Publications by authors named "Katarzyna Zachwieja"

51 Publications

Copy Number Variant Analysis and Genome-wide Association Study Identify Loci with Large Effect for Vesicoureteral Reflux.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York

Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood.

Methods: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry.

Results: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; =6.35×10) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract ( and ). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; =1.86×10). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020050681DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical profile of a Polish cohort of children and young adults with cystinuria.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):62-70

Department of Pediatrics, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland.

Background: Cystinuria is an inherited disorder that results in increased excretion of cystine in the urine. It accounts for about 1-2% of pediatric kidney stones. In this study, we sought to identify the clinical characteristics of patients with cystinuria in a national cohort.

Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 30 patients from the Polish Registry of Inherited Tubulopathies. Initial data and that from a 6-month follow-up were analyzed. Mutational analysis was performed by targeted Sanger sequencing and, if applicable, MLPA analysis was used to detect large rearrangements.

Results: mutations were detected in 15 children (50%; 10 males, 5 females), mutations in 14 children (47%; 5 males, 9 females), and bigenic mutations in one male patient. The first clinical symptoms of the disease were detected at a median of 48 months of age (range 3-233 months). When individuals with different mutations were compared, there were no differences identified in gender, age of diagnosis, presence of UTI or urolithiasis, eGFR, calcium, or cystine excretion. The most common initial symptoms were urolithiasis in 26 patients (88%) and urinary tract infections in 4 patients (13%). Urological procedures were performed in 18 out of 30 (60%).

Conclusions: The clinical course of cystinuria is similar among patients, regardless of the type of genetic mutation. Most patients require surgery before diagnosis or soon after it. Patients require combined urological and pharmacological treatment for prevention of stone recurrence and renal function preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1860089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758038PMC
December 2021

eGFR values and selected renal urine biomarkers in preterm neonates with uncomplicated clinical course.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2019 12;28(12):1657-1666

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Diagnosing acute kidney injury (AKI) in preterm newborns, who are particularly susceptible to renal damage, is a serious challenge as there is no definite consensus about the diagnostic criteria.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the values for selected urinary biomarkers and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among a population of preterm infants with uncomplicated clinical course as well as to determine whether these markers depend on birth weight (BW), gestational age (GA), postnatal age (PNA), or gender.

Material And Methods: The prospective study was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The evaluation included 57 children that were divided into 3 categories according to BW: low birth weight (LBW) - 1501-2500 g (22 infants); very low birth weight (VLBW) - 1000-1500 g (25 infants); and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) - 750-999 g (10 infants). Urine samples were collected daily between the 4th and 28th day of life for measurements of creatinine (Cr), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin (OPN), and human kidney injury molecule 1 (hKIM1).

Results: The values of the 3 urine tubular biomarkers, serum creatinine and eGFR were taken in substantially healthy preterm infants with normal kidney function at 4 time intervals during the neonatal period. Their correlations were determined and a multivariable regression analysis was carried out with respect to BW, GA, PNA, and gender. Trends of the studied markers in terms of PNA and BW were also assessed with the Jonckheere-Terpstra test.

Conclusions: Glomerular and tubular function in preterm neonates during the 1st month of life is significantly influenced by BW, GA, PNA, and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/110317DOI Listing
December 2019

Author Correction: The copy number variation landscape of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Nat Genet 2019 04;51(4):764

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

In the version of this article initially published, affiliation 38 incorrectly read "ICNU-Nephrology and Urology Department, Barcelona, Spain"; "Renal Division, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain" is the correct affiliation. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0376-0DOI Listing
April 2019

Twenty years of growth hormone treatment in dialyzed children in Poland-Results of national multicenter study.

Adv Med Sci 2019 Mar 20;64(1):90-99. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy and to establish factors influencing growth rate in dialyzed children in Poland.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 81 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic dialysis treated with rhGH for ≥12 months between 1994 and 2014. The following data were recorded: cause of ESRD, dialysis modality, age at the dialysis and rhGH initiation [years]. In addition, growth [cm], [standard deviation score - SDS], body mass index [SDS], skeletal age [years], bone mineral density [SDS], hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, calcium phosphorus product, PTH, and alkaline phosphatase were measured at the baseline and after 12 months.

Results: Growth velocity in 81 children during one-year rhGH treatment was 7.33 ± 2.63 cm (ΔSDS 0.36 ± 0.43). Height SDS increased significantly (-3.31 ± 1.12 vs. -2.94 ± 1.15, p < 0.001). Children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n = 51) were younger than children on hemodialysis (HD) (n = 30) (9.92 ± 3.72 vs. 12.32 ± 3.11 years, p = 0.003). ΔSDS did not differ between PD and HD children (0.40 ± 0.33 vs. 0.30 ± 0.47, p = 0.311). Growth velocity (ΔSDS) correlated with age at dialysis initiation (r=-0.30, p = 0.009), age at rhGH treatment initiation (r=-0.35, p = 0.002), skeletal age (r=-0.36, p = 0.002), BMI SDS (r=-0.27, p = 0.019), and PTH (r=-0.27, p = 0.017). No correlation between growth velocity and other parameters was observed.

