Publications by authors named "Kapil Dev"

94 Publications

Genome-Wide Expression Analysis Reveal Host Genes Involved in Immediate-Early Infections of Different Sheeppox Virus Strains.

Gene 2021 Jul 15:145850. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, UP, India. Electronic address:

This study explored the transcriptome of lamb testis cells infected with sheeppox virus (SPPV) wild strain (WS) and vaccine strain (VS) at an immediate-early time. Most of the Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed highly connected (DEHC) gene network were found to be involved in SPPVVS infection compared to SPPV-WS. Further the signaling pathways were mostly involved in SPPV-VS infection than SPPV-WS. The Pox virus modulates the expression of several important host proteins such as CD40, FAS, ITGβ1, ITGα1, Pak1, Pak2, CD14, ILK leading to viral attachment and entry; immune-related DEGs such as MAPK, JNK, ERK, NFKB, IKB, PI3K, STAT which provide optimal cellular condition for early viral protein expression; and FOXO3, ATF, CDKNA1, TCF, SRF, BDNF which help in inducing apoptosis and MPTP, BAD and Tp53 inhibits apoptosis or cell death at the immediate-early time. The results captured the specific genes and enabled to understand distinct pathogenic mechanisms employed by VS and WS of SPPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145850DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment and Management of Diabetic Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 8;14:3131-3146. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Medical Biotechnology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

COVID-19 has become a great challenge across the globe, particularly in developing and densely populated countries, such as India. COVID-19 is extremely infectious and is transmitted via respiratory droplets from infected persons. DM, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent comorbidities associated with COVID-19. It has been observed that COVID-19 is associated with high blood-glucose levels, mainly in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several studies have shown DM to be a significant risk factor affecting the severity of various kinds of infection. Dysregulated immunoresponse found in diabetic patients plays an important role in exacerbating severity. DM is among the comorbidities linked with mortality and morbidity in COVID-19 patients. Chronic conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and hypertension, together with changed expression of ACE2, dysregulated immunoresponse, and endothelial dysfunction, may put diabetic patients at risk of greater COVID-19 severity. Therefore, it is important to study specific characteristics of COVID-19 in diabetic people and treat these comorbidities along with COVID-19 infection, mainly among old individuals who are already suffering from serious and critical infections. This review will be helpful in understanding the mechanisms involved in COVID-19 and DM, the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 pathogenesis, management of DM, and associated complications in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S285614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275137PMC
July 2021

Genotype Variations and Association between PAI-1 Promoter Region (4G/5G and -844G/A) and Susceptibility to Acute Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Stable Angina.

Cardiol Res Pract 2021 25;2021:5551031. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Hematology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

The present study aimed at investigating the 4G/5G and -844G/A polymorphisms and plasma concentration of PAI-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic stable angina (CSA) in Indian population. It included 100 patients with AMI and stable angina and 100 healthy controls. All study subjects were typed for two PAI polymorphisms (4G/5G and -844G/A) through PCR-RFLP and level of PAI through ELISA. The comparison of AMI and CSA independently with control in terms of PAI-1 level was statistically significant but not between AMI and CSA. The frequency of 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotype and 4G allele was significantly higher in AMI cases than in control and was found to increase the risk of AMI. There was a significant relationship between 4G/5G polymorphism and AMI risk under the dominant and codominant genotype. The frequency of 4G/4G genotype and 4G allele was significantly higher in CSA cases than in control group and increases the risk of CSA. There was no significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and CSA risk under recessive, dominant, and codominant models. The genotype and allelic frequencies difference between the cases (AMI and CSA) and control with regard to -844G/A polymorphisms were statistically nonsignificant. Also, we did not detect any significant association of -844G/A polymorphism with AMI and CSA in recessive, dominant, and codominant models. Along with the traditional risk factors, the 4G/5G allele polymorphism is an independent risk factor for the development of AMI. The detection of 4G/5G allele may therefore be helpful in primary prevention. Patients who carry the 4G/5G allele polymorphism have high concentrations of PAI-1, which might be involved in incidents leading to AMI. The present study for the first time revealed significant association of 4G/5G allele polymorphism with high risk of AMI in Indian population and will be helpful in identifying the genetic risk factors associated with AMI and CSA and for better management of diagnostic measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5551031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257367PMC
June 2021

A Compendium of Perspectives on Diabetes: A Challenge for Sustainable Health in the Modern Era.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 17;14:2775-2787. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Science, Qassim University, Buraidah, 52571, Saudi Arabia.

Diabetes is a chronic illness. Hyperglycemia is the characteristic of this disorder. Diabetes is a global crisis which affects the economy and health of all nations. Over the last decades, the number of individuals living with diabetes has significantly increased worldwide. Asia is a key epicenter of the emerging diabetes epidemic, with China and India the two nations having the highest number of diabetic people. Economic development, modernization, unhealthy diet, population aging, and sedentary lifestyles are the major factors responsible for the increasing diabetes epidemic. Diabetes is associated with several complications, and cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes. These life-threatening problems can be prevented or delayed by proper management of diabetes. Lifestyle modification is an important factor to decrease the diabetes risk. The frequency of diabetic complications will rise if there is a lack of cost-effective and sustainable interventions. Hence, prevention of diabetes and its complications such as diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular disease should be a crucial part of all future health-related public policies among all nations. This review summarizes current epidemiological aspects of diabetes in the world along with its complications, preventive measures, and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S304751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216699PMC
June 2021

