Publications by authors named "Kevin C Facemyer"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle.

J Gen Physiol 2015 Oct;146(4):267-80

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 99557

Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto-myosin and MLCK-myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting "stuck" on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201511483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4586593PMC
October 2015

Velocities of unloaded muscle filaments are not limited by drag forces imposed by myosin cross-bridges.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Sep 20;112(36):11235-40. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 99557

It is not known which kinetic step in the acto-myosin ATPase cycle limits contraction speed in unloaded muscles (V0). Huxley's 1957 model [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318] predicts that V0 is limited by the rate that myosin detaches from actin. However, this does not explain why, as observed by Bárány [Bárány M (1967) J Gen Physiol 50(6, Suppl):197-218], V0 is linearly correlated with the maximal actin-activated ATPase rate (vmax), which is limited by the rate that myosin attaches strongly to actin. We have observed smooth muscle myosin filaments of different length and head number (N) moving over surface-attached F-actin in vitro. Fitting filament velocities (V) vs. N to a detachment-limited model using the myosin step size d=8 nm gave an ADP release rate 8.5-fold faster and ton (myosin's attached time) and r (duty ratio) ∼10-fold lower than previously reported. In contrast, these data were accurately fit to an attachment-limited model, V=N·v·d, over the range of N found in all muscle types. At nonphysiologically high N, V=L/ton rather than d/ton, where L is related to the length of myosin's subfragment 2. The attachment-limited model also fit well to the [ATP] dependence of V for myosin-rod cofilaments at three fixed N. Previously published V0 vs. vmax values for 24 different muscles were accurately fit to the attachment-limited model using widely accepted values for r and N, giving d=11.1 nm. Therefore, in contrast with Huxley's model, we conclude that V0 is limited by the actin-myosin attachment rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1510241112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568697PMC
September 2015

The kinetics underlying the velocity of smooth muscle myosin filament sliding on actin filaments in vitro.

J Biol Chem 2014 Jul;289(30):21055-70

Actin-myosin interactions are well studied using soluble myosin fragments, but little is known about effects of myosin filament structure on mechanochemistry. We stabilized unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (pSMM) filaments against ATP-induced depolymerization using a cross-linker and attached fluorescent rhodamine (XL-Rh-SMM). Electron micrographs showed that these side polar filaments are very similar to unmodified filaments. They are ~0.63 μm long and contain ~176 molecules. Rate constants for ATP-induced dissociation and ADP release from acto-myosin for filaments and S1 heads were similar. Actin-activated ATPases of SMM and XL-Rh-SMM were similarly regulated. XL-Rh-pSMM filaments moved processively on F-actin that was bound to a PEG brush surface. ATP dependence of filament velocities was similar to that for solution ATPases at high [actin], suggesting that both processes are limited by the same kinetic step (weak to strong transition) and therefore are attachment- limited. This differs from actin sliding over myosin monomers, which is primarily detachment-limited. Fitting filament data to an attachment-limited model showed that approximately half of the heads are available to move the filament, consistent with a side polar structure. We suggest the low stiffness subfragment 2 (S2) domain remains unhindered during filament motion in our assay. Actin-bound negatively displaced heads will impart minimal drag force because of S2 buckling. Given the ADP release rate, the velocity, and the length of S2, these heads will detach from actin before slack is taken up into a backwardly displaced high stiffness position. This mechanism explains the lack of detachment- limited kinetics at physiological [ATP]. These findings address how nonlinear elasticity in assemblies of motors leads to efficient collective force generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.564740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110310PMC
July 2014

Kinetics of myosin light chain kinase activation of smooth muscle myosin in an in vitro model system.

Biochemistry 2013 Nov 11;52(47):8489-500. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine , Reno, Nevada 99557, United States.