Conclusions: Treatment with rhGH in children with ESRD is effective and safe irrespective of dialysis modality. Early initiation of rhGH therapy is a crucial factor determining response to the treatment in children with ESRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2018.12.001DOI Listing
March 2019

The copy number variation landscape of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Nat Genet 2019 01 21;51(1):117-127. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are a major cause of pediatric kidney failure. We performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in 2,824 cases and 21,498 controls. Affected individuals carried a significant burden of rare exonic (that is, affecting coding regions) CNVs and were enriched for known genomic disorders (GD). Kidney anomaly (KA) cases were most enriched for exonic CNVs, encompassing GD-CNVs and novel deletions; obstructive uropathy (OU) had a lower CNV burden and an intermediate prevalence of GD-CNVs; and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) had the fewest GD-CNVs but was enriched for novel exonic CNVs, particularly duplications. Six loci (1q21, 4p16.1-p16.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11, 17q12 and 22q11.2) accounted for 65% of patients with GD-CNVs. Deletions at 17q12, 4p16.1-p16.3 and 22q11.2 were specific for KA; the 16p11.2 locus showed extensive pleiotropy. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified TBX6 as a driver for the CAKUT subphenotypes in the 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0281-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668343PMC
January 2019

Factors affecting mortality in children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric intensive care unit.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2019 May;28(5):615-623

Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to 30% of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients and is associated with a high mortality rate.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate factors associated with the outcome and to identify the prognostic factors in children receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).

Material And Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study, including 46 patients.

Results: Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant effects on patient survival exerted by the percentage of fluid overload (FO%) (odds ratio (OR): 1.030; p = 0.044). In the group of patients with FO% < 25%, the mortality was 33.3%, and in the FO% ≥ 25% group, the mortality was 67.9% (p < 0.001). The probability of death without multi-organ failure (MOF) was 13%, while with MOF it was 74%. There was no difference in the duration of hospitalization between the CRRT patients (mean: 21.9 days) and the general population of children hospitalized in PICU in the same period (n = 3,255; mean: 25.4 days); however, a significant difference was noted in mortality between the 2 groups of patients (54% vs 6.5%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The mortality of PICU CRRT patients is more than 8-fold higher than the mortality of the total PICU population. Coexisting MOF increases the mortality almost 6 times. The mortality of children with FO% ≥ 25% was more than 2-fold higher than the mortality of children with FO% < 25%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/81051DOI Listing
May 2019

[B-type natriuretic peptide as a marker of cardiac dysfunction in children with chronic kidney disease].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2018 Apr;44(262):171-176

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland: Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most common organ damage in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a marker of heart injury in children with CKD.

Materials And Methods: We included 66 children (41 boys and 25 girls) aged 0.7 to 18.6 (median 11.6) years with CKD stage 1-5. The concentrations of urea, creatinine, cystatin C and BNP in blood serum were assessed, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from the Schwartz and Filler formulas. Patients were divided into groups depending on the CKD stage [group 1: CKD stages 1 + 2 (GFR> 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), group 2: stage 3 (GFR = 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2), group 3: CKD stage 4 (GFR 15-29 ml/min/ 1.73 m2), group 4 - stage 5 (dialyzed children)]. On the basis of echocardiography, the left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated, which was indexed for height (left ventricular mass index, LVMI). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed if the LVMI value was > 95th percentile for sex and age.

Results: Depending on the CKD stage the median BNP concentrations for group 1, group 2, group 3, and group 4 were 2.5 pg/ml, 6.0 pg/ml, 9.3 pg/ml and 18.0 pg/ml, and the LVH prevalence 27.3%, 33.3%, 60.0% and 63.6% , respectively. Significant correlations between BNP concentration and LVH expressed by LVMI (R=0.256, p=0.038), creatinine (R=0.453, p<0.001), cystatin (R=0.494, p<0.001) and eGFR (R=-0.473, p<0.001) were found.

Conclusions: In children with chronic kidney disease, BNP is an indicator of heart failure correlating with renal function parameters and left ventricular mass index.
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April 2018

Risk Factors for Early Dialysis Dependency in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease.

J Pediatr 2018 08 9;199:22-28.e6. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Center for Molecular Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for dialysis within the first year of life in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) as a basis for parental counseling after prenatal and perinatal diagnosis.

Study Design: A dataset comprising 385 patients from the ARegPKD international registry study was analyzed for potential risk markers for dialysis during the first year of life.

Results: Thirty-six out of 385 children (9.4%) commenced dialysis in the first year of life. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, the presence of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, prenatal kidney enlargement, a low Apgar score, and the need for postnatal breathing support were independently associated with an increased hazard ratio for requiring dialysis within the first year of life. The increased risk associated with Apgar score and perinatal assisted breathing was time-dependent and vanished after 5 and 8 months of life, respectively. The predicted probabilities for early dialysis varied from 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5%-4.1%) for patients with ARPKD with no prenatal sonographic abnormalities to 32.3% (95% CI, 22.2%-44.5%) in cases of documented oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, renal cysts, and enlarged kidneys.

Conclusions: This study, which identified risk factors associated with onset of dialysis in ARPKD in the first year of life, may be helpful in prenatal parental counseling in cases of suspected ARPKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.052DOI Listing
August 2018

Antihypertensive treatment prescription in pediatric dialysis patients in Poland: A comparison between two nationwide studies 2003/2004-2013.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Nov;26(8):1263-1268

Department of Pediatrics, Immunology and Nephrology, Polish Mothers Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Poland.

Background: Blood pressure in pediatric dialyzed patients is under poor control.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the strategy and efficacy of antihypertensive drugs used for the treatment of hypertension in pediatric dialyzed patients in 2013 in comparison with the data collected in 2003/2004. The results have been viewed against present strategies of antihypertensive treatment in children. There is still limited data concerning the treatment of hypertension in dialyzed pediatric patients.

