Publications by authors named "Kazem Naddafi"

88 Publications

A comprehensive systematic review of photocatalytic degradation of pesticides using nano TiO.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 23;28(11):13055-13071. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study has systematically reviewed all of the research articles about the photocatalytic degradation of pesticides using titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NPs) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research articles and conference proceedings published during 2009-2019, and ultimately 112 eligible articles were included in the review. Fifty-three active ingredients of pesticides and one mixture had been investigated, most of them were organophosphorus (22%), followed by triazine derivatives (11%), chloropyridines (9%), and organochlorines (9%). Sixteen types of TiO with an average photodegradation efficiency of 71% were determined. Based on the type of pesticide and experimental conditions such as irradiation time, the complete photodegradation had been observed. The removal of each group of pesticides has been sufficiently discussed in the article. Effect of experimental conditions on photocatalytic activity has been investigated using linear and polynomial regressions. The strategies to reduce the required energy for this process, doping TiO with metal and non-metal agents, innovative reactor designs, etc., were also discussed. In conclusion, TiO NPs have been successful for degradation of pesticides. Future direction for research incorporates developing and application of heterogeneous doped and immobilized titania having optimized characteristics such as surface area, reactive centers, recombination rate, and phase, and capable to photo-degrade low levels of pesticides residues under solar light in an efficient full-scale size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12576-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Chlorpyrifos remediation in agriculture runoff with homogeneous solar photo-Fenton reaction at near neutral pH: phytotoxicity assessment.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Jan;83(1):212-222

Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran and Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran E-mail:

This study represents the first application of Fe-citrate-based photo-Fenton chemistry for the degradation of chlorpyrifos (CPF) spiked into agricultural runoff, and its phytotoxicity assessment. The effects of the initial CPF concentration, time and ratio of Fe-citrate/HO on CPF removal during the photo-Fenton reaction were investigated and modeled with analysis of variance using R software by the response-surface methodology package. According to the stationary point in original units, the optimal condition for 70.00% CPF removal was as follows: CPF = 2.5 mg L (0.0), time = 48.0 min (0.585) and Fe-citrate/HO = 0.075 (0.539). Beside running the system at near-neutral pH, another strength of this study is related to the treatment of agricultural runoff contaminated with CPF with a raceway pond reactor, which has the advantages of simplicity of the facilities and procedures, as well as the possibility of using sunlight more efficiently in the field of applications. Finally, untreated and treated agriculture runoffs were used as irrigation to determine their phytotoxic effects on seed germination of cress (Lepidium sativum). Solar photo-Fenton treatment greatly reduced phytotoxicity of agriculture runoff and showed the highest germination percentage (70%) compared to both raw agricultural runoff (60%) and untreated CPF-spiked runoff (35%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.556DOI Listing
January 2021

Iranian population exposures to heavy metals, PAHs, and pesticides and their intake routes: a study protocol of a national population health survey.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 4;28(13):16744-16753. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and the third leading cause of death in Iran. It has been proven that numerous cancer cases are caused by exposure to environmental pollutants. There is a public health concern regarding an increase in exposure to carcinogens across Iran through different sources (air, food, and water) and a lack of research to address this issue. This study aims to gather data on exposure to heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides and their intake routes during the implementation of a national population health survey. This is a cross-sectional study of environmental pollutants in Iran, with a stratified multi-stage random sampling method, which led to 660 nationally representative samples in 132 clusters in three sequential parts. The first will be questionnaires to obtain demographics, assets, food records, air quality, and food frequency. The second will be physical measurements, including anthropometric and body composition. The third will be lab assessments that measure 26 types of environmental pollutants (7 heavy metals, 16 PAHs, and 3 pesticides) in urine, inhaled air, and consumed food and water of the population under study using ICP-MS and GS-MS devices. The results of this study will inform policymakers and the general population regarding the level of threat and will provide evidence for the development of interventional and observatory plans on the reduction of exposures to these pollutants. It could also be used to develop local standards to control contaminants through the three exposure routes. This study protocol will obtain data needed for policymakers to set surveillance systems for these pollutants at the national and provincial level to address the public concerns regarding the contamination of food, air, and water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12004-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations between short term exposure to ambient particulate matter from dust storm and anthropogenic sources and inflammatory biomarkers in healthy young adults.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 14;761:144503. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study examined the association between particulate matter from anthropogenic and natural sources and inflammatory biomarkers, including hs-CRP, IL-6, sTNF-RII, and WBCs, in two groups of healthy young subjects. We followed up subjects of two panels (16 to 22 years old), including 22 subjects selected from the urban area (Tehran city) with high-level pollution background and 22 subjects selected from the rural area (Ahmadabad) with low-level pollution background. In each group, we collected 4 times blood samples in various air pollution conditions, In the subjects of the urban group, there was a substantial difference (p < 0.05) between inversion days and cold season control days, and between dust storm days and warm season control days for concentrations of hs-CRP, IL-6, and WBCs biomarkers. In the subjects of the rural group, a significant difference could be detected in the concentration of hs-CRP, IL-6, and WBCs biomarkers (p < 0.05) between inversion days and cold season control days, and between dust storm and warm control days. We found that the difference in concentrations of hs-CRP, IL-6, and WBCs biomarkers between dust storm days and warm control conditions in the rural group were higher than the difference in inversion and cold control conditions, which can be attributed to low background air pollution in the rural area. In the urban area, the health effect of anthropogenic sources of PM is higher than the dust storm condition, which can be attributed to the stronger effect of anthropogenic pollution effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144503DOI Listing
March 2021

Tehran environmental and neurodevelopmental disorders (TEND) cohort study: Phase I, feasibility assessment.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 9;18(2):733-742. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To advance knowledge about childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and study their environmental determinants, we conducted a study in Tehran, Iran to assess the feasibility of prospective birth cohort study.