Revealing genomic history and forensic features of Gurjars from western Uttar Pradesh and National Capital Region Delhi using 23 autosomal STRs.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 13;53:101932. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

DNA Fingerprinting Unit, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Department of Home (Police), Govt. of MP, Sagar-470001, India. Electronic address:

Here we report the genomic history of Gurjars and framed the useful set of autosomal STRs for Gujjar population. We designed this study with a total number of 215 Gurjars from district Saharanpur (previously known as Gujarat due to presence of many Gujjar zamindars), Moradabad, Bulandshahr, Ghaziabad, Meerut, Noida and NCR Delhi. Locus SE33 was found the most polymorphic and discriminating marker for Gujjar population while locus TPOX is the least. Ancestral information of Gurjars was revealed by comparing the Gujjar's population data with 19 neighbouring populations. In Neighbor Joining (NJ) tree Gurjars were found closer to Gujjars of Jammu region, population of Rajasthan and Uttarkhand, due to the same stock of gene pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2021.101932DOI Listing
June 2021

β-Sitosterol-D-Glucopyranoside Mimics Estrogenic Properties and Stimulates Glucose Utilization in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

Molecules 2021 May 24;26(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India.

Estrogenic molecules have been reported to regulate glucose homeostasis and may be beneficial for diabetes management. Here, we investigated the estrogenic effect of sitosterol-3-O-D-glucopyranoside (BSD), isolated from the fruits of and monitored its ability to regulate glucose utilization in skeletal muscle cells. BSD stimulated ERE-mediated luciferase activity in both ERα and ERβ-ERE luc expression system with greater response through ERβ in HEK-293T cells, and induced the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in estrogen responsive MCF-7 cells. In silico docking and molecular interaction studies revealed the affinity and interaction of BSD with ERβ through hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond pairing. Furthermore, prolonged exposure of L6-GLUT4 myotubes to BSD raised the glucose uptake under basal conditions without affecting the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the effect associated with enhanced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell periphery. The BSD-mediated biological response to increase GLUT4 translocation was obliterated by PI-3-K inhibitor wortmannin, and BSD significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT (Ser-473). Moreover, BSD-induced GLUT4 translocation was prevented in the presence of fulvestrant. Our findings reveal the estrogenic activity of BSD to stimulate glucose utilization in skeletal muscle cells via PI-3K/AKT-dependent mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197182PMC
May 2021

Molecular characterization of 23 Y chromosomal STR markers in the Gurjar population of National Capital Region (NCR), India.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

DNA Fingerprinting Unit, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Department of Home (Police), Govt. of MP, Sagar, 470001, India.

In the present study, DNA samples of 202 unrelated male individuals of Gurjar population were evaluated for the molecular diversity at 23 Y chromosomal Y-STR markers. Out of selected individuals, results showed 143 unique haplotypes. Highest degree of gene diversity (GD), polymorphic information content (PIC), and power of discrimination (PD) was observed as 0.7941, 0.7590, and 0.7902, respectively, for the locus DYS385a/b. Haplotype diversity (HD), gene diversity (GD), polymorphic information content (PIC), and power of discrimination (PD) was found to be 0.7079, 0.999999999989, 0.9999999996, and 0.999999999986, respectively, for the studied 23 Y-STR markers. Allele 11 of locus DYS392 was found to be the most frequent allele with the frequency of 0.762. In inter-population relationship, studied population showed genetic relatedness with the population of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and Ladakh, India. The haplotype data of the present study will not only enrich the existing Indian Y-STR data but will also be useful for forensic DNA application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02623-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Expression of nutrient transporter genes in response to dietary rice gluten meal and protease enzyme supplementation and the consequent effects on growth, nutrient digestibility, immunity and jejunum histomorphometry in chicken.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 May 31:1-9. Epub 2021 May 31.

ICAR - Central Avian Research Institute, Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology, Izatnagar, India.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding rice gluten meal (RGM) as an alternative protein source along with protease enzyme supplementation on growth performance, expression of nutrient transporter genes, nutrient digestibility, immune response and gut histomorphometry of broiler chicken. Proximate analysis of RGM revealed 923 g dry matter (DM), 500 g crude protein (CP), 69.2 g ether extract, 94.7 g crude fiber, 215.4 g nitrogen-free extract, 43.7 g ash, 6.20 g calcium, 7.80 g total phosphorus, 18.99 MJ gross energy and 12.68 MJ metabolizable energy per kg diet. Significant upregulation of nutrient transporter genes (PepT1, EAAT3 and mucin) and better growth performance was observed in the birds fed control diet which was statistically similar to the birds fed 150 g RGM compared to birds fed higher RGM levels. Histomorphometry of jejunum, nutrient digestibility, and immune response of birds did not reveal any significant effect of RGM or protease enzyme supplementation. However, the inclusion of RGM up to 150 g/kg diet resulted in significant decline of feed cost/kg live weight gain, dressed meat yield and eviscerated meat yield by 13.13%, 12.99% and 13.36%, respectively compared to control. Thus, it was concluded that the inclusion of 150 g RGM/kg diet in broiler chicken ration has no adverse effects on the growth pattern of birds and can be used for least-cost feed formulation for chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1924182DOI Listing
May 2021

Corpus Callosum Involvement as Extrahepatic Manifestation of Hepatitis E Virus: An Uncommon Entity.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Apr 1;12(2):427-430. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. HEV infection is not limited only to liver but has various extrahepatic manifestations. Virus can affect various organs like pancreas, lymph nodes, hematological system, kidneys, spleen, central, and peripheral nervous system. We hereby present a case of 19-year-old patient with interesting finding on magnetic resonance imaging brain-related with hepatitis E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064841PMC
April 2021

Association of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Diabetic Comorbidity: Correlating Accelerated Insulin Resistance to Inflammatory Responses in Patients.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 12;14:809-820. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.

