Publications by authors named "Kiran Nadella"

8 Publications

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Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression in adrenocortical disease due to PRKAR1A mutations compared to other benign adrenal tumors.

Endocrine 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Section on Genetics & Endocrinology (SEGEN), Intramural Research Program (IRP), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2), a key regulator of cell growth and development, is tightly regulated in its expression by epigenetic control that maintains its monoallelic expression in most tissues. Biallelic expression of IGF2 resulting from loss of imprinting (LOI) has been reported in adrenocortical tumors. In this study, we wanted to check whether adrenocortical lesions due to PRKAR1A mutations lead to increased IGF2 expression from LOI and compare these findings to those in other benign adrenal lesions.

Methods: We compared the expression of IGF2 by RNA and protein studies in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) caused by PRKAR1A gene mutations to that in primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH) and cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) that did not have any mutations in known genes. We also checked LOI in all lesions by DNA allelic studies and the expression of other components of IGF2 signaling at the RNA and protein level.

Results: We identified cell clusters overexpressing IGF2 in PPNAD; although immunostaining was patchy, overall, by RNA and immunoblotting PPNAD expressed high IGF2 message and protein. However, this was not due to LOI, as there was no correlation between IGF2 expression and the presence of LOI.

Conclusions: Our data pointed to over-expression of IGF2 protein in PPNAD compared to other benign adrenocortical lesions, such as PMAH and CPA. However, there was no correlation of IGF2 mRNA levels with LOI of IGF2/H19. The discrepancy between mRNA and protein levels with regards to LOI points, perhaps, to different control of IGF2 gene expression in PPNAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02583-zDOI Listing
January 2021

c-KIT oncogene expression in PRKAR1A-mutant adrenal cortex.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2020 10;27(10):591-599

Section on Genetics and Endocrinology (SEGEN), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit type 1A (PRKAR1A) defects lead to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The KIT protooncogene (c-KIT) is not known to be expressed in the normal adrenal cortex (AC). In this study, we investigated the expression of c-KIT and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), in PPNAD and other cortisol-producing tumors of the adrenal cortex. mRNA and protein expression, by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoblotting (IB), respectively, were studied. We then tested c-KIT and SCF responses to PRKAR1A introduction and PKA stimulation in adrenocortical cell lines CAR47 and H295R, which were also treated with the KIT inhibitor, imatinib mesylate (IM). Mice xenografted with H295R cells were treated with IM. There was increased c-KIT mRNA expression in PPNAD; IHC showed KIT and SCF immunoreactivity within certain nodular areas in PPNAD. IB data was consistent with IHC and mRNA data. PRKAR1A-deficient CAR47 cells expressed c-KIT; this was enhanced by forskolin and lowered by PRKAR1A reintroduction. Knockdown of PKA's catalytic subunit (PRKACA) by siRNA reduced c-KIT levels. Treatment of the CAR47 cells with IM resulted in reduced cell viability, growth arrest, and apoptosis. Treatment with IM of mice xenografted with H295 cells inhibited further tumor growth. We conclude that c-KIT is expressed in PPNAD, an expression that appears to be dependent on PRKAR1A and/or PKA activity. In a human adrenocortical cell line and its xenografts in mice, c-KIT inhibition decreased growth, suggesting that c-KIT inhibitors may be a reasonable alternative therapy to be tested in PPNAD, when other treatments are not optimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-20-0270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484269PMC
October 2020

Cyclic AMP and c-KIT signaling in familial testicular germ cell tumor predisposition.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Aug 14;98(8):E1393-400. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Background: Familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCTs) are hypothesized to result from the combined interaction of multiple low-penetrance genes. We reported inactivating germline mutations of the cAMP-binding phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) as modifiers of FTGCT risk. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene, the ligand for the cKIT tyrosine kinase receptor, as strong modifiers of susceptibility to both familial and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors.

Design: We studied 94 patients with FTGCTs and 50 at-risk male relatives from 63 unrelated kindreds, in whom the PDE11A gene had been sequenced by investigating the association between KITLG genome-wide association study single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3782179 and rs4474514 and FTGCT risk in these patients and in 692 controls. We also examined cAMP and c-KIT signaling in testicular tissues and cell lines and extended the studies to 2 sporadic cases, one with a PDE11A defect and one without, as a comparison.