Methods: We evaluated participation of pregnant women, feasibility of sampling biological material, and health care services availability in Tehran in four steps: (1) first trimester of pregnancy; (2) third trimester of pregnancy; (3) at delivery; and (4) two to three months after delivery. We collected related data through questionnaires, also various biological samples were obtained from mothers (blood, urine, milk and nails-hands and feet) and newborns (umbilical cord blood, meconium, and urine samples) from February 2016 to October 2017.

Results: overall 838 eligible pregnant women were approached. The participation rate was 206(25%) in our study and about 185(90%) of subjects were recruited in hospitals. Out of 206 participants in the first trimester, blood, urine, hand nail, and foot nail samples were collected from 206(100%),193(93%), 205(99%), and 205(99%), respectively. These values dropped to 65(54%), 83(69%), 84(70%), and 84(70%) for the remaining participants 120(58%) in the third trimester, respectively. Also, we gathered milk samples from 125(60%) of mothers at two to three months after delivery.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hospitals were better places for recruitment of subjects in a birth cohort in Tehran. We further concluded that birth cohort study recruitment can be improved by choosing appropriate gestational ages. Obtaining the newborn's urine, meconium, and umbilical cord blood were challenging procedures and require good collaboration between hospital staff and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00499-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721759PMC
December 2020

Subnational exposure to secondhand smoke in Iran from 1990 to 2013: a systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 2;28(3):2608-2625. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Every year, almost eight million people die from tobacco-related diseases, among which around 1.2 million die from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Generally, it is estimated that SHS constituents generated in the interval between puffs are approximately 3 times more toxic than those produced at the moment of puffing. There is no risk-free level of SHS exposure, and even brief exposure can be harmful to health. The aim of this study was to assess SHS exposure and its trend in the different provinces of Iran from 1990 to 2013. To collect available data on SHS exposure, a systematic review was performed. We searched international and national databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and relevant text words in the titles, abstracts, and/or keywords. Also, the data in national surveys were gathered. The frequency of exposure in different provinces as well as age, sex, and rural/urban areas were extracted. Afterwards, modeling was done to estimate SHS exposure from the smoking data. According to our findings, SHS exposure was more prevalent among young people. Moreover, this exposure was greater in rural areas as compared to urban areas. A national study on 13-15-year-old individuals showed the highest exposure occurred outdoors. In addition, a declining trend was observed on SHS exposure over time. It seems that attention to the importance of SHS exposure in researches in Iran dates back to 2001, and gradually, especially in recent years, further studies have been conducted on SHS exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11199-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Health system plan for implementation of Paris agreement on climate change (COP 21): a qualitative study in Iran.

BMC Public Health 2020 Sep 11;20(1):1388. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Abureyhan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Ensuring public health is crucial in any policy debate on climate change. Paris Agreement on climate change is a global contract, through which countries have committed themselves to a public health treaty. The agreement has laid the foundation for mitigation and adaptation. This study was conducted to provide an evidence-based framework for policy-making in the health system of Iran in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on public health and to increase the adaptation of the health system as a result.

Methods: This is a qualitative study. We first used Delphi method to extract the components of Paris Agreement on climate change that were related to the functions and policymaking of health system in Iran. Twenty-three experts in health and climate change were identified purposefully and through snowball sampling as participants in Delphi. Data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire. We used SPSS software version 25 for data analysis based on the descriptive indices including the mean, the percentage of consensus above 75%, and the Kendall coordination coefficient.

Results: Seventy-nine components classified within nine categories were extracted. The most important examples of the implementation of Paris Agreement on climate change in the health system of Iran were: participation in the formulation of strategies for mitigation and adaptation, identifying vulnerable groups, assessing vulnerability, increasing the capacity of health services delivery during extreme events, using early warning systems, using new technologies to increase the adaptation, evaluation of interventions, financial support, increasing the number of researches, increasing the knowledge and skills of staff, and finally public awareness.

Conclusions: Evidence-based policy-making is pivotal to develop effective programs to control the health effects of climate change. This research provided policy translation and customization of micro and macro provisions of Paris Agreement on climate change, in line with the political context of health system in Iran. Our finding will pave the ground, we envisage, for further steps towards capacity building and enhancement of resiliency of the health system, adaptation interventions, and evaluation, identification of barriers and facilitators for adaptation and decreasing the adverse health effects caused by the climate change, in Iran and perhaps beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09503-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488526PMC
September 2020

Association of systemic inflammation and coagulation biomarkers with source-specific PM mass concentrations among young and elderly subjects in central Tehran.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Feb 11;71(2):191-208. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, CA, USA.