Over the past two decades, with advancement of medical research and technology, treatments of many diseases including chronic disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been revolutionized. Treatment and management of RA has been refined by advances in understanding its pathologic mechanisms, the development of drugs which target them and its association with various other chronic comorbidities like diabetes. Diabetes prevalence is closely associated with RA since elevated insulin resistance have been observed with RA. It is also associated with inflammation caused due to pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 6. Inflammation encourages insulin resistance and also stimulates other factors like a high level of rheumatoid factor in the blood leading to positivity of rheumatoid factor in RA patients. The degree of RA inflammation also tends to influence the criticality of insulin resistance, which increases with high activity of RA and vice versa. Markers of glucose metabolism appear to be improved by DMARDs like methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, interleukin 1 antagonists and TNF antagonist while glucocorticoids adversely affect glycemic control especially when administered chronically. The intent of the present review paper is to understand the association between RA, insulin resistance and diabetes; the degree to which both can influence the other along with the plausible impact of RA medications on diabetes and insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S285469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052128PMC
April 2021

BCL-2 (-938C>A), BAX (-248G>A), and HER2 Ile655Val Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk in Indian Population.

J Oncol 2021 25;2021:8865624. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma in women worldwide. The present case-control study was aimed to examine the association of BCL-2 (-938C> A), BAX (-248G > A), and HER2 (I655V i.e. A > G) polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in Indian population. This study enrolled 117 breast cancer cases and 104 controls. BCL-2 (-938C > A), BAX (-248G > A), and HER2 Ile655Val polymorphisms were screened by PCR-RFLP method. There was no significance difference in the allelic and genotype frequency of the BCL-2 (-938C > A) and BAX (-248G > A) polymorphisms between cases and controls. In relation to HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism, the statistical analysis of observed genotypic frequencies showed significant association (-0.0059). Compared to Ile/Ile (A/A) genotype, frequency of Ile/Val (A/G) genotype was significantly higher among cases than in control group and observed to increase the breast cancer risk (OR, 2.43; 95%CI, 1.32-4.46; -0.004). The frequency of Val (G) allele was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls (6.83% vs 2.88%, resp.). Compared to Ile (A) allele, significant increase in the risk of breast cancer was observed with Val (G) allele (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.35-3.63; -0.0016). We observed significant association between HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism and breast cancer risk under the dominant (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.41-4.51; -0.001) and codominant (OR, 2.24; 95% CI: 1.23-4.09; p-0.008) model. In our study, BCL-2 (-938C > A) and BAX (-248G > A) polymorphism were not found to be associated with breast cancer risk. This present study for the first time shows significant association of HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism with risk of breast cancer in Indian population. Therefore, we suggest that each population need to evaluate its own genetic profile for breast cancer risk that may be helpful for better understanding the racial and geographic differences reported for breast cancer incidence and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8865624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932784PMC
February 2021

A comparative study on the antioxidant status, meat quality, and mineral deposition in broiler chicken fed dietary nano zinc viz-a-viz inorganic zinc.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Mar 28;58(3):834-843. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh India.

Use of nano minerals in farm animal nutrition offers considerable advantages over inorganic or organic mineral sources. But, the conventional chemical synthesis of nano minerals suffers from disadvantage of possible environmental accumulation and pollution due to the non-biodegradable materials and chemicals. This study investigated the effects of green nano-zinc (GNZ) and market nano-zinc (MNZ) with respect to the inorganic zinc (IZ) on meat quality, antioxidant status, mineral deposition, and bone development in broiler chicken. Following a 3 × 3 factorial design, nine dietary treatments were formulated by employing three levels (40, 60, and 80 ppm) and three sources (inorganic, green nano, and market nano) of zinc viz. IZ-40, GNZ-40, MNZ-40, IZ-60, GNZ-60, MNZ-60, IZ-80, GNZ-80, MNZ-80. Six replicates of broiler chicken were assigned to each treatment with eight birds in each. The birds fed 80 ppm Zinc of either GNZ or MNZ source resulted in significantly higher serum SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus levels; increased bone dimensions, weight, total ash, phosphorus, and zinc content along with higher liver and muscle zinc concentration. The meat of chicken fed 80 ppm zinc of MNZ source followed by GNZ source has shown significantly better antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS values) status and lower lipid peroxidation (free fatty acid and TBARS values). The 80 ppm zinc of either MNZ or GNZ source resulted in significantly lower fat and cholesterol content of chicken meat compared to lower Zn levels and IZ source. This study indicated that 80 ppm dietary zinc of either MNZ or GNZ source improved the antioxidant status, and reduced the meat cholesterol, fat content, and lipid peroxidation of chicken meat along with increased bone dimensions and mineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04597-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884527PMC
March 2021

The effect of multi-strain probiotics as feed additives on performance, immunity, expression of nutrient transporter genes and gut morphometry in broiler chickens.