Material And Methods: The study embraced 10 of 12 pediatric dialysis units in Poland treating 59 pediatric patients (mean age - 132 months). Collected information included present antihypertensive treatment with regard to drug classes and the dose of antihypertensive agent. The treatment was regarded as effective if both systolic and diastolic values of blood pressure were below 1.64 SDS. The results from 2013 were juxtaposed with previously analyzed data from a similar study on hypertension in dialyzed children conducted in 2003/2004.

Results: Forty subjects have been provided with antihypertensive treatment. In monotherapy and polytherapy 50% of the subjects were treated with ACEI (enalapril and ramipril), 67.5% with amlodipine, 50% with beta-blockers. Only 10% of the subjects were treated with angiotensin II receptor blocker (losartan). Thirty percent of the subjects received furosemide, whereas 5% were given doxazosin. Antihypertensive drugs regarded as the 2nd and 3rd choice in treating high blood pressure (doxazosin, beta-blockers and furosemide) were applied as monotherapy in 46% of the patients. Satisfactory control of treated blood pressure was reached in 45% of them.

Conclusions: Antihypertensive treatment in dialyzed children did not change significantly during the last decade with regard to the groups of drugs being used. Despite a wider feasibility of antihypertensive substances, the effectiveness of this therapy was still unsatisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/65823DOI Listing
November 2017

Clinical and molecular genetic characterization of a male patient with Sensenbrenner syndrome (cranioectodermal dysplasia) and biallelic WDR35 mutations.

Birth Defects Res 2018 03 14;110(4):376-381. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Background: Sensenbrenner syndrome (cranioectodermal dysplasia, CED) is a very rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy first described by Judith Sensenbrenner in 1975. CED is a complex disorder characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and ectodermal abnormalities. The clinical symptoms are variable and the CED phenotype may present intrafamilial and interfamilial differences. Sensenbrenner syndrome belongs to a group of ciliary chondrodysplasias and is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Mutations in six genes: IFT122, WDR35, IFT43, WDR19, IFT52, and IFT140 have been associated with this disorder. All known CED genes encode proteins that are part of the intraflagellar transport complex, which plays an important role in the assembly and maintenance of cilia.

Case: We report a on 2-year-old male patient affected by Sensenbrenner syndrome. Dysmorphic features included short stature with rhizomelic shortening of limbs, short fingers, narrow chest, high forehead, epicanthal folds, telecanthus, broad nasal bridge, low-set ears, sparse hair, and widely space teeth. Craniosynostosis was surgically corrected at the age of 4 months. The patient presented chronic renal disease. Nephrologic picture showed early stages of nephronophthisis. Psychomotor development was apparently normal. Molecular analysis of the affected individual revealed compound heterozygosity for a novel nonsense p.(Arg113*) and a missense p.(Asp841Val) variant in the WDR35 gene.

Conclusions: The observations of the CED patient in this study provide additional clinical data and expand the molecular spectrum of Sensenbrenner syndrome. Moreover, the two variants identified in the proband provide further evidence for the WDR35 mutations as the most common cause of this rare syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1151DOI Listing
March 2018

Low renal but high extrarenal phenotype variability in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(8):e0180926. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare multisystem disorder with early mortality and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) progressing to end-stage kidney disease. We hypothesized that next-generation gene panel sequencing may unsurface oligosymptomatic cases of SIOD with potentially milder disease courses. We analyzed the renal and extrarenal phenotypic spectrum and genotype-phenotype associations in 34 patients from 28 families, the largest SMARCAL1-associated nephropathy cohort to date. In 11 patients the diagnosis was made unsuspectedly through SRNS gene panel testing. Renal disease first manifested at median age 4.5 yrs, with focal segmental glmerulosclerosis or minimal change nephropathy on biopsy and rapid progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at median age 8.7 yrs. Whereas patients diagnosed by phenotype more frequently developed severe extrarenal complications (cerebral ischemic events, septicemia) and were more likely to die before age 10 years than patients identified by SRNS-gene panel screening (88 vs. 40%), the subgroups did not differ with respect to age at proteinuria onset and progression to ESKD. Also, 10 of 11 children diagnosed unsuspectedly by Next Generation Sequencing were small at diagnosis and all showed progressive growth failure. Severe phenotypes were usually associated with biallelic truncating mutations and milder phenotypes with biallelic missense mutations. However, no genotype-phenotype correlation was observed for the renal disease course. In conclusion, while short stature is a reliable clue to SIOD in children with SRNS, other systemic features are highly variable. Our findings support routine SMARCAL1 testing also in non-syndromic SRNS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180926PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5552097PMC
October 2017

Evaluation of the effect of 3-month bladder basic advice in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Dec 1;13(6):615.e1-615.e6. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Introduction: Advice (BBA) into the standards of patients' care in both monosymptomatic and non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Although the idea of this recommendation was clear and reflects clinical experience, duration and efficacy have not been definitely established. Recent data have demonstrated the lack of efficacy of BBA and a fierce discussion has ensued. The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of BBA in a group of previously untreated children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE).

Study Design: The study was a prospective interventional multicenter trial in a cohort of previously untreated MNE patients. Forty-nine children (36 males, 13 females, mean age 7.2 years) were included in the analysis. The treatment efficacy was assessed at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days of BBA.

