Publications by authors named "Kevin O Kisich"

11 Publications

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Dry powder measles vaccine: particle deposition, virus replication, and immune response in cotton rats following inhalation.

Vaccine 2011 Jan 23;29(5):905-12. Epub 2010 Oct 23.

Department of Immunology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA.

A stable and high potency dry powder measles vaccine with a particle size distribution suitable for inhalation was manufactured by CO(2)-Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer(®) (CAN-BD) process from bulk liquid Edmonston-Zagreb live attenuated measles virus vaccine supplied by the Serum Institute of India. A novel dry powder inhaler, the PuffHaler(®) was adapted for use in evaluating the utility of cotton rats to study the vaccine deposition, vaccine virus replication, and immune response following inhalation of the dry powder measles vaccine. Vaccine deposition in the lungs of cotton rats and subsequent viral replication was detected by measles-specific RT-PCR, and viral replication was confined to the lungs. Inhalation delivery resulted in an immune response comparable to that following injection. The cotton rat model is useful for evaluating new measles vaccine formulations and delivery devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.020DOI Listing
January 2011

Anti-tuberculosis activity of α-helical antimicrobial peptides: de novo designed L- and D-enantiomers versus L- and D-LL-37.

Protein Pept Lett 2011 Mar;18(3):241-52

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

With the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a new class of antimycobacterial agents with very different modes of action compared to classical antibiotics, are urgently needed. In this study, a series of 26-residue, amphipathic, α-helical antimicrobial peptides consisting of all D-amino acid residues and synthetic human L-LL37 (L-enantiomer) and D-LL37 (D-enantiomer) were investigated against M. tuberculosis susceptible strain (H37Rv) and a clinical multi-drug resistant strain (Vertulo). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined through a peptide killing assay. D5, the most active analog against M. tuberculosis had a MIC value of 11.2 μM (35.2 μg/ml) against H37Rv strain and 15.6 μM (49 μg/ml) against the MDR strain. Peptide D1 had similar activity as D5 against the MDR strain (57 μg/mL), a 9-fold improvement in hemolytic activity and a 7.4-fold better therapeutic index compared to D5. Surprisingly, LL37 enantiomers showed little to no activity compared to the de-novo designed α-helical antimicrobial peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986611794578288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263701PMC
March 2011

The roles of antimicrobial peptides in innate host defense.

Curr Pharm Des 2009 ;15(21):2377-92

Department of Oral Biology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School, Newark, NJ 07101, USA.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are multi-functional peptides whose fundamental biological role in vivo has been proposed to be the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Genes encoding these peptides are expressed in a variety of cells in the host, including circulating phagocytic cells and mucosal epithelial cells, demonstrating a wide range of utility in the innate immune system. Expression of these genes is tightly regulated; they are induced by pathogens and cytokines as part of the host defense response, and they can be suppressed by bacterial virulence factors and environmental factors which can lead to increased susceptibility to infection. New research has also cast light on alternative functionalities, including immunomodulatory activities, which are related to their unique structural characteristics. These peptides represent not only an important component of innate host defense against microbial colonization and a link between innate and adaptive immunity, but also form a foundation for the development of new therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2750833PMC
November 2009

Hairpin ribozyme-antisense RNA constructs can act as molecular Lassos.

Nucleic Acids Res 2008 Dec 25;36(21):6752-66. Epub 2008 Oct 25.

SomaGenics, Inc, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA.

We have developed a novel class of antisense agents, RNA Lassos, which are capable of binding to and circularizing around complementary target RNAs. The RNA Lasso consists of a fixed sequence derived from the hairpin ribozyme and an antisense segment whose size and sequence can be varied to base pair with accessible sites in the target RNA. The ribozyme catalyzes self-processing of the 5'- and 3'-ends of a transcribed Lasso precursor and ligates the processed ends to produce a circular RNA. The circular and linear forms of the self-processed Lasso coexist in an equilibrium that is dependent on both the Lasso sequence and the solution conditions. Lassos form strong, noncovalent complexes with linear target RNAs and form true topological linkages with circular targets. Lasso complexes with linear RNA targets were detected by denaturing gel electrophoresis and were found to be more stable than ordinary RNA duplexes. We show that expression of a fusion mRNA consisting of a sequence from the murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene linked to luciferase reporter can be specifically and efficiently blocked by an anti-TNF Lasso. We also show in cell culture experiments that Lassos directed against Fas pre-mRNA were able to induce a change in alternative splicing patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2588507PMC
December 2008

Defective killing of Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis is associated with reduced mobilization of human beta-defensin-3.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008 Jul 5;122(1):62-8. Epub 2008 Jun 5.

Division of Allergy/Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colo 80206, USA.