Anim Biosci 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division, ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute; Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary multi-strain probiotic (MSP) (Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 + Bacillus subtillis UBBS14 + Saccharomyces boulardii Unique 28) on performance performance, gut morphology and expression of nutrient transporter related genes in broiler chickens.

Methods: A total of 256 (4 x 8 x 8) day-old CARIBRO Vishal commercial broiler chicks of uniform body weight were randomly distributed into four treatments with 8 replicate each and having eight chicks in each replicate. Four dietary treatments were T1 (negative control-basal diet), T2 (positive control-antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) @ 20 mg/kg diet), T3 (MSP @ 107 CFU per g feed), and T4 (MSP @ 108 CFU per g feed).

Results: During 3-6 weeks and 0-6 weeks, the body weight gain (BWG) increased significantly (P<0.05) in T3 and T4. The feed intake (FI) significantly (P<0.05) reduced from T1 to T3 during 0-3 weeks and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) also significantly (P<0.05) improved in T3 and T4 during 0-6 weeks. The humoral and cell mediated immune response and the weight of immune organs were also significantly (P<0.05) improved in T3 and T4. However, the significant (P<0.05) dietary effects were observed on intestinal histo-morphometry of ileum in T3 followed by T4 and T2. At 14 d post hatch, the relative gene expression of glucose transporter (GLUT5), sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1) and peptide transporter (PepT1) showed a significant (P<0.05) up-regulating pattern in T2, T3 and T4. Whereas, at 21 d post hatch, the gene expression of SGLT1 and PepT1 was significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated in MSP supplemented treatments T3 and T4.

Conclusion: The supplementation of MSP @107 CFU/g diet showed significant effects with improved performance, immune response, gut morphology and expression of nutrient transporter genes. Thus, the MSP could be a suitable alternative of antibiotic growth promoters in chicken diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0749DOI Listing
March 2021

Phenanthrenoid Coelogin Isolated from Coelogyne cristata Exerts Osteoprotective Effect Through MAPK-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Jul 6;109(1):32-43. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Endocrinology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226031, India.

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women globally. This study determined the mechanism through which coelogin stimulates osteoblastogenesis and its osteoprotective and bone regenerating potential. Coelogin effect on primary calvarial osteoblast cells was determined by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, osteoblast survival, and apoptosis and protein expression studies. The osteoprotective effect of coelogin was also evaluated on osteopenic adult female Swiss mice. At autopsy, bones were collected for dynamic and histomorphometry studies. Serum samples were also collected for assessment of serum parameters. Coelogin treatment led to increased osteoblast proliferation, survival, differentiation, and mineralization in osteoblast cells. Coelogin supplementation to Ovx mice promoted new bone formation, prevented Ovx-induced deterioration of bone microarchitecture, and enhanced bone regeneration. In addition, signaling studies revealed that coelogin treatment activates the ER-Erk and Akt-dependent signaling pathways which stimulate the osteoblastogenesis in osteoblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00818-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Autophagy Paradox of Cancer: Role, Regulation, and Duality.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 11;2021:8832541. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Autophagy, a catabolic process, degrades damaged and defective cellular materials through lysosomes, thus working as a recycling mechanism of the cell. It is an evolutionarily conserved and highly regulated process that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is constitutively active at the basal level; however, it gets enhanced to meet cellular needs in various stress conditions. The process involves various autophagy-related genes that ultimately lead to the degradation of targeted cytosolic substrates. Many factors modulate both upstream and downstream autophagy pathways like nutritional status, energy level, growth factors, hypoxic conditions, and localization of p53. Any problem in executing autophagy can lead to various pathological conditions including neurodegeneration, aging, and cancer. In cancer, autophagy plays a contradictory role; it inhibits the formation of tumors, whereas, during advanced stages, autophagy promotes tumor progression. Besides, autophagy protects the tumor from various therapies by providing recycled nutrition and energy to the tumor cells. Autophagy is stimulated by tumor suppressor proteins, whereas it gets inhibited by oncogenes. Due to its dynamic and dual role in the pathogenesis of cancer, autophagy provides promising opportunities in developing novel and effective cancer therapies along with managing chemoresistant cancers. In this article, we summarize different strategies that can modulate autophagy in cancer to overcome the major obstacle, i.e., resistance developed in cancer to anticancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8832541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892237PMC
February 2021

Association Between CDKAL1, HHEX, CDKN2A/2B and IGF2BP2 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Uttarakhand, India.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 6;14:23-36. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Current study aimed to find the association of genes polymorphism of CDKAL1, HHEX, CDKN2A/2B, and IGF2BP2 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the population of Uttarakhand.

Research Design And Methods: Overall 469 persons comprising 369 recently diagnosed T2DM cases and 100 healthy control were enrolled in the present study. The polymorphisms were analyzed through the PCR-RFLP technique.