Results: We discovered that the mean number of wet nights decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only after 3 months of BBA from 8.9 to 5.9 episodes every 2 weeks. BBA was fully successful in 2% o the children after 30 day, 12% after 60 days, and 18% after 90 days (Figure). Partial response (by ICCS) was assessed for 8%, 20%, and 34% of the patients. We noted a relatively high rate of non-responders that decreased from 90% to 47% after 90 days. We detected no differences in BBA efficacy between children with night-time polyuria or decreased maximal voided volume. A lower number of wet nights initially predicted the response to the BBA.

Discussion: Our study confirmed rather limited efficacy of BBA, similarly to previous observations, but provided more information on isolated MNE, because of a more specific study group and longer period of observation. The limitation of the study was lack of randomization.

Conclusion: Our study revealed that in treatment-naïve children with monosymptomatic enuresis basic bladder training had a low (18%) and late effect, mostly pronounced after the third month of therapy. It seems that only if the patient presents with a favorable profile of bedwetting, occasionally and with a high maximum voided volume, it is worth maintaining BBA for a longer period of up to 3 months before initiating second-line therapy. In an unfavorable initial profile desmopressin or an alarm may be introduced much earlier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.03.039DOI Listing
December 2017

Filter Size Not the Anticoagulation Method is the Decisive Factor in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Circuit Survival.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2017 7;42(2):327-337. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Background/aim: As continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has emerged as a standard therapy in pediatric intensive care units (PICU), many related issues that may have an impact on circuit survival have gained in importance. Objective of the study was an evaluation of factors associated with circuit survival, including anticoagulation (ACG).

Methods: Retrospective study that included 40 patients, who in total received 7636 hours of CRRT during 150 sessions (84 filters, 4260 hours with heparin anticoagulation (Hep-ACG); 66 filters, 3376 hours with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA)).

Results: The Kaplan-Meier analysis of the total circuit survival time depending on the type of ACG did not demonstrate a significant difference between Hep-ACG and RCA. The percentage of clotted filters was significantly higher in case of smaller filters (HF20: 58.8%; ST60: 29.5%; ST100: 15.8%), and their lifetime was significantly lower regardless of ACG (the mean and median lifetime for HF20: 38.7/27.0 h; for ST60: 54.1/72.0 h., for ST100: 62.1/72.0 h, respectively).

Conclusions: Irrespectively of filter size, filter clotting occurs within the first 24 hours after the initiation of CRRT. Most commonly, clotting affects small filters, and their lifetime is significantly shorter as compared to larger filters regardless of the type of the ACG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000477609DOI Listing
April 2018

Reference ranges and impact of selected confounders on classic serum and urinary renal markers in neonatal period.

Adv Med Sci 2017 Mar;62(1):143-150

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Purpose: Renal injury in term and pre-term neonates may be an antecedent to chronic kidney disease in the child's further life. The aim of the paper was to compile a reference range for selected serum and urinary renal markers in the neonatal period for full-term (FT) and pre-term (PT) newborns.

Material And Methods: The prospective study included 23 FT infants (birth weight - BW≥2500g and gestational age - GA≥37Hbd) and 32 PT children (BW<2500g and GA<37Hbd) in good general condition, without acute kidney injury (AKI) or sepsis. Between the 4th and 28th DOL, urinary concentrations of the studied renal markers (uCr, uNa, uOsm) were determined on a daily basis, while serum creatinine (SCr) was assessed minimum every 48-72h.

Results: The mean GA and BW of the FT and PT infants were respectively as follows: 38.5±1.7Hbd; 3433±495.2g and 32.7±2.6Hbd; 1836.7±419.8g. For serum glomerular (SCr, eGFR) and tubular markers (FENa, RFI), the median values with normal ranges were compiled. For urinary renal markers (uCr, uNa, uOsm) and those values standardized for kg of body weight, percentile tables for 4-28DOL were elaborated.

Conclusions: The study has resulted in determining the normal ranges of serum glomerular and tubular renal markers, as well as percentile tables of selected urinary renal parameters during the neonatal period. The percentile tables may prove to be helpful for further standardization of other urinary parameters per urinary creatinine in neonatal population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.002DOI Listing
March 2017

Psychosocial aspects of children and families treated with hemodialysis.

Hemodial Int 2017 10 23;21(4):557-565. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyze the selected psychosocial aspects of chronic kidney disease in children treated with hemodialysis (HD).

Methods: The study included 25 children treated with HD aged 2 to 18 years and their parents. Data concerning the illness and socio-demographic parameters was collected. We used the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) for patients and for their parents the PedsQL-proxy version, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS), and the Caregivers Burden Scale (CBS) to evaluate health-related quality of life (QoL) of HD children and their primary caregivers.

Findings: In the PedsQL test, the QoL of HD children was lower than in healthy children. Children treated with HD assessed their QoL on the PedsQL questionnaire higher than the primary caregivers, on all subscales as well as an overall health-related QoL. Scoring below 2 on the GHQ-12 test was reported in 56% of mothers, which may indicate that psychological symptoms have intensified. There was no correlation between BSSS, CBS, and GHQ-12.

Discussion: The assessment of QoL in pediatric patients would allow for the earliest possible identification of their nonsomatic problems and irregularities. This could, consequently, contribute to improving QoL in both children with chronic kidney disease and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12526DOI Listing
October 2017

What has changed in the prevalence of hypertension in dialyzed children during the last decade?