Results: We found a higher frequency of the KITLG risk alleles in FTGCT patients who also had a PDE11A sequence variant, compared with those with a wild-type PDE11A sequence. In NTERA-2 and Tcam-2 cells transfected with the mutated forms of PDE11A (R52T, F258Y, Y727C, R804H, V820M, R867G, and M878V), cAMP levels were significantly higher, and the relative phosphodiesterase activity was lower than in the wild-type cells. KITLG expression was consistently increased in the presence of PDE11A-inactivating defects, both at the RNA and protein levels, in familial testicular germ cell tumors. The 2 sporadic cases that were studied, one with a PDE11A defect and another without, agreed with the data in FTGTCT and in the cell lines.

Conclusions: Patients with FTGCT and PDE11A defects also carry KITLG risk alleles more frequently. There may be an interaction between cAMP and c-KIT signaling in predisposition to testicular germ cell tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-2838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3733859PMC
August 2013

Regulation of actin function by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of Limk1.

EMBO Rep 2009 Jun 8;10(6):599-605. Epub 2009 May 8.

Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology & Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, 420 West 12th Avenue, TMRF 544, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Proper regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is necessary for cellular homeostasis, and dysregulation of this kinase is crucial in human disease. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a show altered cell morphology and enhanced migration. At the molecular level, these cells showed increased phosphorylation of cofilin, a crucial modulator of actin dynamics, and these changes could be mimicked by stimulating the activity of PKA. Previous studies of cofilin have shown that it is phosphorylated primarily by the LIM domain kinases Limk1 and Limk2, which are under the control of the Rho GTPases and their downstream effectors. In Prkar1a(-/-) MEFs, neither Rho nor Rac was activated; rather, we showed that PKA could directly phosphorylate Limk1 and thus enhance the phosphorylation of cofilin. These data indicate that PKA is crucial in cell morphology and migration through its ability to modulate directly the activity of LIM kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2009.58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2711837PMC
June 2009

Expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein during immortalization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by HTLV-1: implications for transformation.

Retrovirology 2008 Jun 9;5:46. Epub 2008 Jun 9.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is initiated by infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1); however, additional host factors are also required for T-cell transformation and development of ATLL. The HTLV-1 Tax protein plays an important role in the transformation of T-cells although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) that occurs in the majority of ATLL patients. However, PTHrP is also up-regulated in HTLV-1-carriers and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients without hypercalcemia, indicating that PTHrP is expressed before transformation of T-cells. The expression of PTHrP and the PTH/PTHrP receptor during immortalization or transformation of lymphocytes by HTLV-1 has not been investigated.

Results: We report that PTHrP was up-regulated during immortalization of lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by HTLV-1 infection in long-term co-culture assays. There was preferential utilization of the PTHrP-P2 promoter in the immortalized cells compared to the HTLV-1-transformed MT-2 cells. PTHrP expression did not correlate temporally with expression of HTLV-1 tax. HTLV-1 infection up-regulated the PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in lymphocytes indicating a potential autocrine role for PTHrP. Furthermore, co-transfection of HTLV-1 expression plasmids and PTHrP P2/P3-promoter luciferase reporter plasmids demonstrated that HTLV-1 up-regulated PTHrP expression only mildly, indicating that other cellular factors and/or events are required for the very high PTHrP expression observed in ATLL cells. We also report that macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), a cellular gene known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HHM in ATLL patients, was highly expressed during early HTLV-1 infection indicating that, unlike PTHrP, its expression was enhanced due to activation of lymphocytes by HTLV-1 infection.

Conclusion: These data demonstrate that PTHrP and its receptor are up-regulated specifically during immortalization of T-lymphocytes by HTLV-1 infection and may facilitate the transformation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-5-46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2435116PMC
June 2008

Targeted deletion of Prkar1a reveals a role for protein kinase A in mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition.