In this study, we investigated the association between short-term exposure to different sources of fine particulate matter (PM) and biomarkers of coagulation and inflammation in two different panels of elderly and healthy young individuals in central Tehran. Five biomarkers, including white blood cells (WBC), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were analyzed in the blood samples drawn every 8 weeks from the subjects between May 2012 and May 2013. The studied populations consisted of 44 elderly individuals at a retirement home as well as 40 young adults residing at a school dormitory. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)-resolved source-specific PM mass concentrations and biomarker levels were used as the input to the linear mixed-effects regression model to evaluate the impact of exposure to previously identified PM sources at retirement home and school dormitory in two time lag configurations: lag 1-3 (1-3 days before the blood sampling), and lag 4-6 (4-6 days before the blood sampling). Our analysis of the elderly revealed positive associations of all biomarkers (except hsCRP) with particles of secondary origin in both time lags, further corroborating the toxicity of secondary aerosols formed by photochemical processing in central Tehran. Moreover, industrial emissions, and road dust particles were positively associated with WBC, sTNF-RII, and IL-6 among seniors, while vehicular emissions exhibited positive associations with all biomarkers in either first- or second-time lag. In contrast, most of the PM sources showed insignificant associations with biomarkers of inflammation in the panel of healthy young subjects. Therefore, findings from this study indicated that various PM sources increase the levels of inflammation and coagulation biomarkers, although the strength and significance of these associations vary depending on the type of PM sources, demographic characteristics, and differ across the different time lags. : Tehran, the capital of Iran with a population of more than 9 million people, has been facing serious air pollution challenges as a result of extensive vehicular, and industrial activities in the previous years. Among various air pollutants in Tehran, fine particulate matters (PM, particles with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 µm) are known as one of the most important critical pollutants, causing several adverse health impacts including lung cancer, respiratory, cardiovascular, and cardiopulmonary diseases. Therefore, a number of studies in the area have tried to investigate the adverse health impacts of exposure to PM. However, no studies have ever been conducted in Tehran to examine the association between specific PM sources and biomarkers of coagulation and systemic inflammation as indicators of cardiovascular disorders. Indeed, this is the first study in the area investigating the association of source-specific PM with biomarkers of inflammation including white blood cells (WBC), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Our results have important implications for policy makers in identifying the most toxic sources of PM, and in turn designing schemes for mitigating adverse health impacts of air pollution in Tehran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1806140DOI Listing
February 2021

The effects of ventilation and building characteristics on indoor air quality in waterpipe cafés.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2020 09 18;30(5):805-813. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

To determine the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PMs), indoor air samples were collected from 60 waterpipe cafés in Ardabil city of Iran. Moreover, the influence of several structural, operational, and ventilation system were evaluated on the concentration of the selected pollutants. The results showed that the mean concentration of CO (12.0 ± 7.2 mg/m) and PMs (PM = 171.5 ± 119.6 μg/m, PM = 303.3 ± 201.9 μg/m, PM = 440.3 ± 272.2 μg/m) were notably higher than the guideline levels. According to the results, open face/café area was influenced by the natural ventilation rate and the mean air exchange rate was 3.1 ± 1.1 min. The natural ventilation has a functional role on air quality of the cafes, and fan-type mechanical ventilation was influencing factor on CO concentration when the natural ventilation was restricted. "Type of used charcoal" had the highest influence on the releasing of pollutants inside the cafés as the pollutant concentrations were lower for simple (raw) charcoal compared with the favored (aromatic) one. The results indicated that the building characteristics and natural ventilation considerably affect air quality of the cafes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-020-0240-4DOI Listing
September 2020

The acute effects of short term exposure to particulate matter from natural and anthropogenic sources on inflammation and coagulation markers in healthy young adults.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Sep 15;735:139417. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Airborne particulate matter is associated with increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution conditions and MDA, vWF, and fibrinogen markers in the blood of two panels of healthy young individuals in an urban area in Tehran city with a high air pollution background and another group was living in a rural area (Ahmad Abad Mostofi), with a low air pollution background. In each group, 4 blood samples were taken as follows: one in inversion days, the second in winter, but during the existence of normal condition in terms of air pollution, the third sample in the spring during the normal condition in terms of air pollution and the fourth sample during the dust storm conditions. In the urban and rural groups, there was a significant difference between the concentration of MDA, vWF, fibrinogen between inversion and cold season control conditions, and between dust storm conditions and warm season control conditions (p < 0.05). The results showed that the association of dust storm condition on the measured biomarkers was stronger than the inversion condition, which health consideration in the dust conditions be taken into account similar to the inversion conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139417DOI Listing
September 2020

Climate change and health in Iran: a narrative review.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Jun 2;18(1):367-378. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

6Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Abureyhan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The consequences of climate change are highly impeding the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) anywhere, especially in low and middle-income countries. While climate change scales up, its health-related risks increase, which in turn leads to cause new challenges for public health. As a second largest country of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of World Health Organization, Iran is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

Purpose: This study seeks the notion of health risks and challenges of climate change in Iran and provide potential evidence-based remedies to prevent and diminish such destructive effects.

Methods: A comprehensive literature in various computerized databases was conducted, and numerous published original research and review articles about climate change status and evidences of adverse health consequences of climate change in Iran were reviewed.

Results: The evidence suggests that the expected health challenges related to climate change in Iran are: rising temperatures; frequent extreme weather events; reduction of air quality; food-borne, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases; mental health and well-being consequences; and the increasing trend of natural disasters and deaths associated with climatological hazards.