Ren Fail 2017 Nov 24;39(1):283-289. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

l Department of Pediatrics, Hematology, Oncology and Diabetology , Medical University of Lodz , Lodz , Poland.

Background: Hypertension very often accompanies progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. A cross-sectional analysis of hypertension prevalence in dialyzed children in Poland was designed with a comparison with the data previously recorded 10 years earlier.

Methods: Two cohorts of children were analyzed: 59 subjects dialyzed in 2013, and 134 children from the previous study performed in 2003 that were reevaluated according to the current methodology. The incidence of hypertension (defined by SDS of sBP or dBP >1.64), clinical data, medical history, dialysis modalities and selected biochemical parameters of dialysis adequacy were analyzed.

Results: The prevalence of hypertension increased from 64% in 2003 to 78% in 2013. The efficacy of antihypertensive treatment remained unsatisfactory (61% proper BP control). Preservation of residual urine output and strict fluid balance may prevent development of hypertension in children on dialysis.

Conclusions: Despite the higher awareness of hypertension and its complications in dialyzed children, the incidence of this entity has increased during the last decade, with the percentage of undertreated patients comparable to that observed 10 years ago. Thus, more attention should be paid to therapy efficacy in this population to prevent further damage to the cardiovascular system and to decrease morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2016.1260033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014511PMC
November 2017

Can We Further Improve the Quality of Nephro-Urological Care in Children with Myelomeningocele?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 09 1;13(9). Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow 30-663, Poland.

Myelomeningocele (MMC) results from a failure of normal neural tube fusion in early fetal development. Retrospective, observational study of medical data of 54 children treated in Pediatric Nephrology and Urology Clinics for five years was performed. The following data were analyzed: serum creatinine, eGFR, urine analysis, renal scintigraphy (RS), renal ultrasound, and urodynamics. Mean age of studied population: 12.3 years, median of eGFR at the beginning and at the end of survey was 110.25 and 116.5 mL/min/1.73 m² accordingly. Median of frequency of urinary tract infections (fUTI): 1.2 episodes/year. In 24 children: low-pressure, in 30 children: high-pressure bladder was noted. Vesicouretral reflux (VUR) was noted in 23 children (42.6%). fUTI were more common in high-grade VUR group. High-grade VURs were more common in group of patients with severe renal damage. At the end of the survey 11.1% children were qualified to higher stages of chronic kidney disease. Renal parenchyma damage progression in RS was noted in 22.2% children. Positive VUR history, febrile recurrent UTIs, bladder wall trabeculation, and older age of the patients constitute risk factors of abnormal renal scans. More than 2.0 febrile, symptomatic UTIs annually increase by 5.6-fold the risk of severe renal parenchyma damage after five years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036709PMC
September 2016

Chronic Kidney Disease-associated Pruritus in Children.

Acta Derm Venereol 2016 Nov;96(7):938-942

Department of Dermatology, Regional Specialist Hospital, Center for Research and Development, Wroclaw, Poland.

This study evaluated the frequency and severity of pruritus and dry skin in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 103 children were included: 72 with CKD stage 3-5 (34 on dialysis and 38 treated conservatively without dialysis) and 31 as a reference group. Pruritus was assessed using the 4-item Itch Questionnaire and a visual analogue scale. Skin dryness was evaluated clinically, by non-invasive assessment of epidermis moisturizing and measurement of transepidermal water loss. Pruritus occurred in 20.8% of children with CKD, 18.4% on conservative treatment (receiving supportive care without dialysis) and 23.5% on dialysis. Xerosis was more common in children with pruritus (66.7%) than in those without pruritus (50.9%). Patients with pruritus had a significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and a higher ratio of calcium × phosphate product (Ca × P). In conclusion, CKD-associated pruritus occurs not only in adults, but also in children, and it may already be present in the early stages of CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-2454DOI Listing
November 2016

Modification of the Schwartz equations for children increases their accuracy at eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

Ren Fail 2016 Jun 7;38(5):787-98. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

a Department of Pediatric Nephrology , Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków , Poland ;

Aim: Estimation of eGFR in children with normal kidney function using the Schwartz equations results in underestimating real GFR.

Materials And Methods: We propose modification of three Schwartz equations - two based on creatinine concentration (eGFRScrBS bedside) and (eGFRScr) and one 3-marker based on creatinine, urea and cystatin C concentrations (eGFRS3M). The iohexol test (reference method) was performed 417 times in 353 children >2 years with mean GFR: 98 ± 31.6 ml/min/1.73m(2). The assessment included also the Filler and Zappitelli equations. The modification was performed using methods: (1) based on equation, eGFRcor = a [eGFR - T] + T, where T = 50, if eGFR > T, and a equals for: eGFRScrBS 1.4043, for eGFRScr 2.0048, for eGFRS3M 1.2951, and (2) based on correction of all coefficients of the original equation.

Results: For comparison of all the results and for children with GFR< 60, 60-90, 90-135 and > 135 ml/min/1.73m(2) the correlation coefficient, relative error (RE) and root mean square relative error (RMSRE) was employed and revealed improvement of RE from 25.9 to 6.8 and 3.9% (depending on the correction method) for eGFRScr; from 19 to 8.1 and 3.9% for eGFRScrBS and: from 11.6% to 2.0 and 2.3% for eGFRS3M (respectively). The RMSRE values changed from 30 to 21.3 and 19.8% for eGFRScr, from 25.1 to 21.6 and 19.8% for eGFRScrBS and from 19.1 to 15.8 and 15.3 % for eGFRS3M.