Background: Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) have frequent colonization and infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Rapid elimination of S. aureus depends on constitutive synthesis and mobilization of human beta-defensin-3 (HBD-3).

Objective: To determine whether keratinocytes in AD, compared with normal, skin are less able to kill S. aureus rapidly, and to assess the potential role that abnormally low mobilization of HBD-3 onto S. aureus has in this process.

Methods: Skin samples from 10 normal individuals and 10 patients with AD were compared for synthesis and mobilization of HBD-3 onto surface-associated S. aureus. Furthermore, keratinocytes from 10 individuals were studied for the effects of T(H)2 cytokines on the ability of the cells to synthesize and mobilize HBD-3, and to kill S. aureus.

Results: Keratinocytes in skin biopsies from subjects with AD were defective in killing S. aureus relative to normal individuals (P < .001). The constitutive levels of HBD-3 in the epidermal keratinocytes were similar between normal individuals and those with AD. However, the cells of patients with AD were unable to mobilize HBD-3 efficiently to kill S. aureus. Physiologic Ca(++) was essential for development of normal HBD-3 levels by cultured human keratinocytes. Mobilization of HBD-3 and the ability to kill S. aureus were significantly (P < .05) inhibited by IL-4 and IL-13. Antagonism of IL-4/10/13 with antibodies significantly (P < .01) improved mobilization of HBD-3 onto the surface of S. aureus by skin from patients with AD.

Conclusion: Patients with AD have problems with S. aureus skin infection. This is a result of increased levels of T(H)2 cytokines, which inhibit keratinocyte mobilization of HBD-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.04.022DOI Listing
July 2008

The constitutive capacity of human keratinocytes to kill Staphylococcus aureus is dependent on beta-defensin 3.

J Invest Dermatol 2007 Oct 26;127(10):2368-80. Epub 2007 Apr 26.

Division of Pediatric Allergy/Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA.

Normal skin is often exposed to bacteria, including potent pathogens such as E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus sp., but these microbes usually do not cause skin inflammation or infection in healthy individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that there must be a constitutive mechanism for rapid destruction and elimination of small numbers of bacteria which penetrate the stratum corneum from everyday activities. This study found that exposure of keratinocytes cultured from a number of individuals to S. aureus resulted in approximately 2-3 log better killing than by HaCaT cells within 1 hour. Killing required contact between the keratinocytes and the bacteria, but was not dependent on internalization. Contact between the bacteria and the keratinocytes resulted in rapid deposition of several antimicrobial peptides onto the bacteria, but only human beta-defensin (HBD) 3 accumulated at levels sufficient to account for killing when S. aureus were exposed to human skin explants. Blocking peptide binding of HBD3 inhibited killing of the bacteria, indicating an essential role for beta-defensin 3 in the constitutive killing of bacteria by normal keratinocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jid.5700861DOI Listing
October 2007

Selective killing of vaccinia virus by LL-37: implications for eczema vaccinatum.

J Immunol 2004 Feb;172(3):1763-7

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA.

Possible bioterrorism with smallpox has led to the resumption of smallpox (vaccinia virus) immunization. One complication, eczema vaccinatum, occurs primarily in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Skin lesions of patients with AD, but not psoriasis, is deficient in the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2). We hypothesized that this defect may explain the susceptibility of patients with AD to eczema vaccinatum. The Wyeth vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was incubated with varying concentrations of human (LL-37) and murine (CRAMP) cathelicidins, human alpha-defensin (HBD-1, HBD-2), and a control peptide. Outcomes included quantification of viral PFU, vaccinia viral gene expression by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and changes in virion structure by transmission electron microscopy. CRAMP knockout mice and control animals were inoculated by skin pricks with 2 x 10(5) PFU of vaccinia and examined daily for pox development. Physiologic amounts of human and murine cathelicidins (10-50 micro M), but not human defensins, which had antibacterial activity, resulted in the in vitro reduction of vaccinia viral plaque formation (p < 0.0001), vaccinia mRNA expression (p < 0.001), and alteration of vaccinia virion structure. In vivo vaccinia pox formation occurred in four of six CRAMP knockout animals and in only one of 15 control mice (p < 0.01). These data support a role for cathelicidins in the inhibition of orthopox virus (vaccinia) replication both in vitro and in vivo. Susceptibility of patients with AD to eczema vaccinatum may be due to a deficiency of cathelicidin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.3.1763DOI Listing
February 2004

Serine-arginine-rich protein p30 directs alternative splicing of glucocorticoid receptor pre-mRNA to glucocorticoid receptor beta in neutrophils.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jul 8;278(29):27112-8. Epub 2003 May 8.

Division of Pediatric Allergy/Immunology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA.