Conclusions: By considering the growing burden of diseases associated with climate variability in Iran as well as the interdisciplinary nature of climate change and health issues, an integrated, multi-sectoral, and comprehensive approach for identification, prioritization, and implementation of adaptation options is required by Ministry of Health and Medical Education as a custodian of public health in order to enhance the resiliency and adaption against adverse health effects of climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00462-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203306PMC
June 2020

Can respirator face masks in a developing country reduce exposure to ambient particulate matter?

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2020 07 21;30(4):606-617. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Respirator face masks (RFMs) as a personal-level intervention is increasingly being utilized to reduce ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure, globally. We tested the effectiveness of 50 commercially available ones in reducing the exposure of ambient particle number concentrations (PNC), PM, PM, and PM (PM ≤ 10, 2.5, and 1 μm in diameter, respectively) in a traffic-affected urban site in Tehran. To examine the efficiency of RFMs, we applied a specific experimental setup including vacuum pumps, dummy heads, connecting tubes, glass chambers, and GRIMM Aerosol Spectrometer to measure all metrics after dummy heads. The average effectiveness of RFMs was in the range of 0.7-83.5%, 3.5-68.1%, 0.8-46.1%, and 0.4-32.2% in reducing ambient PNC, PM, PM, and PM, respectively. Considering all metrics, the highest effectiveness was observed always for Biomask, followed by 3 M 9332, due to their well-designed physical characteristics (e.g., adjustable nose clip for any face/nose shape, and size, soft inner material in the nose panel to provide a secure seal against leakage, adjustable or elasticated straps/ear loops to better adjust on any face). Biomask reduced ambient PM with a mean value of 94.6 μg m (minimum-maximum: 51.7-100.3 μg m), whereas it filtered on average just 29.0 μg m (25.7-43.5 μg m) of ambient PM and 18.2 μg m (14.7-21.8 μg m) of PM. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to find the most important design-related factors of RFMs affecting their effectiveness, which showed the exhalation valve and its diaphragm (20.4%), nose clip (19.7%), and cheek flaps (18.6%) are ranked as the main design-related variables. The fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution indicated that Biomask and 3M 9332 had scores of 1 and 0.97, the highest scores compared with other RFMs. This study provides crucial evidence-based results to elucidate the effectiveness and design-related factors of RFMs in real-environmental circumstances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-020-0222-6DOI Listing
July 2020

A field indoor air measurement of SARS-CoV-2 in the patient rooms of the largest hospital in Iran.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 6;725:138401. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Electronic address:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city, China, in late 2019 and has rapidly spread throughout the world. The major route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is in contention, with the airborne route a likely transmission pathway for carrying the virus within indoor environments. Until now, there has been no evidence for detection of airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and this may have implication for the potential spread of the COVID-19. We investigated the air of patient rooms with confirmed COVID-19 in the largest hospital in Iran, on March 17, 2020. To collect the SARS-CoV-2 particles, ten air samples were collected into the sterile standard midget impingers containing 20 mL DMEM with 100 μg/mL streptomycin, 100 U/mL penicillin and 1% antifoam reagent for 1 h. Besides, indoor particle number concentrations, CO, relative humidity and temperature were recorded throughout the sampling duration. Viral RNA was extracted from samples taken from the impingers and Reverse-Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to confirm the positivity of collected samples based on the virus genome sequence. Fortunately, in this study all air samples which were collected 2 to 5 m from the patients' beds with confirmed COVID-19 were negative. Despite we indicated that all air samples were negative, however, we suggest further in vivo experiments should be conducted using actual patient cough, sneeze and breath aerosols in order to show the possibility of generation of the airborne size carrier aerosols and the viability fraction of the embedded virus in those carrier aerosols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194859PMC
July 2020

Carcinogenic risks and chemical composition of particulate matter recovered by two methods: wet and dry extraction.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Mar 5;192(4):213. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Wet and dry extraction methods are two main methods used in toxicological in vitro and in vivo studies to recover particulate matter (PM) from filter papers. The aim of this study was to extract PM by wet and dry extraction methods and compare the elemental content and carcinogenic risks of extracts. PM samples were collected using fiberglass filters and a high-volume air sampler. For wet extraction, the method involved agitation in water, sonication in water bath, and agitation again. For dry extraction, the filters were sonicated and the PM was recovered using sweeping by a brush. Elemental composition of extracts was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR) of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in extracts were estimated. The average recovery efficiency (%) of dry and wet extraction methods were 36.8% and 58.5%, respectively. The average elemental concentration that resulted from dry and wet methods was calculated to be 2.27 and 1.26 μg/m, respectively. The total ELCR of all heavy metals in both methods exceeds the 1 × 10 limit. However, the total ELCR of heavy metals that resulted from the dry method was higher than that from the wet method. In conclusion, the dry method showed to be more effective to recover a representative extract from the filter. This can ultimately lead to a realistic and robust response in toxicological studies. However, a toxicological comparison between the extracts of these two methods is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8156-yDOI Listing
March 2020

Endotoxin and Der p1 allergen levels in indoor air and settled dust in day-care centers in Tehran, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 11;17(2):789-795. Epub 2019 Aug 11.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Allergens like endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 are associated with early wheezing and asthma morbidity. Day-care centers can be an important source of exposure to allergens. The aim of this study was to evaluate children's exposure to endotoxin and mite allergen (Der p 1) associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and settled dust in day-care centers in two phases in years of 2015 and 2016 in Tehran city, Iran.

