Publications by authors named "Katrina Carroll-Haskins"

5 Publications

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Outcomes of Visual Self-Expression in Virtual Reality on Psychosocial Well-Being With the Inclusion of a Fragrance Stimulus: A Pilot Mixed-Methods Study.

Front Psychol 2020 8;11:589461. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, The College of New Jersey, Ewing Township, NJ, United States.

Aims: In this pilot mixed-methods study, we examined the participants experiences of engaging in virtual drawing tasks and the impact of an olfactory stimulus (calming fragrance blend) on outcomes of affect, stress, self-efficacy, anxiety, creative agency, and well-being (satisfaction with life).

Methods: This study used a parallel mixed-methods, simple block randomization design. The study participants included 24 healthy adults aged 18 to 54 years, including 18 women and six men. The participants completed two 1-h immersive virtual art making sessions and were randomly assigned to receive either a fragrance or a non-fragrance condition for the first session. Quantitative (standardized self-report measures) and qualitative (open-ended survey responses and virtual artwork) datasets were collected concurrently and integrated during data analysis.

Results: The quantitative results indicated that the fragrance condition demonstrated a significant reduction in negative affect (e.g., feeling hostile, jittery, upset, distressed, etc.), namely, reduced feelings of negativity when compared to the non-fragrance condition. A trend toward improvement in self-efficacy was also seen in the fragrance condition. No significant changes were found for fragrance or non-fragrance conditions for positive affect, anxiety, and creative agency. The qualitative findings included five themes related to art making experiences in virtual reality in both conditions: fun and joy; novelty of virtual media, experimentation, and play; relaxation and calm; learning curve; and physical discomfort and disorientation. Four themes were identified for virtual art content and visual qualities: nature imagery, references to memories and personal symbols, fantasy and play within imagery, and depiction of everyday objects.

Conclusions: Overall, the participants reported positive responses to the novel virtual art making experiences which were further heightened by the inclusion of the fragrance stimulus for negative affect. These preliminary findings need to be replicated with larger sample sizes to confirm the outcomes and the trends that were seen in this pilot study. Further research is recommended to examine the differences between experiences of virtual and traditional art media and to examine different olfactory stimuli promoting focus and concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.589461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793948PMC
December 2020

Qualitative Assessment of Arts-Integrated Education for Physician Assistant Students.

J Physician Assist Educ 2020 Jun;31(2):98-102

Adrian S. Banning, MMS, PA-C, is an associate clinical professor and research coordinator for the physician assistant program in the College of Nursing and Health Professions at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JPA.0000000000000299DOI Listing
June 2020

Outcomes of Therapeutic Artmaking in Patients Undergoing Radiation Oncology Treatment: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

Integr Cancer Ther 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1534735420912835

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

A cancer diagnosis can be extremely stressful and life-altering for patients. Chronically high levels of stress can increase inflammation and affect the progression of the cancer. Psychosocial interventions could reduce stress and address cancer patients' emotional, psychological, and spiritual needs. This mixed-methods pilot study compared 2 single-session arts-based approaches for patients in active radiation treatment in a large urban hospital. Participants were assigned to either the active control of independent coloring or the therapeutic intervention of open studio art therapy. Participants completed pre-session and post-session saliva samples and standardized psychosocial measures of stress, affect, anxiety, self-efficacy, and creative agency. Both conditions significantly increased participants' positive affect, self-efficacy, and creative agency, and decreased negative affect, perceived stress, and anxiety. No changes of note were seen in the salivary measures. Participants' narrative responses corroborated the quantitative findings and highlighted additional benefits such as supporting meaning-making and spiritual insights. Both arts-based interventions can support the emotional, psychological, and spiritual needs of cancer patients while each has features that may be more suited to the needs of certain patients. Further replication of these findings could support our initial findings that suggest that patients could benefit from having art studio spaces with art therapists and choices of art materials available on the oncology unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735420912835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177989PMC
March 2021

Outcomes of art therapy and coloring for professional and informal caregivers of patients in a radiation oncology unit: A mixed methods pilot study.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2019 Oct 22;42:153-161. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, TRC 2 West, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Caring for cancer patients can be highly stressful for both family caregivers and oncology professionals. These high levels of stress can lead to poorer patient outcomes and increased risk of health problems for the caregivers themselves. Art therapy may help these caregivers as art-making can be a relaxing and enjoyable form of self-expression and art therapists can support individuals in expressing and processing challenging emotions. Research on art-making or art therapy with caregivers of cancer patients has shown some positive results, but its interpretation is limited by the use of multifaceted interventions.

Method: In this mixed-methods study we compared two brief arts-based approaches for both professional and informal caregivers: single sessions of coloring or open-studio art therapy, with a 45-minute session each. Assessments imcluded self-reports of affect, stress, self-efficacy, anxiety, burnout arnd creative agency alongside salivary biomarkers before and after the session. Open-ended questions, field notes and observations formed the qualitative part of the study.

Results: Thirty-four professional (n=25) and informal (n=9) caregivers participated. Participants in both conditions showed increases in positive affect, creative agency, and self-efficacy and decreases in negative affect, anxiety, perceived stress, and burnout. Participants in both conditions expressed enjoyment, relaxation, appreciation of time away from stressors, creative problem solving, a sense of flow, and personal and existential insight. The two approaches also elicited distinct experiences with participants reporting that they found improved focus in coloring and appreciated the support and freedom of expression in open studio art therapy.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that even brief art-making interventions can be beneficial for stressed caregivers of cancer patients. As experience with art-making increased the impact, repeated sessions may be even more useful. We recommend that oncology units have dedicated studio spaces with therapeutic support and different forms of art-making available to meet individual caregiver needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2019.08.006DOI Listing
October 2019

Creative Arts Interventions to Address Depression in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Outcomes, Processes, and Mechanisms.

Front Psychol 2018 8;9:2655. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Music Therapy Lab, Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt, Würzburg, Germany.

Depression experienced by older adults is proving an increasing global health burden, with rates generally 7% and as high as 27% in the USA. This is likely to significantly increase in coming years as the number and proportion of older adults in the population rises all around the world. Therefore, it is imperative that the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention and treatment of depression are understood. Creative arts interventions, including art, dance movement, drama, and music modalities, are utilized internationally to target depression and depressive symptoms in older adults. This includes interventions led by trained arts therapists as well as other health and arts professionals. However, to date there has not been a systematic review that reports effects and examines the processes (why) and mechanisms (how) of creative arts interventions are used to address depression in this older age group. This systematic review of studies on creative arts interventions for older adults experiencing depression examined: outcomes of four creative arts modalities (art, dance movement, drama, and music); with particular attention paid to processes documented as contributing to change in each modality; and mechanisms considered to result from these processes. Our analysis of 75 articles (17 art, 13 dance, 4 drama, and 41 music) indicates mostly significant quantitative or positive qualitative findings, particularly for interventions led by creative arts therapists. Mechanisms of change gleaned from the studies that were common across modalities include physical (e.g., increased muscle strength; neurochemical effects, such as endorphin release), intra-personal (e.g., enhanced self-concept, strengthened agency and mastery; processing and communication of emotions), cultural (e.g., creative expression, aesthetic pleasure), cognitive (e.g., stimulation of memory), and social (e.g., increased social skills and connection), that were all considered to contribute to reduced depression and symptoms. Recommendations for future research includes stronger focus on testing of processes and mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331422PMC
January 2019
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