed in the Japanese in utero-exposed atomic bomb survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-017-0299-yDOI Listing
December 2017

Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

Int J Cancer 2017 10 10;141(8):1585-1588. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were <18 years at the time of the accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30857DOI Listing
October 2017

Factors associated with serum thyroglobulin in a Ukrainian cohort exposed to iodine-131 from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant.

Environ Res 2017 07 12;156:801-809. Epub 2017 May 12.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Background: Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is associated with the presence of thyroid disease and has been proposed as a biomarker of iodine status. Few studies have examined factors related to serum Tg in populations environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation and living in regions with endemic mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

Methods: We screened 10,430 individuals who were living in Ukraine and under 18 years of age at the time of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident for thyroid disease from 2001 to 2003. We estimated the percent change (PC) in serum Tg associated with demographic factors, iodine-131 thyroid dose, and indicators of thyroid structure and function using linear regression. We also examined these relationships for individuals with and without indications of thyroid abnormality.

Results: Mean and median serum Tg levels were higher among participants with abnormal thyroid structure/function. Percent change in serum Tg increased among females, smokers and with older age (p-values<0.001), and Tg increased with increasing thyroid volume, and serum thyrotropin (p-values for trend<0.001). We found no evidence of significant associations between iodine-131 thyroid dose and Tg. Serum Tg levels were inversely associated with iodized salt intake (PC=-7.90, 95% confidence interval: -12.08, -3.52), and over the range of urinary iodine concentration, the odds of having elevated serum Tg showed a U-shaped curve with elevated Tg at low and high urinary iodine concentrations.

Conclusion: Serum Tg may be a useful indicator of population iodine status and a non-specific biomarker of structural and functional thyroid abnormalities in epidemiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.014DOI Listing
July 2017

Risk of Thyroid Nodules in Residents of Belarus Exposed to Chernobyl Fallout as Children and Adolescents.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 07;102(7):2207-2217

Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9778.

Context: Although radiation exposure is an important predictor of thyroid cancer on diagnosis of a thyroid nodule, the relationship between childhood radiation exposure and thyroid nodules has not been comprehensively evaluated.

Objective: To examine the association between internal I-131 thyroid dose and thyroid nodules in young adults exposed during childhood.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this cross-sectional study, we screened residents of Belarus aged ≤18 years at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for thyroid disease (median age, 21 years) with thyroid palpation, ultrasonography, blood/urine analysis, and medical follow-up when appropriate. Eligible participants (N = 11,421) had intact thyroid glands and doses based on direct individual thyroid activity measurements.

Main Outcome Measures: Excess odds ratios per Gray (EOR/Gy, scaled at age 5 years at exposure) for any thyroid nodule and for nodules grouped by cytology/histology, diameter size, and singularity.

Results: Risk of any thyroid nodule increased significantly with I-131 dose and, for a given dose, with younger age at exposure. The EOR/Gy (95% confidence intervals) for neoplastic nodules (3.82; 0.87 to 15.52) was significantly higher than for nonneoplastic nodules (0.32; <0.03 to 0.70) and did not vary by size; whereas the EOR/Gy for nonneoplastic nodules did vary by size (P = 0.02) and was 1.55 (0.36 to 5.46) for nodules ≥10 mm and 0.02 (<-0.02 to 0.70) for nodules <10 mm. EORs/Gy for single and multiple nodules were comparable.

Conclusions: Childhood exposure to internal I-131 is associated with increased risk of neoplastic thyroid nodules of any size and nonneoplastic nodules ≥10 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-3842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505199PMC
July 2017

Lung, Laryngeal and Other Respiratory Cancer Incidence among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: An Updated Analysis from 1958 through 2009.

Radiat Res 2017 05 21;187(5):538-548. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

b   Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases. Ten additional years of follow-up, improved radiation dose estimates, revised smoking data, and updated migration information were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking using Poisson regression methods. For nonsmokers, the sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) was estimated as 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.18) with a female-to-male ratio of 2.83. There was no evidence of curvature in the radiation dose-response relationship overall or by sex. Lung cancer risks increased with pack-years of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Similar to the previously reported study, which followed cohort members through 1999, the ERR/Gy for lung cancer was significantly higher for low-to-moderate smokers than for heavy smokers, with little evidence of any radiation-associated excess risk in heavy smokers. Of 2,446 lung cancer cases, 113 (5%) could be attributed to radiation exposure. Of the 1,165 lung cancer cases occurring among smokers, 886 (76%) could be attributed to smoking. While there was little evidence of a radiation effect for laryngeal cancer, a nonsignificantly elevated risk of other respiratory cancers was observed. However, significant smoking effects were observed for both laryngeal (ERR per 50 pack-years = 23.57; 95% CI: 8.44, 71.05) and other respiratory cancers (ERR per 50 pack-years = 1.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 3.25).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14583.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505071PMC
May 2017

Solid Cancer Incidence among the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

Radiat Res 2017 05 20;187(5):513-537. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Department of a   Epidemiology, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. A total of 80,205 subjects had individual dose estimates and 25,239 were not in either city at the time of the bombings. The follow-up period was 1958-2009, providing 3,079,484 person-years of follow-up. Cases were identified by linkage with population-based Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cancer Registries. Poisson regression methods were used to elucidate the nature of the radiation-associated risks per Gy of weighted absorbed colon dose using both excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models adjusted for smoking. Risk estimates were reported for a person exposed at age 30 years with attained age of 70 years. In this study, 22,538 incident first primary solid cancer cases were identified, of which 992 were associated with radiation exposure. There were 5,918 cases (26%) that occurred in the 11 years (1999-2009) since the previously reported study. For females, the dose response was consistent with linearity with an estimated ERR of 0.64 per Gy (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.77). For males, significant upward curvature over the full dose range as well as restricted dose ranges was observed and therefore, a linear-quadratic model was used, which resulted in an ERR of 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28) at 1 Gy and an ERR of 0.010 (95% CI: -0.0003 to 0.021) at 0.1 Gy. The shape of the ERR dose response was significantly different among males and females (P = 0.02). While there was a significant decrease in the ERR with increasing attained age, this decrease was more rapid in males compared to females. The lowest dose range that showed a statistically significant dose response using the sex-averaged, linear ERR model was 0-100 mGy (P = 0.038). In conclusion, this analysis demonstrates that solid cancer risks remain elevated more than 60 years after exposure. Sex-averaged upward curvature was observed in the dose response independent of adjustment for smoking. Findings from the current analysis regarding the dose-response shape were not fully consistent with those previously reported, raising unresolved questions. At this time, uncertainties in the shape of the dose response preclude definitive conclusions to confidently guide radiation protection policies. Upcoming results from a series of analyses focusing on the radiation risks for specific organs or organ families, as well as continued follow-up are needed to fully understand the nature of radiation-related cancer risk and its public health significance. Data and analysis scripts are available for download at: http://www.rerf.or.jp .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14492.1DOI Listing
May 2017