Results: For the rs10440833 variant (CDKAL1), CC genotype's frequency was significantly high among T2DM subjects than controls and increase the T2DM risk (OR: 4.46, 95% CI: 2.22-8.99, p <0.0001). The c allele was significantly found to increase the T2DM risk (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.54-3.14, p <0.001). In the rs1111875 variant (HHEX), the difference of genotype frequencies among T2DM cases and control was statistically non-significant (p-0.138). We did not observe significant differences in allelic frequencies among T2DM cases and control (p-0.444). In the case of rs10811661 variant (CDKN2A/2B), frequency of both TC (OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.84-5.42, p <0.0001) and TT (OR: 5.84, 95% CI: 1.75-19.45, p -0.004) genotype were significantly higher in T2DM cases in comparison with control and significantly associated with higher T2DM risk. Compared to the C allele, a significant increase in T2DM risk was documented with the T allele (OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.55-3.92, p <0.001). For rs4402960 variant (IGF2BP2), TT genotype contributed to increased T2DM risk (OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.02-8.93, p -0.0001). T allele's frequency was significantly high in T2DM cases in comparison with healthy control. Except WHR, HDL-C, exercise, household chores, standing work more than 3 hours, and family history, significant differences were found between T2DM cases and healthy individuals in all other parameters.

Conclusion: Our study concluded a significant association of CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, and IGF2BP2 polymorphism with T2DM in the Uttarakhand population. For HHEX, the genotype and allelic frequencies difference between T2DM cases and control were statistically non-significant. However, a significant association of HHEX gene polymorphism with T2DM was observed only under the dominant model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S284998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797276PMC
January 2021

Effect of Glycosaminoglycan Replacement on Markers of Interstitial Cystitis .

Front Pharmacol 2020 3;11:575043. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

CÚRAM SFI Research Centre for Medical Devices, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

To examine the effect of three commercial intravesical formulations of glycosaminoglycan on inflammatory models of IC/BPS to better understand there effect on specific markers of disease. Human urothelial cells (HTB-4) were cultured under four conditions in the presence or absence of commercial GAG formulations. Cells were cultured under a basal condition or pre-treated with protamine sulfate (100 ng/ml) (damages the endogenous glycosaminoglycan layer), hydrogen peroxide (1%) (a metabolic stressor) or TNFα (10 ng/ml) (creating an inflammatory environment). Each of these four culture conditions was then treated with one of three GAG formulations, CystistatⓇ, iAluRilⓇ and HyacystⓇ. Assays were then performed to examine the effect of the exogenous GAGs on cell viability, cell migration, sGAG production, cytokine and gene expression. All GAG formulations were well tolerated by the HTB-4 cells and supported cell growth and migration. iAluRilⓇ was most effective at stimulating endogenous sGAG production under all conditions, increasing sGAGs by up to 15-fold. All GAG formulations significantly reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 under basal conditions, while no GAG treatment suppressed cytokine production under any other condition. Only Cystistat had a significant effect on HA receptor expression, significantly increasing ICAM-1 expression at 3 h that returned to basal levels at 24 h. No GAG treatment significantly changed the expression of GAG synthesis enzymes (CSGALNACT1, CSGALNACT2) or markers of tissue remodeling (MMP2, TIMP1) and pain (COX-1/PTGS-1, NGF). The data presented in this study reveal that commercial intravesical formulation support cell viability and migration. In addition, the commercial GAG formulations have a mild anti-inflammatory effect in the model of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.575043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775665PMC
December 2020

Curcumin rescue p53Y220C in BxPC-3 pancreatic adenocarcinomas cell line: Evidence-based on computational, biophysical, and in vivo studies.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 02 2;1865(2):129807. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India. Electronic address:

Background: The p53, tumor suppressor protein is inactivated upon mutation in the DNA-binding domain and the non-functional protein leads to cancers. The p53Y220C is one of the most frequently observed mutations in p53 with a scope of rescuing the protein function using small molecules.

Methods: Using computational modeling, biophysical, and experimental cell-based studies we tried to understand the molecular basis of Curcumin as a potential small molecule to stabilize p53Y220C mutant and restore its function. The pancreatic adenocarcinomas BxPC-3 p53Y220C mutant cell line was used for cell-based assays to determine the therapeutic potential of Curcumin to restore mutant p53 to function like wild type.

Results: Our results showed that the Curcumin binds p53Y220C with K = 3.169 ± 0.257 μM and it increases the DNA binding affinity of the mutant by 4-fold with K = 851.29 ± 186.27 nM. By Fluorescence, CD, and IR spectroscopy, we could characterize the secondary structural changes and stabilization of the p53Y220C DNA binding domain upon Curcumin binding. By caspase-3 and Annexin V assays, we could demonstrate that Curcumin at 3 μM to 8 μM concentration could initiate p53 mediated apoptosis in BxPC-3 cell line. Based on our experimental studies, we propose a mechanism for the activation of ATM/Chk1 kinases pathways for apoptosis and/or G2/M cell cycle arrest in the BxPC-3 cell line mediated by functionally restored p53Y220C.

Conclusion: The study indicated that the natural compound Curcumin could rescue mutant p53Y220C in BxPC-3 pancreatic adenocarcinomas cell line to function like wild-type and activate apoptotic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2020.129807DOI Listing
February 2021

Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus and Mannan-Oligosaccharides Alter the Lipid Metabolism and Health Indices in Broiler Chickens.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jun 9;13(3):633-646. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 226031, India.