Methods: Endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 in TSP and settled dust were measured in 23 day-care centers in Tehran. After collecting dust samples and weighting them, and then their extraction, Endotoxin and Der p 1 allergen were determined using QCL-1000 Endpoint chromogenic LAL Assay and ELISA, respectively.

Results: The mean concentrations of endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 in settled dust were 0.3 EU/mg and 0.2 ng/mg, respectively. The mean concentration of endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 in indoor air TSP were 0.8 EU/m and 0.4 ng/m, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between endotoxin both in settled dust and in TSP with measured relative humidity in winter. Also, moderate correlation was observed between Der p 1 in settled dust and relative humidity in winter; however, the correlation between allergen in TSP and relative humidity was not significant.

Conclusion: Day-care centers can be an important source of endotoxin and Der p 1 allergen, so, implementation of proper interventions in these places can reduce exposure to them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00395-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985405PMC
December 2019

Maternal exposure to air pollutants and birth weight in Tehran, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 22;17(2):711-717. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Street, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran, 1417613151 Iran.

Background: Air pollution can cause various health outcomes, especially in susceptible groups including pregnant women. Low birth weight (LBW) is among the adverse birth outcomes and is one of the main causes of infant mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the association between air pollutants and LBW in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: In this case-control study, 2144 babies born in three hospitals of Tehran (Iran) during 2011 to 2012 whose mothers were the residents of this city in last 5 years were considered. Of these, 468 infants with birth weight < 2500 g and 1676 with birth weight ≥ 2500 g were regarded as case and control groups, respectively. Gestational age was also considered for definition of cases (small for gestational age (SGA)) and controls (appropriate for gestational age). Land use regression models were used to assess exposure to particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO), nitrogen dioxide (NO) and volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX) during pregnancy. Logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between air pollutants and LBW.

Results: The concentrations of air pollutants were very high but similar in cases and controls. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, no statistically significant association was observed between air pollutants and LBW. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for PM, SO, and benzene were 0.999 (0.994-1.005), 0.998 (0.993-1.003), and 0.980 (0.901-1.067), respectively.

Conclusions: No association was found between LBW and air pollutants. Further studies with more rigorous designs and access to more comprehensive information are suggested to assess the effect of other air pollutants, such as CO, O, PM, ultrafine particles, and oxidative potential of particles on birth outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00386-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985325PMC
December 2019

Photochemical degradation of toluene in gas-phase under UV/visible light graphene oxide-TiO nanocomposite: influential operating factors, optimization, and modeling.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 23;17(2):671-683. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The current study aimed to investigate the removal efficiency of toluene using synthesized titanium dioxide-graphene oxide composites under visible light and UV irradiation. The characterization of synthesized composites was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive, X-ray diffraction and fourier transforms infrared. In order to find the optimum of the main experimental parameters affecting the removal efficiency of toluene including the length of the reactor, initial concentration, and flow rates, central composite design together with response surface methodology with R software was used. The initial concentration of toluene in the inlet of the reactor as well as its concentration in the outlet was measured using gas chromatography with the flame ionization detector. Analysis of variance results for the quadratic model showed that the highly significant and simple linear regression was established as a predicting model. Multiple and adjusted R were 0.965 and 0.974 for UV irradiation GO-TiO model and 0.951 and 0.959 for visible light GO-TiO model, respectively. As such, the differences less than 0.2 between multiple and adjusted R in two models indicate that two examined models were fitted well. The highest removal efficiency of toluene using UV irradiation GO-TiO and visible light GO-TiO was obtained at optimum condition; length of reactor 40 cm, initial concentration of 0.1 ppm, and flow rate equal to 1 l min, with 97.7 and 77.2%, respectively. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of toluene increased considerably with rising the length of the reactor, decreasing flow rates, and initial concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00382-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985382PMC
December 2019

Enhanced biodegradation of styrene vapors in the biotrickling filter inoculated with biosurfactant-generating bacteria under HO stimulation.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 24;704:135325. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Biotrickling filters (BTFs) applied to hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) suffer from limited mass transfer. Phase transfer kinetic and equilibrium effects limit the biodegradation of hydrophobic VOCs especially at high concentrations. This study evaluates two strategies for overcoming the problem. First, a natural process was used to enhance the aqueous availability of styrene, a hydrophobic VOC model, by inoculating the BTF with a mixture of biosurfactant-generating bacteria. This method achieved a maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) of 139 g mh in the BTF at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s. The highest concentrations of the biosurfactants surfactin and rhamnolipid were 205 and 86 mg L, respectively, in this step. Sequencing 16S rRNA confirmed the presence of biosurfactant-producing bacteria capable of biodegrading styrene in the BTF including Bacillus sonorensis, Bacillus subtilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Alcaligenes feacalis, Arthrobacter creatinolyticus, and Kocuria rosea. Second, the effect of adding HO to the recycle liquid on the BTF performance was determined. The biodegradation and mineralization of styrene in the BTF operated at a loading rate of 266 g mh and HO/styrene molar ratio of 0.05 with EBRT as short as 15 s were 94% and 53%, respectively, with the EC of 250 g mh. High concentrations of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase and catalase: 56 and 7 U g, respectively) were produced and biosurfactant generation was increased in this step, contributing to enhanced styrene biodegradation and mineralization. The styrene biodegradation and mineralization values in the BTF in the last day operated under similar conditions but without HO were 11.4% and 5.3%, respectively. The bacterial population had no considerable change in the BTF after adding HO. Accordingly, stimulating the BTF inoculated with biosurfactant-generating bacteria with HO is a promising strategy for improving the biodegradation of hydrophobic VOCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135325DOI Listing
February 2020