Cancer Res 2008 Apr;68(8):2671-7

Human Cancer Genetics Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Dysregulation of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, caused by loss of function mutations in PRKAR1A, is known to induce tumor formation in the inherited tumor syndrome Carney complex (CNC) and is also associated with sporadic tumors of the thyroid and adrenal. We have previously shown that Prkar1a(+/-) mice develop schwannomas reminiscent of those seen in CNC and that similar tumors are observed in tissue-specific knockouts (KO) of Prkar1a targeted to the neural crest. Within these tumors, we have previously described the presence of epithelial islands, although the nature of these structures was unclear. In this article, we report that these epithelial structures are derived from KO cells originating in the neural crest. Analysis of the mesenchymal marker vimentin revealed that this protein was markedly down-regulated not only from the epithelial islands, but also from the tumor as a whole, consistent with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). In vitro, Prkar1a null primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which display constitutive PKA signaling, also showed evidence for MET, with a loss of vimentin and up-regulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. Reduction of vimentin protein occurred at the posttranslational level and was rescued by proteasomal inhibition. Finally, this down-regulation of vimentin was recapitulated in the adrenal nodules of CNC patients, confirming an unexpected and previously unrecognized role for PKA in MET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3129546PMC
April 2008

Mutation of Prkar1a causes osteoblast neoplasia driven by dysregulation of protein kinase A.

Mol Endocrinol 2008 Feb 11;22(2):430-40. Epub 2007 Oct 11.

Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, 420 West 12th Avenue, TMRF 546, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome caused by inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA). This genetic defect induces skin pigmentation, endocrine tumors, myxomas, and schwannomas. Some patients with the complex also develop myxoid bone tumors termed osteochondromyxomas. To study the link between the PRKAR1A mutations and tumor formation, we generated a mouse model of this condition. Prkar1a(+/-) mice develop bone tumors with high frequency, although these lesions have not yet been characterized, either from human patients or from mice. Bone tumors from Prkar1a(+/-) mice were heterogeneous, including elements of myxomatous, cartilaginous, and bony differentiation that effaced the normal bone architecture. Immunohistochemical analysis identified an osteoblastic origin for the abnormal cells associated with islands of bone. To better understand these cells at the biochemical level, we isolated primary cultures of tumoral bone and compared them with cultures of bone from wild-type animals. The tumor cells exhibited the expected decrease in Prkar1a protein and exhibited increased PKA activity. At the phenotypic level, we observed that tumor cells behaved as incompletely differentiated osteoblasts and were able to form tumors in immunocompromised mice. Examination of gene expression revealed down-regulation of markers of bone differentiation and increased expression of locally acting growth factors, including members of the Wnt signaling pathway. Tumor cells exhibited enhanced growth in response to PKA-stimulating agents, suggesting that tumorigenesis in osteoblast precursor cells is driven by effects directly mediated by the dysregulation of PKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2007-0369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234582PMC
February 2008

Disruption of protein kinase a regulation causes immortalization and dysregulation of D-type cyclins.

Cancer Res 2005 Nov;65(22):10307-15

Human Cancer Genetics Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Phosphorylation is a key event in cell cycle control, and dysregulation of this process is observed in many tumors, including those associated with specific inherited neoplasia syndromes. We have shown previously that patients with the autosomal dominant tumor predisposition Carney complex carry inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA), the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. This defect was associated with dysregulation of PKA signaling, and genetic analysis has suggested that complete loss of the gene may be required for tumorigenesis. To determine the mechanism by which dysregulation of PKA causes tumor formation, we generated in vitro primary mouse cells lacking the Prkar1a protein. We report that this genetic disruption of PKA regulation causes constitutive PKA activation and immortalization of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). At the molecular level, knockout of Prkar1a leads to up-regulation of D-type cyclins, and this increase occurs independently of other pathways known to increase cyclin D levels. Despite the immortalized phenotype, known mediators of cellular senescence (e.g., p53 and p19ARF) seem to remain intact in Prkar1a-/- MEFs. Mechanistically, cyclin D1 mRNA levels are not altered in the knockout cells, but protein half-life is markedly increased. Using this model, we provide the first direct genetic evidence that dysregulation of PKA promotes important steps in tumorigenesis, and that cyclin D1 is an essential target of PKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3183DOI Listing
November 2005