Glucocorticoid (GC) insensitivity is a major clinical challenge in the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. It has been shown previously that GC insensitivity, in several inflammatory cell types, is due to an overabundance of the beta isoform of the glucocorticoid receptor (GCRbeta) relative to the ligand binding isoform, GCRalpha. GCRbeta functions as a dominant inhibitor of GCRalpha action. A number of GCR isoforms are created from the same pre-mRNA transcript via alternative splicing, and the factor or factors that control alternative splicing of GCR pre-mRNA are of great importance. In the current study, we have identified the predominant alternative splicing factor present in human neutrophils, which is known to be exceptionally GC-insensitive. The predominant alternative splicing factor in neutrophils is SRp30c, which is one of several highly conserved serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins that are involved in both constitutive and alternative splicing in eukaryotic cells. Inhibition of SRp30c expression with antisense oligonucleotide strongly inhibited expression of GCRbeta and stimulated expression of GCRalpha. Antisense molecules targeted to other SR proteins had no effect. Our data indicate that SRp30c is necessary for alternative splicing of the GCR pre-mRNA to create mRNA encoding GCRbeta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M300824200DOI Listing
July 2003

A role for STAT5 in the pathogenesis of IL-2-induced glucocorticoid resistance.

J Immunol 2002 Nov;169(10):5934-40

Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA.

Glucocorticoids (GC) are highly effective in the control of diseases associated with T cell activation. However, a subset of individuals is GC insensitive. Previous studies have demonstrated that IL-2 can induce steroid resistance in mouse T cells. However, the mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. In the current study we found that the murine cell line (HT-2) is steroid resistant when incubated with IL-2, but steroid sensitive when grown in IL-4. Furthermore, when HT-2 cells are treated with IL-2, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) does not translocate to the cell nucleus after dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, the GCR in IL-4-stimulated HT-2 cells does translocate into the cell nucleus after dexamethasone treatment. IL-2-induced steroid insensitivity in HT-2 cells appears to be a signaling event as the effects of IL-2 on nuclear translocation of the GCR occurred within 30 min even in the presence of cycloheximide. Indeed, preincubation of HT-2 cells with a Janus-associated kinase 3 inhibitor restored nuclear translocation of the GCR even in the presence of IL-2. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that phosphorylated STAT5 and GCR formed immune complexes. This association may lead to retardation of GCR nuclear translocation because IL-2 was not able to induce steroid insensitivity in splenocytes from STAT5 knockout mice. This study demonstrates a novel role for STAT5 in IL-2-induced steroid insensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.10.5934DOI Listing
November 2002

Increased glucocorticoid receptor Beta expression converts mouse hybridoma cells to a corticosteroid-insensitive phenotype.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002 Sep;27(3):361-7

Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA.

Glucocorticoid (GC) insensitivity is a challenging clinical problem associated with many chronic inflammatory disorders and life-threatening disease progression. The molecular basis of GC insensitivity, however, is unknown. Alternative splicing of the GC receptor (GCR) pre-mRNA generates a second GCR, termed GCRbeta, which does not bind GC but antagonizes the transactivating activity of the classic GCR, termed GCRalpha. GC-insensitive conditions have been associated with increased GCRbeta expression. Whether or not increased GCRbeta expression can contribute to GC insensitivity, however, remains controversial. To more precisely demonstrate the effect of GCRbeta on steroid responsiveness, we virally transduced GCRbeta cDNA into mouse DO-11.10 hybridoma cells, as mice are known to be deficient in the GCRbeta gene. We demonstrate that viral transduction of GCRbeta cDNA into mouse hybridoma cells to induce stable expression of GCRbeta results in GC insensitivity of these cells. Furthermore, in such cells GCRalpha is complexed with GCRbeta. Such heterodimer formation may account for the reduced effectiveness of GC action in cells overexpressing GCRbeta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.4861DOI Listing
September 2002

Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human neutrophils.

Infect Immun 2002 Aug;70(8):4591-9

Department of Immunology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA.

The ability of human neutrophils to aid in defense against pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is controversial. In this study, we have shown that neutrophils respond to and phagocytose M. tuberculosis in human lesions. Neutrophils from healthy individuals were able to kill significant fractions of an inoculum of M. tuberculosis within 1 h of phagocytosis, and this ability was enhanced by tumor necrosis factor alpha but not by gamma interferon. The mycobactericidal mechanism was nonoxidative, as inhibitors of reactive oxygen or reactive nitrogen intermediates did not interfere with killing. However, the mycobactericidal mechanism was associated with increased exposure of intracellular M. tuberculosis to neutrophil defensins. In vitro, human neutrophil peptides 1 to 3 were not able to kill the bacilli even at much higher levels. These studies support the concept that human neutrophils are directly involved in defense against infection with M. tuberculosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC128192PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.8.4591-4599.2002DOI Listing
August 2002
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