Cardiovascular effects of airborne particulate matter: A review of rodent model studies.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 23;242:125204. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In recent year, animal models have been growingly used to increase our knowledge about the toxicity of PM and underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge and findings of studies investigating the cardiovascular effects of PM in rats and mice. The six main areas covered in this review include: I) nature of particulate matter and toxicity mechanisms, II) systemic inflammation, III) heart rate and heart rate variability, IV) histopathological effects, V) atherosclerosis, VI) thrombosis, and VI) myocardial infarction. This review showed that animal model studies have been successful to bring new insights into the mechanisms underlying PM-induced cardiovascular diseases. However, there are some areas that the exact mechanisms are still unclear. In conclusion, investigating the cardiovascular effects of PM in vivo or interpreting the results should attempt to justify the role of different PM compositions, which may vastly affect the overall cytotoxicity of particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125204DOI Listing
March 2020

National and sub-national exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and its attributable burden of disease in Iran from 1990 to 2016.

Environ Pollut 2019 Dec 4;255(Pt 1):113173. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Ambient particulate matter is a public health concern. We aimed (1) to estimate national and provincial long-term exposure of Iranians to ambient particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 μm (PM) from 1990 to 2016, and (2) to estimate the national and provincial burden of disease attributable to PM in Iran. We used all available ground measurements of PM < 10 μm (PM) (used to estimate PM) from 91 monitoring stations. We estimated the annual mean exposure to PM for all Iranian population from 1990 to 2016 through a multi-stage modeling process. By applying comparative risk assessment methodology and using life table for years of life lost (YLL), we estimated the mortality and YLL attributable to PM for five outcomes. The predicted provincial annual mean PM concentrations range was between 21.7 μg/m (UI: 19.03-24.9) and 35.4 μg/m (UI: 31.4-39.4) from 1990 to 2016. We estimated in 2016, about 41,000 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 35634, 47014) and about 3,000,000 YLL (95% UI: 2632101, 3389342) attributable to the long-term exposure to PM in Iran. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of mortality by 31,363 deaths (95% UI: 27520, 35258), followed by stroke (7012 (5999, 8062) deaths), lower respiratory infection (1210 (912, 1519) deaths), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1019 (715, 1328) deaths), and lung cancer (668 (489, 848) deaths). In 2016, about 43% of all PM related mortality in Iran was, respectively, in the following provinces: Tehran (12.6%), Isfahan (9.3%), Khorasan Razavi (8.0%), Fars (6.5%), and Khozestan (6.4%). In summary, we found that the majority of Iranians were exposed to the levels of ambient particulate matter exceeding the WHO guidelines from 1990 to 2016. Further, we found that there was an increasing trend of total mortality attributed to PM in Iran from 1990 to 2016 where the slope was higher in western provinces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113173DOI Listing
December 2019

Spatial homogeneity and heterogeneity of ambient air pollutants in Tehran.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 26;697:134123. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Centre for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

To investigate spatial inequality of ambient air pollutants and comparison of their heterogeneity and homogeneity across Tehran, the following quantitative indicators were utilized: coefficient of divergence (COD), the 90 percentile of the absolute differences between ambient air pollutant concentrations and coefficient of variation (CV). Real-time hourly concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous air pollutants (GAPs) of twenty-two air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) were obtained from Tehran Air Quality Control Company (TAQCC) in 2017. Annual mean concentrations of PM, PM, and PM (PM) ranged from 21.7 to 40.5, 37.3 to 75.0 and 58.0 to 110.4 μg m, respectively. Annual mean PM and PM concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization air quality guideline (WHO AQG) and national standard levels. NO, O, SO and CO annual mean concentrations ranged from 27.0 to 76.8, 15.5 to 25.1, 4.6 to 12.2 ppb, and 1.9 to 3.8 ppm over AQMSs, respectively. Our generated spatial maps exhibited that ambient PM concentrations increased from the north into south and south-western areas as the hotspots of ambient PM in Tehran. O hotspots were observed in the north and south-west, while NO hotspots were in the west and south. COD values of PM demonstrated more results lower than the 0.2 cut off compared to GAPs; indicating high to moderate spatial homogeneity for PM and moderate to high spatial heterogeneity for GAPs. Regarding CV approach, the spatial variabilities of air pollutants followed in the order of O (87.3%) > SO (65.2%) > CO (61.8%) > PM (52.5%) > PM (48.9%) > NO (48.1%) > PM (42.9%), which were mainly in agreement with COD results, except for NO. COD values observed a statistically (P < 0.05) positive correlation with the values of the 90 percentile across AQMSs. Our study, for the first time, highlights spatial inequality of ambient PM and GAPs in Tehran in detail to better facilitate establishing new intra-urban control policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134123DOI Listing
December 2019

Correction to: Chemical composition of PM10 and its effect on in vitro hemolysis.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 22;17(1):503-504. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40201-018-00327-w.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00360-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582202PMC
June 2019