The effects of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus (LBA) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on lipid metabolism and consequent lipid profile and health indices in broiler chicken were investigated in this study. Supplementation of 0.2% MOS along with either 10 or 10 LBA/g feed in broiler chicken downregulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and upregulated expression of lipolytic genes. It caused decline of lipogenesis and increase of lipid oxidation which resulted in lower carcass fat content. None of the genes studied influenced fatty acid profile of chicken meat except the expression of stearoyl CoA (Δ9) desaturase-1 (SCD-1) whose upregulation increased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content at the cost of saturated fatty acid (SFA) content. The lipid metabolism indices of chicken meat such as ∆9 desaturase index (DI) increased in birds supplemented with 0.2% MOS along with either 10 or 10 CFU LBA/g feed, whereas no effect was observed on ∆5 + ∆6 DI. The supplementation of 0.2% MOS along with either 10 or 10 CFU LBA/g feed in birds improved the health indices of chicken meat due to upregulation of SCD-1 expression. The supplementation of 0.2% MOS along with either 10 or 10 CFU LBA/g feed in broiler chicken produced hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effects with improved serum cardio-protective indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09717-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Genetic Variants of KCNJ11 and KCNQ1 Genes with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in the Indian Population: A Case-Control Study.

Int J Endocrinol 2020 10;2020:5924756. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disease described by hyperglycemia, which is caused by insulin resistance or reduced insulin secretion. The interaction between various genetic variants and environmental factors triggers T2DM. The aim of this study was to find risk associated with genetic variants rs5210 and rs2237895 of KCNJ11 and KCNQ1 genes, respectively, in the development of T2DM in the Indian population. A total number of 300 cases of T2DM and 100 control samples were studied to find the polymorphism in KCNJ11 and KCNQ1 through PCR-RFLP. The genotype and allele frequencies in T2DM cases were significantly different compared to the control population. KCNJ11 rs5210 and KCNQ1 rs2237895 variants were found to be significantly associated with risk of T2DM in dominant (KCNJ11: OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.30-3.27; - 0.001; KCNQ1: OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.46-3.70; - 0.0003) and codominant models (KCNJ11: OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.09-2.84; - 0.020; KCNQ1: OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.16-2.95; - 0.009). We also compared clinicopathological characteristics between cases and control and observed a significant difference in all the parameters except HDL, gender, and family history. In this study, clinicopathological data with a carrier of a variant allele of both KCNJ11 and KCNQ1 genes were also analysed, and a significant association was found between the carrier of a variant allele with gender and PPG in KCNJ11 and with triglyceride in KCNQ1. We confirm the significant association of KCNJ11 (rs5210) and KCNQ1 (rs2237895) gene polymorphism with T2DM, indicating the role of these variants in developing risk for T2DM in Indian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5924756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569458PMC
October 2020

Dietary synbiotic supplementation improves the growth performance, body antioxidant pool, serum biochemistry, meat quality, and lipid oxidative stability in broiler chickens.

Anim Nutr 2020 Sep 7;6(3):325-332. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India.

The present study investigated the effects of (LBA) and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation on the production performance, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile, health indices, meat quality, and lipid oxidative stability of broiler chicken. A total of 252 commercial broiler chickens at 1 d old of uniform body weight were randomly allocated to 6 maize-soybean-based dietary treatments: T (control diet), T ( antibiotic bacitracin methylene di-salicylate [BMD] at 20 mg/kg diet), T (MOS at 0.1% + LBA at 10 CFU/g feed), T (MOS at 0.1% + LBA at 10 CFU/g feed), T (MOS at 0.2% + LBA at 10 CFU/g feed), and T (MOS at 0.2% + LBA at 10 CFU/g feed). Each treatment was assigned to 6 replicates of 7 birds. The samples for meat quality and serum biochemistry analysis were taken from 12 birds per treatment (2 birds/replicate). The results revealed better ( 0.01) growth performance and production efficiency of birds fed either T or T diet compared to control or BMD supplemented diet and BMD-supplemented birds superseded the control birds. Higher ( 0.01) serum and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, meat antioxidant capacity (2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid [ABTS] and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assays], serum total protein, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol ( 0.05), and globulin levels ( 0.01) were observed in birds fed either T or T diet compared to control or BMD supplemented birds, whereas, lower lipid oxidation ( 0.01), cardiac risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient, atherogenic index of plasma, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol levels ( 0.01), and serum albumin-to-globulin ratio ( 0.05) were observed in the chickens. The pH of meat from birds fed T, T or T diet was lower ( 0.01) compared to control and other treatments. The extract release volume (ERV), water holding capacity (WHC), and protein content of meat were higher ( 0.05) in birds fed either T or T diet compared to control or BMD supplemented birds. Thus, it was concluded that the supplementation of 0.2% MOS along with LBA at 10 CFU/g is optimum for better growth performance, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile, health indices, meat quality, and lipid oxidative stability of broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503080PMC
September 2020

Learning Perceptual Aesthetics of 3D Shapes from Multiple Views.