During activation of smooth muscle contraction, one myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) molecule rapidly phosphorylates many smooth muscle myosin (SMM) molecules, suggesting that muscle activation rates are influenced by the kinetics of MLCK-SMM interactions. To determine the rate-limiting step underlying activation of SMM by MLCK, we measured the kinetics of calcium-calmodulin (Ca²⁺CaM)-MLCK-mediated SMM phosphorylation and the corresponding initiation of SMM-based F-actin motility in an in vitro system with SMM attached to a coverslip surface. Fitting the time course of SMM phosphorylation to a kinetic model gave an initial phosphorylation rate, kp(o), of ~1.17 heads s⁻¹ MLCK⁻¹. Also, we measured the dwell time of single streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK molecules interacting with surface-attached SMM and phosphorylated SMM using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. From these data, the dissociation rate constant from phosphorylated SMM was 0.80 s⁻¹, which was similar to the kp(o) mentioned above and with rates measured in solution. This dissociation rate was essentially independent of the phosphorylation state of SMM. From calculations using our measured dissociation rates and Kd values, and estimates of SMM and MLCK concentrations in muscle, we predict that the dissociation of MLCK from phosphorylated SMM is rate-limiting and that the rate of the phosphorylation step is faster than this dissociation rate. Also, association with SMM (11-46 s⁻¹) would be much faster than with pSMM (<0.1-0.2 s⁻¹). This suggests that the probability of MLCK interacting with unphosphorylated versus phosphorylated SMM is 55-460 times greater. This would avoid sequestering MLCK to unproductive interactions with previously phosphorylated SMM, potentially leading to faster rates of phosphorylation in muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi401001xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886827PMC
November 2013

Modification of interface between regulatory and essential light chains hampers phosphorylation-dependent activation of smooth muscle myosin.

J Biol Chem 2012 Jun 1;287(26):22068-79. Epub 2012 May 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

We examined the regulatory importance of interactions between regulatory light chain (RLC), essential light chain (ELC), and adjacent heavy chain (HC) in the regulatory domain of smooth muscle heavy meromyosin. After mutating the HC, RLC, and/or ELC to disrupt their predicted interactions (using scallop myosin coordinates), we measured basal ATPase, V(max), and K(ATPase) of actin-activated ATPase, actin-sliding velocities, rigor binding to actin, and kinetics of ATP binding and ADP release. If unphosphorylated, all mutants were similar to wild type showing turned-off behaviors. In contrast, if phosphorylated, mutation of RLC residues smM129Q and smG130C in the F-G helix linker, which interact with the ELC (Ca(2+) binding in scallop), was sufficient to abolish motility and diminish ATPase activity, without altering other parameters. ELC mutations within this interacting ELC loop (smR20M and smK25A) were normal, but smM129Q/G130C-R20M or -K25A showed a partially recovered phenotype suggesting that interaction between the RLC and ELC is important. A molecular dynamics study suggested that breaking the RLC/ELC interface leads to increased flexibility at the interface and ELC-binding site of the HC. We hypothesize that this leads to hampered activation by allowing a pre-existing equilibrium between activated and inhibited structural distributions (Vileno, B., Chamoun, J., Liang, H., Brewer, P., Haldeman, B. D., Facemyer, K. C., Salzameda, B., Song, L., Li, H. C., Cremo, C. R., and Fajer, P. G. (2011) Broad disorder and the allosteric mechanism of myosin II regulation by phosphorylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 8218-8223) to be biased strongly toward the inhibited distribution even when the RLC is phosphorylated. We propose that an important structural function of RLC phosphorylation is to promote or assist in the maintenance of an intact RLC/ELC interface. If the RLC/ELC interface is broken, the off-state structures are no longer destabilized by phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.343491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3381165PMC
June 2012

Broad disorder and the allosteric mechanism of myosin II regulation by phosphorylation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 2;108(20):8218-23. Epub 2011 May 2.

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

Double electron electron resonance EPR methods was used to measure the effects of the allosteric modulators, phosphorylation, and ATP, on the distances and distance distributions between the two regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC). Three different states of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) were studied: monomers, the short-tailed subfragment heavy meromyosin, and SMM filaments. We reconstituted myosin with nine single cysteine spin-labeled RLC. For all mutants we found a broad distribution of distances that could not be explained by spin-label rotamer diversity. For SMM and heavy meromyosin, several sites showed two heterogeneous populations in the unphosphorylated samples, whereas only one was observed after phosphorylation. The data were consistent with the presence of two coexisting heterogeneous populations of structures in the unphosphorylated samples. The two populations were attributed to an on and off state by comparing data from unphosphorylated and phosphorylated samples. Models of these two states were generated using a rigid body docking approach derived from EM [Wendt T, Taylor D, Trybus KM, Taylor K (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:4361-4366] (PNAS, 2001, 98:4361-4366), but our data revealed a new feature of the off-state, which is heterogeneity in the orientation of the two RLC. Our average off-state structure was very similar to the Wendt model reveal a new feature of the off state, which is heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC. As found previously in the EM study, our on-state structure was completely different from the off-state structure. The heads are splayed out and there is even more heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014137108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100986PMC
May 2011