Proinflammatory effects of dust storm and thermal inversion particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro: a comparative approach and analysis.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 18;17(1):433-444. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Particulate matter (PM) as the carcinogenic air pollutants can lead to aggravated health outcomes. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that PM can be engaged in different diseases such as cardiovascular, respiratory and cancer. The in vitro secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been used to assess the effects of PM with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM). This study compared the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1-beta (IL1-β) secretions of PBMCs exposed to PM of dust storm and inversion. We collected PM samples during the spring and autumn seasons in two locations. Isolated PBMCs were exposed separately to 50, 150, and 300 μg/ml of different type of PM for 4 and 24 h. The mean concentrations of TNF-α for the PM of dust storm and inversion were 6305.61 ± 2421 and 6651.74 ± 2820, respectively. Also the mean concentrations of IL1-β for the PM of dust storm and inversion were 556.86 ± 162 and 656.35 ± 196, respectively. Furthermore, these values for the production of IL-6 were 12,655 ± 5661 and 16,685 ± 8069, respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the PM of dust storm and that of inversion with regard to PBMCs, the results showed a significant increase in the proinflammatory cytokine secretion of both PMs compared with the controls. Moreover, TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-6 secreted in cells exposed to PM of dust storm were about 10 times more than the controls, these values for cells exposed to PM of inversion were around 10, 12, and 14 times more than the controls, respectively. It can be concluded that the PM of both dust storm and inversion can play a significant role in proinflammatory cytokine secretion due to its harmful effect on human health. Graphical abstractThis picture shows the Proinflammatory cytokine producing potential of PM with two sources (dust storm and urban air pollution) in exposure with human PBMCs in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00362-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582270PMC
June 2019

Developing environmental health indicators [EHIs] for Iran based on the causal effect model.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 27;17(1):273-279. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Environmental health monitoring and its effects on health are very important in health systems. Relationship between environment and health can be done by simplifying data in understandable indicators for people and policy-makers. The present study presents the general framework for formulating environmental health quality index for Iran.

Methods: This study was implemented through expert panel at two levels: indicator domain determination and domain specific variables selection. Domain specific variables were selected based on the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework from the list of national and international variables.

Results: Seven environmental health issues [air quality, drinking water, sewage disposal, food, radiation management and housing and human settlements] were determined, and three variables were selected for air quality, 8 variables for water quality, 5 variables for sanitation, 1 variable for food quality, 3 variables for housing and human settlements, 4 variables for solid waste management and 3 variables for radiation management.

Conclusions: Environmental health indicators determination based on the causal effect model leads to a better understanding of the relationship between the environment and health by simplifying data in an understandable format for public and improves prioritization of policy-making in the environmental health. In this study, environmental health indicators for Iran were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00346-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582035PMC
June 2019

Chemical composition of PM and its effect on in vitro hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs): a comparison study during dust storm and inversion.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 2;17(1):493-502. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

1School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enqelab Square, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate chemical composition of PM (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) during dust storm and inversion in Tehran and hemolysis effects.

Methods: PM was sampled in Tehran, Iran, during dust storm and inversion conditions. Water soluble ions (F¯, Cl¯, NO¯, NO¯, SO¯, Na, K, NH, Ca, Mg) and elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, Zn, Pt, Rh, Pd, As and Si) were analyzed by ion chromatograph (IC) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), respectively. Hemolysis was examined as in vitro at PM concentrations of 50-300 μg/ml.

Results: Daily average of PM concentrations in dusty and inversion days were 348.40 and 220.54 μg/m, respectively. Most prevalence ionic components were NO¯, Cl¯, SO¯ and Ca during dust storm and SO¯, NO¯, Cl¯ and NH during inversion. Si, Fe and Al had the maximum values in both conditions. Particles associated with both conditions induced hemolytic responses. PM from dusty day showed a higher hemolysis percent (10.24 ± 4.67%) than inversion (9.08 ± 5.47%), but this difference was not significant ( = 0.32). Hemolytic effects were significantly intensified by increased PM concentrations ( < 0.001) in a dose-response manner.

Conclusions: As the results, chemical composition of sampled particles from inversion days and dust storm was different from each other. Hemolytic effects of particles during dust storm were more than inversion days. However, this difference was not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-00327-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582044PMC
June 2019

Indoor air quality in waterpipe cafés: exposure level to particulate matter.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Sep 10;26(26):26605-26616. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Waterpipe is increasingly being used worldwide. Despite waterpipe cafés gaining popularity among Iranian population, there is a paucity of research measuring exposures and assessing the health effects of waterpipe smoke in these places. The objective of the current study was to investigate the exposure to PM, PM, and PM concentrations and risk assessment of PM exposures in different age groups in the indoor air of waterpipe cafés. The study samples were taken from indoor air of 50 waterpipe cafés in Ardabil, Iran. The PM, PM, and PM concentrations were assessed using a portable GRIMM dust monitors. The mean (±SD) concentrations of indoor air PM, PM, and PM were 765 ± 352, 624 ± 327, and 500 ± 305 μg/m, respectively. The mean of HQ (hazard quotient) for PM in all age groups of 16 and older was > 1, which corresponds to an unacceptably high risk for human health. Also, the mean of ELCRs (excess lifetime cancer risk) for PM in different age groups exceeded the limit value by the USEPA. The results indicated that the PM concentration is significantly influenced by the number of waterpipe smokers, type of ventilation system, and kind of tobacco. Therefore, waterpipe cafés are a potential source for exposure to PM, PM, and PM and increase the risk of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular problems among waterpipe smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05546-8DOI Listing
September 2019