Conclusions: Modifications of Schwartz equations at GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73m(2) significantly improves the accuracy of calculating eGFR. The 3-markers equation is more accurate and should be employed frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2016.1163152DOI Listing
June 2016

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 18;2016:7520231. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Dialysis Unit, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 265 Wielicka Street, 30-663 Krakow, Poland.

Cardiovascular diseases remain the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the association between oxidative stress biomarkers and cardiovascular risk factors and left ventricular hypertrophy in children with CKD. Material and Methods. The studied group consisted of 65 patients aged 1.4-18.6 (mean 11.2) years with stages 1 to 5 CKD. Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), protein carbonyl group, creatinine, cystatin C, albumin, lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, insulin, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone levels were measured. Patients were divided into groups depending on CKD stage. Anthropometric measurements, ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, and echocardiography with left ventricular mass (LVM) calculation were performed. Results. Serum oxLDL strongly correlated with creatinine (R = 0.246; p = 0.048), cystatin C (R = 0.346; p = 0.006), total cholesterol (R = 0.500; p < 0.001), triglycerides (R = 0.524; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein concentrations (R = 0.456; p < 0.001), and 24 hour BP values of systolic (R = 0.492; p = 0.002), diastolic (R = 0.515; p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (R = 0.537; p < 0.001). A significant correlation between oxLDL levels and LVM z-scores (R = 0.299; p = 0.016) was found. Conclusions. Hypertension and dyslipidemia correlated with lipid oxidation in children with CKD. oxLDLs seem to be valuable markers of oxidative stress in CKD patients, correlating with left ventricular hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7520231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4739446PMC
December 2016

[Do we successfully treat anemia and calcium-phosphate disorders in children with chronic kidney disease at the beginning of the twenty-first century?].

Przegl Lek 2015 ;72(7):349-53

Unlabelled: In children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia and calcium-phosphate disturbances are already present at early stages of the disease and require a comprehensive treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of biochemical disturbances, depending on the severity of CKD in children.

Material And Methods: The study included 71 children (44 boys, 27 girls) with CKD stage 1-5. Mean age was 11 ± 5 years, mean height: 135.7 ± 28 cm and mean eGFR 32 ml/min/1.73 m2. The serum hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, cystatin C, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured. eGFR was calculated according to Schwartz and Filler formulas, employing creatinine and cystatin C as markers. Patients were divided into groups depending on the stage of CKD [group 1: CKD stage 1+2 (GFR > 60), group 2: CKD stage 3 (GFR = 30-59) Group 3: CKD stage 4 (GFR = 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m2), group 4 - dialyzed children].

Results: The concentration of he- moglobin depending on the stage of CKD (group 1 vs. group 2 vs. group 3 vs group 4) was 12.95 vs. 12.68 vs. 12.47 vs. 11.3 g/dI, respectively. The concentration of total and ionized calcium was significantly lower in children on dialysis compared to patients treated conservatively. With the progression of CKD the concentration of phosphorus (1.39 vs. 1.4 vs. 1.49 vs. 1.82 mmolI) and PTH (21.7 vs 48.6 vs 99.9 vs. 219 pg/ml) significantly increased. Treatment with erythropoietin was used in 48% of children, calcium carbonate in 55% and alphacalcidol in 56% of patients.

Conclusions: Despite the use of regular treatment, with the progression of CKD a progression of anemia, increased serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone and a decrease in calcium levels in studied children was observed. The severity of metabolic disorders in dialyzed children indicates the need for administration of new and more effective drugs, to prevent early enough complications of CKD in the form of mineral bone disease and cardiovascular complications.
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March 2016

Hemolytic uremic syndrome with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and membrane cofactor protein mutation – case report.

Przegl Lek 2016;73(11):862-4

Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are rare life-threatening diseases of various etiologies, making the identification of the specific forms and appropriate treatment difficult. The aim of this work is to present the history of a patient with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) that developed in the context of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Case presentation: A 5 - year old, Caucasian, previously healthy girl presented with symptoms of HUS, without preceding diarrhoea and with ongoing upper respiratory tract infection. ADAMTS13 deficiency and presence of Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC) was excluded, and the diagnosis of aHUS verified. She required peritoneal dialysis for 4 days and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) treatment was started with good clinical response. Serological investigation for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was positive (IgM) leading to the initiation of clarithromycin therapy. The complement profile (classical pathway activity, C3 and C4 serum levels were slightly decreased, no signs of alternative pathway dysregulation) was indicative for classical pathway activation and consumption. The genetic screening revealed a novel non-synonymous variation in the CD46 (MCP) gene in heterozygous form that causes a proline to leucine change at codon 155 of the MCP (P155L). The CD46 P155L variation was associated in the samples of the patient and family members with decreased MCP protein expression on the surface of granulocytes. In addition to the P155L mutation, multiple frequent aHUS risk variations were also identified. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aHUS is challenging and is based mainly on the exclusion of ADAMTS13 deficient thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and typical HUS caused by STEC. Our patient had single-episodic HUS in the context of upper-airway infection, and finally a functionally relevant CD46 (MCP) mutation was identified. The complexity of aHUS, and the importance of the requirement for full differential diagnostic workup of all HUS cases is further highlighted by the current case history.
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May 2018

Growth and nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease on maintenance dialysis in Poland.