Direct evidence for functional smooth muscle myosin II in the 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation in airway smooth muscle cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Jan 4;108(4):1421-6. Epub 2011 Jan 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

The 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation of myosin II has been characterized extensively in vitro. Based upon its structural and functional characteristics, it has been proposed to be an assembly-competent myosin pool in equilibrium with filaments in cells. It is known that myosin filaments can assemble and disassemble in nonmuscle cells, and in some smooth muscle cells, but whether or not the disassembled pool contains functional 10S myosin has not been determined. Here we address this question using human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs). Using two antibodies against different epitopes on smooth muscle myosin II (SMM), two distinct pools of SMM, diffuse, and stress-fiber-associated, were visualized by immunocytochemical staining. The two SMM pools were functional in that they could be interconverted in two ways: (i) by exposure to 10S- versus filament-promoting buffer conditions, and (ii) by exposure to a peptide that shifts the filament-10S equilibrium toward filaments in vitro by a known mechanism that requires the presence of the 10S conformation. The effect of the peptide was not due to a trivial increase in SMM phosphorylation, and its specificity was demonstrated by use of a scrambled peptide, which had no effect. Based upon these data, we conclude that hASMCs contain a significant pool of functional SMM in the 10S conformation that can assemble into filaments upon changing cellular conditions. This study provides unique direct evidence for the presence of a significant pool of functional myosin in the 10S conformation in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011784108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3029703PMC
January 2011

Kinetic and motor functions mediated by distinct regions of the regulatory light chain of smooth muscle myosin.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2009 Nov 25;1794(11):1599-605. Epub 2009 Jul 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

To understand the importance of selected regions of the regulatory light chain (RLC) for phosphorylation-dependent regulation of smooth muscle myosin (SMM), we expressed three heavy meromyosins (HMMs) containing the following RLC mutants; K12E in a critical region of the phosphorylation domain, GTDP(95-98)/AAAA in the central hinge, and R160C a putative binding residue for phosphorylated S19. Single-turnover actin-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase (V(max) and K(ATPase)) and in vitro actin-sliding velocities were examined for both unphosphorylated (up-) and phosphorylated (p-) states. Turnover rates for the up-state (0.007-0.030 s(-1)) and velocities (no motion) for all constructs were not significantly different from the up-wild type (WT) indicating that they were completely turned off. The apparent binding constants for actin in the presence of ATP (K(ATPase)) were too weak to measure as expected for fully regulated constructs. For p-HMM containing GTDP/AAAA, we found that both ATPase and motility were normal. The data suggest that the native sequence in the central hinge between the two lobes of the RLC is not required for turning the HMM off and on both kinetically and mechanically. For p-HMM containing R160C, all parameters were normal, suggesting that R160C is not involved in coordination of the phosphorylated S19. For p-HMM containing K12E, the V(max) was 64% and the actin-sliding velocity was approximately 50% of WT, suggesting that K12 is an important residue for the ability to sense or to promote the conformational changes required for kinetic and mechanical activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2009.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757001PMC
November 2009

The N-terminal lobes of both regulatory light chains interact with the tail domain in the 10 S-inhibited conformation of smooth muscle myosin.