IEEE Comput Graph Appl 2020 Sep 23;PP. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

The quantification of 3D shape aesthetics has so far focused on specific shape features and manually defined criteria such as the curvature and the rule of thirds respectively. In this paper, we build a model of 3D shape aesthetics directly from human aesthetics preference data and show it to be well aligned with human perception of aesthetics. To build this model, we first crowdsource a large number of human aesthetics preferences by showing shapes in pairs in an online study and then use the same to build a 3D shape multi-view based deep neural network architecture to allow us learn a measure of 3D shape aesthetics. In comparison to previous approaches, we do not use any pre-defined notions of aesthetics to build our model. Our algorithmically computed measure of shape aesthetics is beneficial to a range of applications in graphics such as search, visualization and scene composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2020.3026137DOI Listing
September 2020

Biophotonic technologies for assessment of breast tumor surgical margins-A review.

J Biophotonics 2021 01 12;14(1):e202000280. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

Breast conserving surgery (BCS) offering similar surgical outcomes as mastectomy while retaining breast cosmesis is becoming increasingly popular for the management of early stage breast cancers. However, its association with reoperation rates of 20% to 40% following incomplete tumor removal warrants the need for a fast and accurate intraoperative surgical margin assessment tool that offers cellular, structural and molecular information of the whole specimen surface to a clinically relevant depth. Biophotonic technologies are evolving to qualify as such an intraoperative tool for clinical assessment of breast cancer surgical margins at the microscopic and macroscopic scale. Herein, we review the current research in the application of biophotonic technologies such as photoacoustic imaging, Raman spectroscopy, multimodal multiphoton imaging, diffuse optical imaging and fluorescence imaging using medically approved dyes for breast cancer detection and/or tumor subtype differentiation toward intraoperative assessment of surgical margins in BCS specimens, and possible challenges in their route to clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202000280DOI Listing
January 2021

Challenges and prospects of COVID-19 vaccine development based on the progress made in SARS and MERS vaccine development.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 May 23;68(3):1111-1124. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Bareilly, India.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic has shaken the global health system and economy by their roots. This epidemic is still spreading and showing no signs of decreasing trend. Vaccination could be the only effective and economical means to control this pandemic. A number of research institutions and pharmaceutical companies have plunged into the race of vaccine development against COVID-19 which are in various stages of development. An intriguing fact of coronavirus infections is that in every decade of the 21st century there is a new major coronavirus epidemic, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and now COVID-19; and such epidemics are expected in future too. Since most of the biological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are still obscure, the scientists are relying on the information available on SARS-CoV and to some extent on MERS-CoV for designing and developing COVID-19 vaccines. But there is a need of vigorous testing for immunogenicity, safety, efficacy, and level of protection conferred in the hosts. This review focuses on the challenges and prospects of vaccine development against COVID-19. It highlights seriousness, bottlenecks in vaccine development, possible vaccine candidates, different vaccine strategies, safety evaluation issues, and vaccine production processes pertaining to COVID-19 based on the knowledge acquired on SARS and MERS vaccine development in the past.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461374PMC
May 2021

Role of FTO and MC4R Polymorphisms in Escalating Obesity and Their Indirect Association With Risk of T2D in Indian Population.

Diabetes Ther 2020 Sep 1;11(9):2145-2157. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Obesity plays a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome-excessive body fat, spikes in blood glucose levels and hypertension-and ultimately leads to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes (T2D), if left unattended. The present study aimed to investigate the associated risk of T2D with obesity risk alleles of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes.

Methods: The study includes 400 subjects (300 T2D diabetic cases and 100 healthy controls). Genetic analysis was done by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods.

Results: The findings of the study show no significant increase in odds of diabetes associated with the prevalence of FTO and MC4R minor alleles. Rare allele frequencies for "A" of FTO rs9939609 were 0.34 and 0.30 in cases and controls, respectively. Rare allele frequencies for A of MC4R rs12970134 were found to be more common in controls (0.45) than cases (0.41), but the difference was insignificant (p 0.246); however, an increase in body weight with the presence of allele "A" of the FTO gene (p value < 0.001) was found, indicating indirect involvement in the development of T2D. In addition, these were also correlated with the demographic/lifestyle and clinico-pathological parameters between T2D cases and controls. We found that T2D patients with a history of smoking and high consumption of alcohol, fast foods and sweetened beverages are at high risk of T2D compared to healthy controls (p  < 0.01*).

Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is no direct association of rs9939609 of the FTO gene with the occurrence of diabetes in the Indian population, but its role in T2D development cannot be overlooked altogether. Furthermore, we conclude that the rs9939609 of FTO carries a potential risk of obesity and because of this FTO rs9939609 T > A is widely considered an obesity-associated allele/single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00896-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395207PMC
September 2020

Dietary Mannan-oligosaccharides potentiate the beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium bifidum in broiler chicken.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2020 Nov 24;71(5):520-530. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India.

This study investigated the effects of dietary Bifidobacterium bifidum (BFD) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS), as a synbiotic, on the production performance, gut microbiology, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile and health indices of broiler chicken. Six dietary treatments were T1 (negative control), T2 (positive control-20 mg antibiotic BMD kg diet; BMD: bacitracin methylene disalicylate), T3 (0·1% MOS + 10  CFU BFD per g feed), T4 (0·1% MOS + 10  CFU BFD per g feed), T5 (0·2% MOS + 10  CFU BFD per g feed) and T6 (0·2% MOS + 10  CFU BFD per g feed). Significantly (P < 0·01) better growth performance and efficiency was observed in birds supplemented with 0·2% MOS along with 10  CFU BFD per g of feed compared to BMD and control birds. Supplementation with 0·2% MOS along with either 10 or 10  CFU BFD per g feed reduced (P < 0·01) the gut coliform, Escherichia coli, total plate count, and Clostridium perfringens count and increased the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium count. Significantly (P < 0·01) higher serum and liver antioxidant enzyme pool, serum HDL cholesterol and lower serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, cardiac risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma were observed in birds supplemented with 0·2% MOS along with 10  CFU BFD per g of feed compared to control or BMD supplemented birds. Better production performance, gut microbial composition, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile and health indices were depicted by broiler chicken supplemented with 0·2% MOS and 10  CFU BFD per g of feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lam.13360DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparative study on the responses of broiler chicken to hot and humid environment supplemented with different dietary levels and sources of selenium.