Bioaerosols in the waterpipe cafés: genera, levels, and factors influencing their concentrations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jul 16;26(20):20297-20307. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study was conducted in order to assess the exposure to bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in the air of waterpipe cafés (AWPCs), in the hose of waterpipe (HWP), and in the water bowl of the waterpipe (WBWP) and to investigate the factors influence increasing the contamination levels in waterpipe cafés in Ardabil. From all the 50 cafés studied, the samples were taken from air and from water contained in water bowl and hose for bacterial and fungal analyses. The results demonstrated that the mean numbers of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of café, hose, and water bowl were 33.90 ± 14.86 and 25.24 ± 1.99 CFU/m, 72.16 ± 29.55 and 72.78 ± 42.45 CFU/plate, 53.7 ± 25.46 and 25.26 ± 13.94 CFU/ml, respectively. The predominant bacterial genera in waterpipe cafés were Pseudomonas and Bacillus in air, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas in the hose, and Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas in the water bowl, respectively. The predominant fungal species in waterpipe cafés were Penicillium and Cladosporium in air, yeast and Fusarium in the hose, and Paecilomyces and yeast in the water bowl, respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the mean concentrations of bacterial aerosol and qualitative variables such as type of heating system, materials of wall and ceiling, traditional restaurants, interior supermarkets, moisturized walls, the number of people, area of cafés, and temperature. But there was no significant relationship between these variables and the mean concentration of fungal aerosols. The results also showed that the levels of bioaerosols were high in the air, hose, and water bowl of the waterpipe. Therefore, cafés can be a potential source for the transmission of pathogenic agents and increase the risk of respiratory diseases among waterpipe smoking individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05413-6DOI Listing
July 2019

Technical and economic investigation of chemical scrubber and bio-filtration in removal of HS and NH from wastewater treatment plant.

J Environ Manage 2019 Jul 10;241:32-43. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A detailed techno-economic comparison of a chemical scrubber (CS) and a bio-filter (BF) was conducted over a 45-day time period at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), Yazd city. The assessment of emissions quantity indicated that odor emissions from the Yazd WWPT mainly consist of hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH). It was also found that odor gaseous loading changes corresponding to water consumption pattern in society (R = 0.922) for HS and (R = 0.978) for NH. The highest level of 25 and 3 ppm for HS and NH, respectively were detected at specific times during the day. The BF system was continuously supplied with Yazd WWPT's off-gas treatment while the CS was only examined at the times during the day when the gas emissions are at the highest level. The removal efficiency of NH and HS were found to be affected by their respective loading rate. Additionally, among the various oxidants examined in the CS, the NaOCl solution showed the best results in terms of removal efficiency and compatibility. The experiment revealed almost complete removal of NH while the HS removal efficiency remained above 95% for both systems regardless of the operating conditions. This study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of both systems in treating actual waste gases containing HS and NH. By comparing the gas loading rate of both systems and considering limitations of the BF system, the CS seems to be more efficient applicable odor control technology from a technical viewpoint. From the economic viewpoint, comparisons revealed that chemical usage and operating expenses were costly parts of the CS and the BF, respectively. The economic indexes of 1.58 €.m. h and 2.57 €.m. h were obtained for the BF and CS, respectively, reflecting cost-effectiveness of the BF system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.003DOI Listing
July 2019

An in vitro method to evaluate hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs) treated by airborne particulate matter (PM).

MethodsX 2019 10;6:156-161. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Air pollutants are capable to enter bloodstream through the nose, mouth, skin and the digestive tract. Hemolysis is the premature destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) membranes. This can affect metabolism of RBCs and reduce cell life. Each of these adverse effects could lead to anemia, jaundice and other pathological conditions. Hemolysis can induce by the mineral components adsorbed on the particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemolysis of RBCs treated by airborne PM (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) in vitro. Study had two main stages including sampling and preparation of PM suspension, and hemolysis test. Particle samples were collected by means of a high-volume sampler on fiberglass filters. The PM was extracted through dry ultrasonic method. Blood sample was incubated by PM at concentrations 50-300 μg/mL for 3 h. Hemolysis percent was assessed through measurement of Hemoglobin concentration in test samples and total blood hemoglobin (TBH) sample by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post-hoc test were applied to compare mean values of hemolysis percent between different PM concentrations. Method used in current study is suggested for investigation of toxic effects of airborne particle matter (PM, PM and PM) on human RBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355395PMC
January 2019

Evaluate the types and amount of genotoxic waste in Tehran University of Medical Science's hospitals.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2018 Dec 22;16(2):171-179. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Genotoxic wastes are one type of hospital wastes that are extremely dangerous and may cause cell mutation or cancer and their disposal should be taken seriously. Cytotoxic drugs are main component of these wastes. The purpose of this study was to determine the types and quantities of genotoxic wastes in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and evaluation of genotoxic waste management index.

Methods: For this purpose, a questionnaire was used to collect data. Each question was scored according to compliance or non-compliance with the law, and genotoxic hospital waste management index was calculated for each hospital.

Results: Various parameters including waste generation rate, segregation, collection, transportation, storage, disposal and the hygiene of personnel were evaluated. The results showed that 60% of hospitals ranked medium, 27% ranked poor and 13% ranked as very poor according to this index.

Conclusions: Since the condition of genotoxic waste management in this study was ranked as medium, therefore some steps of hospital waste management system require improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-0305-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277331PMC
December 2018