Adv Med Sci 2016 Mar 1;61(1):46-51. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Immunology and Nephrology, Polish Mother's Memorial Research Institute, Lodz, Poland; Division of Didactics in Pediatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Purpose: Despite vast availability of modern methods of treatment of chronic kidney disease and its complications, the short stature still is a major point of concern in adolescents with chronic kidney disease. The aim of the study was to assess changes in growth and nutritional status of Polish children on renal replacement therapy in the decade, 2004-2013.

Material And Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric values and selected indices of growth status amongst children receiving dialysis in Poland between the years 2004 and 2013. Data were acquired during two different multicentre studies on hypertension in dialyzed children in Poland. Basic anthropometric parameters (body weight, body height/length, body mass index - BMI), dialysis adequacy and duration of RRT were assessed.

Results: The study showed that anthropometric parameters of children undergoing renal replacement therapy had not significantly changed in the last 10 years of observation. Children on RRT were still of short stature despite availability of modern methods of hormonal therapy and nutrition. Median of height z-score was -2.10 in 2004 and -2.19 in 2013. Expected clinical improvement in these measures was not proven.

Conclusions: The cause of chronic kidney disease, method of dialysis, time on dialysis or dialysis adequacy did not influence the anthropometric parameters significantly in dialyzed children in Poland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2015.09.004DOI Listing
March 2016

Favorable four-yr outcome after renal transplantation in a patient with complement factor H antibody and CFHR1/CFHR3 gene mutation-associated HUS.

Pediatr Transplant 2015 Sep 18;19(6):E130-4. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Neurology and Nephrology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Unlabelled: aHUS is a clinical challenge for successful renal transplantation.

Case Report: A 14-yr-old girl lost her kidneys at the age of 7, due to CFH antibodies and CFH-related protein (CFHR1/CFHR3) homozygous deletion-associated aHUS. CFH, CFI, and MCP gene mutations were excluded. The patient was a candidate for renal transplantation despite persistent presence of CFH antibodies (up to 539 AU/mL). Treatment with MMF, IVIG, and repeated PF (n = 8) was introduced while being placed on urgent waiting list. Three years after aHUS onset, the patient underwent the deceased donor renal transplantation "under cover" of PF, as PF was performed directly prior to surgery and, then, PFs were repeated up to overall 14 sessions. Quadruple immunosuppression (basiliximab + tacrolimus + MMF + prednisolone) was used. Moderate symptoms of aHUS (hemolysis, low platelets, and low C3) were present within first seven days post-transplant and then normalized with PF therapy. The patient remained stable during four yr of further follow-up after transplantation.

Conclusion: Specific pre- and post-transplant management allowed successful renal transplantation in a CFH antibody-positive patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.12537DOI Listing
September 2015

Clinical manifestation of pediatric granulomatosis with polyangiitis - the experience of two regions in Poland.

Folia Med Cracov 2014 ;54(1):5-12

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: The purpose of this study was to describe clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and outcome of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in pediatric patients living in two regions (Southern and Central) of Poland.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of patient hospital records from four large hospitals during a period from 1995 to 2013. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of GPA according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for GPA were analyzed. All patients were subjected to clinical, laboratory, radiological and immunological assessment.

Results: During this 18-year period only 9 children with confirmed diagnosis of GPA (6 girls, 3 boys) were identified. The average age of the disease onset was 12 years (range: 8-16 years). Average delay between first symptoms and diagnosis was approx. 20 months (range: 0-84 months). Organ system involvement at presentation included: kidneys 88.8% (8/9), lungs 77.7% (7/9), ear/nose/ throat 55.5% (5/9), gastrointestinal tract 55.5% (5/9), skin 44.4% (4/9), joints 22.2% (2/9), eyes 11.1% (1/9) and nervous system 11.1% (1/9). In 5 children disease course was progressive (constant progression of sinusitis in one case, end-stage renal disease in two, chronic kidney disease stage IV in one and one child died due to alveolar hemorrhage).

Conclusion: The majority of our patients were females. Clinical features of pediatric GPA were similar to those described in adults. None of our patients developed subglottic stenosis and in only 2 children saddle-nose deformity was observed. Although GPA was treated according to contemporary standards care, disease progression was observed in more than a half of children.
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May 2015

Clinical validity of urinary interleukin 18 and interleukin 6 determinations in preterm newborns.

Przegl Lek 2015 ;72(11):589-96

Introduction: Preterm newborns are at a particular risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis.

Purpose: Assessment of urinary interleukin 18 (ulL-18) and urinary interleukin 6 (ulL-6) concentrations in association with AKI and sepsis respectively in newborns hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

Material And Methods: An evaluation was carried out of the dependence of ulL-18 on neonatal birth weight (BW) and AKI as well as ulL6 on sepsis. In prospective study, the evaluation included 58 children with BW up to 2000 g. Clinical observations spanned the period between the 1st and 28th day of life.

Results: The mean gestational age was 30.3 Hbd, mean BW was 1361.9 g. AKI was diagnosed in 35 (60.3%), sepsis in 22 (39.7%) neonates. For median values of uIL-18 and ulL-18/mgCr, as well as for mean logarithmically transformed values of ulL-18 and ulL-18/mgCr, negative, statistically significant linear correlations were demonstrated for BW. In population, median value of ulL-18 and ulL-18/mgCr decreased respectively by 8.21 pg/ml and 84.8 pg/mgCr per each 100 g increment of BW. A negative, statistically significant linear correlation with an average strength was noted for the dependency of the duration of AKI and BW. No significant differences were observed in uIL-18 and ulL-181 mgCr values between the investigated days of AKI and reference group. There was noted a significant increase of the values of uIL-6 and uIL-6/ mgCr on day 0 of sepsis confirmed by the ROC analysis with AUROC 78% and 74%, respectively.

