Publications by authors named "Katrine N Aadland"

5 Publications

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Cardiometabolic risk factor levels in Norwegian children compared to international reference values: The ASK study.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(8):e0220239. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Center for Physically Active Learning, Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway.

Objective: To investigate cardiometabolic risk factor levels in a group of Norwegian 10-year-old children compared to international values and examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the reference-standardized clustered risk score.

Methods: 913 children (49% girls) were included from the Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) score and CRF, were standardized according to international age-and sex-specific reference values.

Results: The Norwegian children had significantly more favorable WC, DBP, glucose, HDL-C and CRF levels compared to the international reference values, but similar or less favorable levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors. CRF was the variable that differed the most from the international values (mean (95% CI) 1.20 (1.16 to 1.24) SD). The clustered risk score (excluding CRF) was higher in the Norwegian children, but decreased to below international levels when including CRF (mean (95% CI) - 0.08 (- 0.12 to -0.05) SD). CRF had a significant inverse association with the clustered risk score (excluding CRF) (β - 0.37 SD, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.31).

Conclusions: Norwegian children have substantially higher CRF levels than international standards, and including CRF in clustered risk scores reduces overall risk in Norwegian children below that of international levels. CRF is associated with improved cardiometabolic health in children.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220239PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699667PMC
March 2020

Executive Function, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and School Related Well-Being Did Not Mediate the Effect of School-Based Physical Activity on Academic Performance in Numeracy in 10-Year-Old Children. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) Study.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:245. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of 10-year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. Aiming to explain this finding, we investigated the mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being in the relation between the physical activity intervention and child's performance in numeracy. An ANCOVA model with latent variable structural equation modeling was estimated using data from 360 children (the lower third in academic performance in numeracy at baseline). The model consisted of the three latent factors as mediators; executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being. We found no mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation or school related well-being in the relationship between the ASK intervention and academic performance in numeracy ( ≥ 0.256). Our results suggest that the effect of the intervention on performance in numeracy in the present sample is not explained by change in executive function, behavioral self-regulation, or school related well-being. We suggest this finding mainly could be explained by the lack of effect of the intervention on the mediators, which might be due to an insufficient dose of physical activity. Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835798PMC
February 2018

Executive Functions Do Not Mediate Prospective Relations between Indices of Physical Activity and Academic Performance: The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) Study.

Front Psychol 2017 29;8:1088. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Faculty of Teacher Education and Sport, Western Norway University of Applied SciencesBergen, Norway.

Changes in cognitive function induced by physical activity have been proposed as a mechanism for the link between physical activity and academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate if executive function mediated the prospective relations between indices of physical activity and academic performance in a sample of 10-year-old Norwegian children. The study included 1,129 children participating in the Active Smarter Kids (ASK) trial, followed over 7 months. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with a latent variable of executive function (measuring inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) was used in the analyses. Predictors were objectively measured physical activity, time spent sedentary, aerobic fitness, and motor skills. Outcomes were performance on national tests of numeracy, reading, and English (as a second language). Generally, indices of physical activity did not predict executive function and academic performance. A modest mediation effect of executive function was observed for the relation between motor skills and academic performance. Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5489630PMC
June 2017

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not sedentary time, predicts changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in 10-y-old children: the Active Smarter Kids Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2017 06 5;105(6):1391-1398. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway

Cross-sectional data have suggested an inverse relation between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors that is independent of sedentary time. However, little is known about which subcomponent of physical activity may predict cardiometabolic risk factors in youths. We examined the independent prospective associations between objectively measured sedentary time and subcomponents of physical activity with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children aged 10 y. We included 700 children (49.1% males; 50.9% females) in which sedentary time and physical activity were measured with the use of accelerometry. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), and fasting blood sample (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fasting insulin) were measured with the use of standard clinical methods and analyzed individually and as a clustered cardiometabolic risk score standardized by age and sex ( score). Exposure and outcome variables were measured at baseline and at follow-up 7 mo later. Sedentary time was not associated with any of the individual cardiometabolic risk factors or clustered cardiometabolic risk in prospective analyses. Moderate physical activity at baseline predicted lower concentrations of triglycerides ( = 0.021) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance ( = 0.027) at follow-up independent of sex, socioeconomic status, Tanner stage, monitor wear time, or WC. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ( = 0.043) and vigorous physical activity ( = 0.028) predicted clustered cardiometabolic risk at follow-up, but these associations were attenuated after adjusting for WC. Physical activity, but not sedentary time, is prospectively associated with cardiometabolic risk in healthy children. Public health strategies aimed at improving children's cardiometabolic profile should strive for increasing physical activity of at least moderate intensity rather than reducing sedentary time. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02132494.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.150540DOI Listing
June 2017

Effects of physical activity on schoolchildren's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Prev Med 2016 10 7;91:322-328. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Sogn og Fjordane University College, Faculty of Teacher Education and Sports, Sogndal, Norway; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children.

Methods: In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework. Academic performance in numeracy, reading and English was measured using standardized Norwegian national tests. Physical activity was measured objectively by accelerometry.

Results: We found no effect of the intervention on academic performance in primary analyses (standardized difference 0.01-0.06, p>0.358). Subgroup analyses, however, revealed a favorable intervention effect for those who performed the poorest at baseline (lowest tertile) for numeracy (p=0.005 for the subgroup∗group interaction), compared to controls (standardized difference 0.62, 95% CI 0.19-1.07).

Conclusions: This large, rigorously conducted cluster RCT in 10-year-old children supports the notion that there is still inadequate evidence to conclude that increased physical activity in school enhances academic achievement in all children. Still, combining physical activity and learning seems a viable model to stimulate learning in those academically weakest schoolchildren.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.09.005DOI Listing
October 2016
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