Publications by authors named "Kataneh Aalaei"

6 Publications

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Effect of processing on digestibility (IVPD) of food proteins.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 30:1-50. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Research Institute of Meat and Meat Products (IproCar), University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Proteins are important macronutrients for the human body to grow and function throughout life. Although proteins are found in most foods, their very dissimilar digestibility must be taking into consideration when addressing the nutritional composition of a diet. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the digestibility of proteins from plants, milk, muscle, and egg. It is evident from this work that protein digestibility greatly varies among foods, this variability being dependent not only upon the protein source, but also the food matrix and the molecular interactions between proteins and other food components (food formulation), as well as the conditions during food processing and storage. Different approaches have been applied to assess protein digestibility (IVPD), varying in both the enzyme assay and quantification method used. In general, animal proteins tend to show higher IVPD. Harsh technological treatments tend to reduce IVPD, except for plant proteins, in which thermal degradation of anti-nutritional compounds results in improved IVPD. However, in order to improve the current knowledge about protein digestibility there is a vital need for understanding dependency on a protein source, molecular interaction, processing and formulation and relationships between. Such knowledge can be used to develop new food products with enhanced protein bioaccessibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1980763DOI Listing
September 2021

Gastric Digestion of Milk Proteins in Adult and Elderly: Effect of High-Pressure Processing.

Foods 2021 Apr 6;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK-1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Reduced physiological capability of the human gastrointestinal tract with increasing age has recently attracted considerable attention to the potential of novel technologies to modify food digestion. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate gastric digestion of milk proteins after application of high-pressure processing (HPP) at 400 MPa 15 min, 600 MPa 5 min and 600 MPa 15 min using two static in vitro models of adults (INFOGEST) and the elderly in comparison to a fresh untreated raw milk. Peptides distribution classified based on the number of amino acids (AA) (<10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-30, >30 AA) were investigated after 0, 5, 10 and 30 min of digestion using LC-MS and multivariate data analysis. Our results show significantly less efficient protein digestion of all investigated milks in the elderly model indicated by higher percentages of longer peptides during digestion, except for the HPP milk 400 MPa 15 min, which indicated an improved and comparable digestion in the elderly as in the adult model. Furthermore, increasing the pressurization time at 600 MPa did not have a significant effect on the peptides profile during the digestion. More efficient digestion of whey proteins in HPP milks, with the majority of peptides in the 16-20 AA range, compared to fresh milk was also noticed. According to the findings of this study, HPP at 400 MPa 15 min showed the most efficient digestion of major milk proteins and thus may be considered a suitable process to improve bioaccessibility of milk proteins, especially in products intended for the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067359PMC
April 2021

Lime Juice Enhances Calcium Bioaccessibility from Yogurt Snacks Formulated with Whey Minerals and Proteins.

Foods 2020 Dec 16;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Yogurt-based snacks originally with a calcium content between 0.10 and 0.17 mmol/g dry matter were enriched with a whey mineral concentrate and whey protein isolate or hydrolysate. Whey mineral concentrate was added to increase the total amount of calcium by 0.030 mmol/g dry matter. Calcium bioaccessibility was determined following an in vitro protocol including oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion, with special focus on the effect of lime juice quantifying calcium concentration and activity. Calcium bioaccessibility, defined as soluble calcium divided by total calcium after intestinal digestion amounted to between 17 and 25% for snacks without lime juice. For snacks with lime juice, the bioaccessibility increased to between 24 and 40%, an effect attributed to the presence of citric acid. Citric acid increased the calcium solubility both from whey mineral concentrate and yogurt, and the citrate anion kept supersaturated calcium soluble in the chyme. The binding of calcium in the chyme from snacks with or without lime juice was compared electrochemically, showing that citrate increased the amount of bound calcium but with lower affinity. The results indicated that whey minerals, a waste from cheese production, may be utilized in snacks enhancing calcium bioaccessibility when combined with lime juice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765558PMC
December 2020

Early and advanced stages of Maillard reaction in infant formulas: Analysis of available lysine and carboxymethyl-lysine.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(7):e0220138. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, Medicon Village, Lund, Sweden.

Although the literature on the Maillard reaction in infant formulas is extensive, most studies have focused on model systems, and in only a few cases on real food systems. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the status of the Maillard reaction, both the early and advanced phases, in a variety of commercial infant formulas available on the Swedish market. Ten powder and liquid milk-based infant formulas from three manufacturers were selected to determine available lysine and CML contents, the two established indicators of the reaction. The products were also characterized with respect to protein content, carbohydrates composition, water content and water activity. In order to be able to compare the impact of different processing steps applied on powder and liquid formulas, the solid formulas contained similar ingredients as their corresponding liquid ones. Our findings showed that powder and liquid formulas contained similar available lysine concentrations regardless of the manufacturer, showing 27.14-36.57% decrease in the available lysine, compared to the reference skim milk powder in this study. The CML concentrations were in a broad range of 68.77-507.99 mg / kg protein. In the case of one manufacturer, liquid infant formulas had significantly higher CML content, compared to the powder products (p < 0.05). The results from this study are a step taken towards better understanding of the extent of the Maillard reaction in real complex systems of infant formulas.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220138PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6655787PMC
March 2020

Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019 16;59(12):1829-1839. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

a Department of Food Technology , Engineering & Nutrition, Lund University , Lund , Sweden.

Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1431202DOI Listing
December 2019

Application of a dye-binding method for the determination of available lysine in skim milk powders.

Food Chem 2016 Apr 13;196:815-20. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.

A dye-binding method using Acid Orange 12 was investigated regarding its suitability for the quantification of available lysine, as a means of monitoring the Maillard reaction in skim milk powders. The method was evaluated by analyzing a wide range of milk powders produced by three different drying methods and stored under various conditions. A pilot-scale freeze-dryer, spray-dryer and drum-dryer were used to produce skim milk powders and the samples were stored at two temperatures (20 °C and 30 °C) and two relative humidities (33% and 52%) under strictly controlled conditions. Moreover to validate the method, two protein isolates; bovine serum albumin and casein were investigated for their available lysine content. The results demonstrate the suitability of this method for measuring the available lysine in skim milk powders with good precision and high reproducibility. The relative standard deviations obtained from the 125 freeze-dried powders were 1.8%, and those from the 100 drum-dried samples were all 1.9%. The highest variation was found for the spray-dried powders, which showed relative standard deviations between 0.9% and 6.7%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.004DOI Listing
April 2016
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