J Biol Chem 2006 Dec 29;281(50):38801-11. Epub 2006 Sep 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Nevada, 1664 N. Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

In the presence of ATP, unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin can form a catalytically inactive monomer that sediments at 10 Svedbergs (10 S). The tail of 10 S bends into thirds and interacts with the regulatory domain. ADP-P(i) is "trapped" at the active site, and consequently the ATPase activity is extremely low. We are interested in the structural basis for maintenance of this off state. Our prior photocross-linking work with 10 S showed that tail residues 1554-1583 are proximal to position 108 in the C-terminal lobe of one of the two regulatory light chains ( Olney, J. J., Sellers, J. R., and Cremo, C. R. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 20375-20384 ). These data suggested that the tail interacts with only one of the two regulatory light chains. Here we present data, using a photocross-linker on position 59 on the N-terminal lobe of the regulatory light chain (RLC), demonstrating that both regulatory light chains of a single molecule can cross-link to the light meromyosin portion of the tail. Mass spectrometric data show four specific cross-linked regions spanning residues 1428-1571 in the light meromyosin portion of the tail, consistent with cross-linking two RLC to one light meromyosin. In addition, we find that position 59 can cross-link internally to residues 42-45 within the same RLC subunit. The internal cross-link only forms in 10 S and not in unphosphorylated heavy meromyosin (lacking the light meromyosin), suggesting a structural rearrangement within the RLC attributed to the interaction of the tail with the head.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M606555200DOI Listing
December 2006

Web-based learning versus standardized patients for teaching clinical diagnosis: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

Teach Learn Med 2006 ;18(3):208-14

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Little evidence exists to guide the selection of methods for teaching clinical diagnosis.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy, student preference, and cost of a Web-based (WB) program versus a standardized patient (SP) encounter for teaching clinical diagnosis skills to 2nd-year medical students.

Methods: Randomized, controlled, crossover study comparing WB versus SP-based teaching for the clinical diagnosis of abdominal pain and headache. Outcome measures were performance on a 2-case SP examination (scored on the basis of a checklist completed by a faculty observer and an objective score on a postencounter subjective-objective assessment plan [SOAP] note), format preferences as assessed by end-of-course evaluations, and cost.

Results: Thirty students consented to participate. WB and SP training produced similar scores on both the Abdominal Pain checklist (66% vs. 62%; p = .17) and Headache checklist (56% vs. 63%; p = .07). WB training produced a higher score on the Abdominal Pain SOAP note (69% vs. 47%; p = .006), but not the Headache SOAP note (69% vs. 67%; p = .85). Students rated the SP format higher than the WB format on all 7 preference measures. Start-up costs were estimated at 2,190 dollars for the SP format and 2,250 dollars for the WB format. Ongoing costs per case per student were estimated to be 45 dollars for the SP format and 30 dollars for the WB format.

Conclusions: WB and SP learning outcomes were comparable, but students preferred the SP format. Start-up costs were comparable, but the ongoing costs of the WB format were less expensive, suggesting that WB teaching may be a viable strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15328015tlm1803_4DOI Listing
October 2006

Structural model of the regulatory domain of smooth muscle heavy meromyosin.

J Biol Chem 2003 Feb 21;278(7):5123-31. Epub 2002 Nov 21.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

The goal of this study was to provide structural information about the regulatory domains of double-headed smooth muscle heavy meromyosin, including the N terminus of the regulatory light chain, in both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated states. We extended our previous photo-cross-linking studies (Wu, X., Clack, B. A., Zhi, G., Stull, J. T., and Cremo, C. R. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20328-20335) to determine regions of the regulatory light chain that are cross-linked by a cross-linker attached to Cys(108) on the partner regulatory light chain. For this purpose, we have synthesized two new biotinylated sulfhydryl reactive photo-cross-linking reagents, benzophenone, 4-(N-iodoacetamido)-4'-(N-biotinylamido) and benzophenone, 4-(N-maleimido)-4'-(N-biotinylamido). Cross-linked peptides were purified by avidin affinity chromatography and characterized by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. Labeled Cys(108) from one regulatory light chain cross-linked to (71)GMMSEAPGPIN(81), a loop in the N-terminal half of the regulatory light chain, and to (4)RAKAKTTKKRPQR(16), a region for which there is no atomic resolution data. Both cross-links were to the partner regulatory light chain and occurred in unphosphorylated but not phosphorylated heavy meromyosin. Using these data, data from our previous study, and atomic coordinates from various myosin isoforms, we have constructed a structural model of the regulatory domain in an unphosphorylated double-headed molecule that predicts the general location of the N terminus. The implications for the structural basis of the phosphorylation-mediated regulatory mechanism are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M206963200DOI Listing
February 2003