Conclusions: ulL-18 and ulL-18/mgCr values might be a reliable marker of renal tubules maturation in newborns; ulL-18 is not a reliable marker in diagnosing AKI in neonatal population; ulL-6 and uIL-6/ mgCr concentration values measured on actual days may be regarded an early marker of sepsis; AKI duration in preterm neonates is negatively correlated with BW.
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May 2016

Disease-related social situation in family of children with chronic kidney disease--parents` assessment. A multicentre study.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2014 ;21(4):876-81

Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children burdens life of patients and their families. Little is known about parents` assessment of families' social situation. However, the knowledge of the details of a patient's and his family's life standards might influence modification and optimization of applied therapy. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to explore the selected elements of life situation of patients suffering with CKD as well as their parents, depending on the CKD stage and appropriate treatment.

Materials And Methods: Cross-sectional national study was conducted. A total of 203 children with CKD and 388 their parent-proxies (196 women and 192 men) were enrolled into this study. Patient data and questionnaires filled by both parents, concerning social-demographic parameters and assessment of changes in families after CKD diagnosis in the child, were analysed.

Results: CKD children are being brought up in proper families whose financial situation is not good. Children need help in process of education. Perception of current situation differed between both parents in the change of the income source, taking care of CKD child, change in social relations and evaluating relations with medical staff. Parents do not obtain proper support from social workers.

Conclusion: Families of CKD children require support in area of financial and educational help for school children. The discrepancies in evaluation of family situation between mothers and fathers of ill children might be the source of conflicts possibly resulting in worsening the outcome for CKD children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/12321966.1129951DOI Listing
August 2015

Retrospective cohort study of familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis due to CLDN16 mutations.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2015 Apr 3;30(4):636-44. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Department of General Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology, University Children's Hospital, Münster, Germany.

Background: Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive tubular disorder exhibiting a high risk for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: This is a retrospective multicentre study of 25 paediatric cases with FHHNC in Poland. Median age at diagnosis was 4 years and median follow-up time was 4.8 years.

Results: All cases of FHHNC carried recessive mutations in CLDN16. The founder mutation in CLDN16, Leu151Phe, was the most frequent cause of FHHNC in Polish patients, with 13 (52%) cases being homozygous and 5 (20%) carrying Leu151Phe allele in compound heterozygosity. All cases showed nephrocalcinosis, increased urinary fractional excretion of magnesium and hypercalciuria. Other disease features included hypomagnesaemia (76%), hyperparathyroidism (76%), hyperuricaemia (56%) and hypocitraturia (60%). Treatment with thiazides effectively reduced hypercalciuria in most cases. During follow-up, renal function declined in 60% of patients; 12% of patients reached CKD stage 3 or 4 and one patient developed end-stage renal failure.

Conclusions: We report one of the largest cohorts of FHHNC cases caused by CLDN16 mutations. A missense variant of CLDN16, Leu151Phe, is the most common mutation responsible for FHHNC in Poland. Additionally, we found that normomagnesaemia does not exclude FHHNC and the calculation of fractional excretion of Mg can be diagnostic in the setting of normomagnesaemia. We also demonstrate the efficacy of a treatment with thiazides in terms of hypercalciuria in the majority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfu374DOI Listing
April 2015

Which equations should and which should not be employed in calculating eGFR in children?

Adv Med Sci 2015 Mar 30;60(1):31-40. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Purpose: We assessed the reliability of calculating eGFR in children as compared to the iohexol disappearance test (GFR-I), which was performed 417 times in 353 children aged 2 and more.

Material/methods: eGFR was estimated with equations based on serum creatinine: Schwartz (1: eGFR-Scr), Cockroft-Gault (2: eGFR-CG) and MDRD (3: eGFR-MDRD), and on creatinine clearance (4: eGFR-U), or relying on serum cystatin C: Hoeck (5: eGFR-H), Bokenkamp (6: eGFR-B) and Filler (7: eGFR-F), and on the three Schwartz markers (8: eGFR-S3M). Mean relative error (RE), correlation (R), Bland-Altman analysis and accuracy of GFR-I were studied in all patients and in subgroups: at GFR<60ml/min/1.73m(2); in children aged ≤12 and >12.

Results: The results by eGFR-Scr, eGFR-S3M demonstrated no statistical difference to GFR-I at GFR<60ml/min/1.73m(2), but underestimated eGFR at higher filtration values by 11.6±15.1% and 19.1±16.4, respectively (p<0.0000). The eGFR-B, eGFR-F and eGFR-MDRD equations illustrated important overestimation of reference GFR results (RE: 84±44.2%; 29.5±27.9%, 35.6±62%; p<0.0000 for all). The MDRD and C-G formulas showed statistically better consistency in children aged >12. A good agreement was achieved by the eGFR-H equation (5.1±21.9%; p<0.0000; R=0.78).

Conclusions: (1) Schwartz equations show a good conformity at GFR<60ml/min/1.73m(2), but underestimate the results at higher GFR values. (2) The Bokenkamp equation with original coefficient should not be employed in children. (3) The use of the Hoeck formula in all children and C-G and MDRD formula in children aged >12 is possible. (4) The error of eGFR calculations increases at higher GFR values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2014.08.007DOI Listing
March 2015