J Therm Biol 2020 Feb 10;88:102515. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

ICAR- Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Present study was carried out with the objective of investigating the role of green synthesized nano Se (GNS) in growth performance, digestibility of minerals, immunity, stress alleviation, antioxidant status, and body Se content of broiler chicken raised under hot and humid environment with respect to market nano Se (MNS) and inorganic Se. The experimental design was 3 × 3 factorial, in which three levels (0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm) and three sources (inorganic, green nano, and market nano) of Se resulted in nine treatments viz. IS-0.15, GNS-0.15, MNS-0.15, IZ-0.20, GNS-0.20, MNS-0.20, IS-0.25, GNS-0.25, and MNS-0.25 (IS: inorganic Se, GNS: green nano Se, MNS: market nano Se). A total of 432 broiler chicken were divided among nine treatments with six replicates of birds per treatment (8 birds/replicate). Results of present study revealed significantly better growth performance of birds supplemented with 0.25 ppm nano Se. The supplementation of 0.25 ppm nano Se improved the immune response and lymphoid organ development of birds. Significantly higher Se and nitrogen digestibility coefficients, serum antioxidant activity and decline of Heterophil: Lymphocyte ratio and expression of HSP70 gene were observed in birds supplemented with 0.25 ppm Se and nano source of Se compared to inorganic Se. Significantly higher Se concentration in liver and breast muscle and higher serum Se concentration were observed in birds fed 0.25 ppm nano Se. The liver Se concentration was much higher than that of breast muscle. However, the nano Se synthesized by green method in this study did not differ significantly from the chemically synthesized nano Se. It was concluded that 0.25 ppm Se and nano form of Se are superior to lower levels and inorganic form of Se, respectively, in improving the immunity, growth, antioxidant status, and in stress alleviation of broiler chicken. However, GNS is equally efficient as chemically synthesized MNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102515DOI Listing
February 2020

Handheld confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) for objective assessment of skin barrier function and stratification of severity in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients.

J Dermatol Sci 2020 Apr 4;98(1):20-25. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Bio-Optical Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.

Background: We developed the first-of-its-kind handheld confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) system to quantify the concentration of natural moisturizing factors in the skin.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of our handheld CRS system and propose a novel quantitative index to measure skin barrier function.

Methods: This prospective study included 30 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and 14 healthy volunteers. All AD participants were assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) severity instrument, a vapometer for trans-epidermal water loss and a moisture meter for skin surface moisture. A handheld CRS operating at 785 nm laser was used to measure the biochemical constituents of the skin up to a depth of ∼100 μm. We trained a linear kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) model for eczema classification based on the water, ceramide and urocanic acid content. A novel Eczema Biochemical Index (EBI) was then formulated using the skin constituents measured from the AD participants to stage disease severity.

Results: The SVM model used to classify healthy participants and AD patients obtained high cross-validated area under the curve of 0.857 and accuracy of 0.841, with high sensitivity and specificity values of 0.857 and 0.833 respectively. EBI can be used to stratify AD patients of varying severity, based on the biochemical constituents in the skin.

Conclusion: As compared to the standard CRS system, the handheld CRS offers higher portability and provides Raman measurements at various body regions with similar sensitivity. This suggests that a handheld CRS device could be a valuable point-of-care resource in both research and clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2020.02.001DOI Listing
April 2020

Recent advances in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis.

J Basic Microbiol 2020 Apr 31;60(4):293-303. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

AN & FT Division, ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Bareilly, India.

Dermatophytosis is a disease of global significance caused by pathogenic keratinolytic fungi called dermatophytes in both animals and humans. The recent taxonomy of dermatophytes classifies them into six pathogenic genera, namely Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Nannizzia, Lophophyton and Arthroderma. It is because of the delayed diagnostic nature and low accuracy of dermatophyte detection by conventional methods that paved the path for the evolution of molecular diagnostic techniques, which provide the accurate and rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis for an appropriate, timely antifungal therapy that prevents the nonspecific over-the-counter self-medication. This review focuses on the importance of rapid and accurate diagnosis of dermatophytosis, limitations of conventional methods, selection of targets in diagnosis, and factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of various molecular diagnostic technologies in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Generally, all the molecular techniques have a significant edge over the conventional methods of culture and microscopy in the dermatophytosis diagnosis. However, in mycology laboratory, the suitability of any molecular diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis is driven by the requirement of time, economy, complexity, the range of species spectrum detected and the scale of diagnostic output required. Thus, various choices involved in the pursuit of a diagnosis of dermatophytosis are determined by the available conditions and the facilities in the laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201900675DOI Listing
April 2020
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